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Full text of "Errors of speech and of spelling"

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6000929277 
















'« 









ERRORS OF SPEECH 



AXD OF 



SPELLING. 









4 • 



\, 




* 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Ajsj> or 



SPELLING. 



BT THB BIT. 

E. COBHAM BREWER, LL.D. 

(fit Vtiidtv |$rQ» CRinbxQigt)* 

AUTBOB OF 

"ChUde to SHenee" (iOO.OWHh}; 

"History of France" {brought down to the preteni year); 

" Dictionary qf Phraee and Fable ** ( 8rd edition); 

" Lee Ph^nomhies de Tone leeJoure" (dedicated by authority to Napoleon III., 

and eanetioned by Mgnr. Sibour, Abp. of Parie); 

Jte.,^bo, 



yOLITME I. 




ILontion x 

WILLIAM TEGG AND CO., 

PANOBIS LANS, OHEAPBISl. 

1877. 



/ • 



•», ■ 



• 1 



P&nraxD ET HoCosQuoDALa aud Go., 
Basotohaiji Sxebkb. 












FREFACE. 



— ♦" 



Objzot m View. 

The olj ect of thiB Dietionttry is not to eoUeet together all the 
words employed in the language, nor to ftmuah an ezhaustiye 
list ai the several meanings of each Woi:d,-*fcnt simply to call 
iftfc^tion to errcnrs of speech and ispelling made, not by the 
oneduoated, hM by those who Wsh to speak ahd spell correctly. 

In pursuance of these oliJM^ the {dan adopted is — 

1. To omit all words wfaidi Are to obvious as to present no 
difficulty of meanings, spelling, ot pronunciation.* 

2. To supply the correct spelling and pronunciation of every 
word likely to be looked for in such si^manual as this. 

3. Xo point out those errors in spelling, pronunciaty)n, or 
nBe, iSs he especially guarded against. 

4. To give so much c^ the meaning of each Word as may 
suffice to identify it and explain its general use. 

5. To set side by side homonyms, paronyms, and synonyms, 
that they may be readily compared aiid correctly applied. 

6. The plural of every word (except those which add s or -es) 
is given, the feminine of evei^ masculine, the past tense and 
past participle of every verb, the degrees of comparison, the 
changes of -y into 4eSj the doubling of consonants, and every 
other variation which a word in its different phases undergoes. 

In carrying out the scheme some repetition has been made, 
with a vi0w of saving the searcher that tedious and most un- 
satisfiEustory task of turning to a word which he does not want, 
after he has been at the pains of finding the one which he 
requires. As a dictionary is read piece-meal and not Consecu- 
tively, the only fault of these repetitions is that it somewhat 
enlarges the bulk of the book* 

* Hie eailier letten of the bt)6k are not so full as the litter. The 
origiiiid intention was to lindt the sLae of the book to about 800 pagea. 



W PREFACE. 

7. Attention is called to all outrages of spelling and c(ft^' 
bination; but, that the corrections suggested may in no wi^ 
interfere with the received spelling or pronunciatLon, fhej 8^ 
invariably added as notes in a smaller Ijpe. Thus equerry i^ 
pointed out as indefensible in spelling, rhyme (meaning tb^ 
clink of words in poetry), indelihlet inngUus (from the German 
*' hausenblase," a sturgeon's bladder), impoathume for " aposteme,*' 
infusible (both positive and negative), pedometer for "podo' 
meter," defence and offence for "defense" and "offense," letUf 
and lettuce t marry and marriage^ manacles for "mamclee," mar- 
malade for " marmelade," ospray for " osfiray " (the bone-breakerX 
poMcnger and messenger, with scores of others. Some of then 
errors may probably get corrected after attention has been called 
to them, others may afford amnsemeDt or gratify literaiy curiosity. 

8. All hybrids are noticed, all abnormal derivations, all per- 
versions, all blunders of philology, all inconsistencies: fbr 
ezanipie—pro-ceed with -ceed, and pre-eede with -cede; primo- 
geniture and primo-genitor for "primi." (Latin " prind-genitos,* 
&c.); the introduction of ^ in the middle of some Greak com- 
pounds and its omission in others, as philharmonie, aphelion, 
diarrhaa, philhellenist, enhydrous, &c., on the one side, and 
pan[h]oply, ex[h}odus, paTt[h}9rama, anlh^omaly, peri[h}od, Ac, 
on the other. In some instances the h is omitted even at the 
beginning of a word, as udometert although we have fiAy other 
compounds of hudor with the "h" affixed, apse for "hapse," 
erpetology for "herpetdogy," endeeagon for "hendecagon," and 
that much abused word eurika, which ought to be "heurdka." 

Amongst the many instances of perversion, take the following 
from the French :' connoisseurt dishevel, frontispiece, lutestring, 
encore, epergne, furnish (for " gamir"), and furniture (for ** mea- 
bles"). Some of these perversions are too well established to 
be disturbed, but it cannot £eu1 to amuse the curious to pry into 
these oddities. 

Our hybrids are above dOO words in common use: witness 
octopus (Latin and Greek), grandson (English-French and 
English), grand-father (French and English), Jn-monthly (Latin 
and English), demisemi-quaver (French, Latin, and Spanish). 
In regard to "grandfather" and "great-grandfiftther" we have 



I 



130 exeme, as «Ke6llent irftds existed Ibr those relstionsIiipB 
before the oonqneet; '*hi-m<mth]y'' If retj ofajeetionahle, and 
" oetopos* IB a biHiider. 

BxziiosAev ijn> Dbbivatidh. 

Etymology is tito tnusing of a word back to its original aonree, 
«od sherwing the ethnologieal ehanges it has gone through in 
its trarels thenee to its setdemeni in the langaage imdw eon- 
BidelaaoB. 

DeriratieB is simply showing item wh«t sooree a peo^ came 
by a oertain word, regardleeB of any more remote origin. 

Take two Tery simple iHastratioDS. A man offers me some 
diannas, snd I ask him wivare they oome from, he replies item 
his own garden. TbaH woidd be *' derivation'' if aj^Hed to 
langaage; bat if he wteilt ialothe tale abont lAonnas and the 
Mithridatic war, showinfg that the Bomsn general transplanted 
tfaem from Oerasas to his own garden at Borne; that the 
Bomaoff imp(»ted the tree into I^Niin, where the word was 
modzfted into eereza; that the French obtained the tree ftt>m 
their neighbours, and, hadng the letter ir, changed the word to 
cm$e; that we bonrowed it from the French, and called the 
word cherrUB: this wocdd be etymology, more or less raluable 
M each stage of the process eouH be prored to be an historical 
fMt; but for everyday life the sim|^ answer, ^tbey came from 
my own garden," would be quite sufficient, and the learned 
disquisitbn about LaeoUus and his wars would be tedious and 
out of place. 

So, again, a labourer named Hetty setfies in our village, and 
I ask a neighbour where the man came from. ' He replies from 
Singietcm, the other side of the Downs. That is all I require. 
But another infi^ms me that the original &mi3y came from the 
terra incognita called Arya, somewhere near the ancient garden 
of Eden, and that the word may be distinctly traced in all the 
Aryan family <^ languages. Thus we have the Gothic hath, 
the High German hadt the old FranMsh chad, the Celtic ctxth 
in Gathmor, the Scandinavian Hoedhr (according to Grimm). 
We have the Catti, a warlike tribe of Teutonic origin, Goto and 
C(UitUu8 in Latin, Cadwalha in Welsh, Chahot in French, from 

b 



vi PREFACE. 

the Aryan word eod, meaning "war." This, again, may be very 
well in its place : " Fortasse cnpressum scis simolare : qnid hoc, 
si fractds enatat expes naTibns aero dato qui pingitnr?" This 
learned parade is too lengthy and too emdite for the purpose in 
hand, and the simple answer, "the man oomes from Singleton," 
is all-safBicient. 

In this manual no attempt has been made to trace cherries to 
Pontos, or the name of the ploughman to the hypothetical 
Aryan word meaning ''war;" bat to give a fair idea of the 
heterogeneous character of our language, and to show the mean- 
ing of words, their deriyation is given. When the French is 
a modified Latin word, or the Latin a modified Ghreek word, 
the earlier form is added also; but no unravelling of etymology 
proper has been attempted, except indeed when the change of a 
word (as sir from aruix, a 'king) tells a tale startling to the eye, 
but obvious the moment it is pointed out. 

It may, however, be mentioned, that not one sin^e derivation 
has been taken on trust, everyone has been verified by personal 
reference to some well-established dictionary of the language 
referred to, be it French, Spanish, Danish, Anglo-Saxon, Latin, 
Greek, or what not. The necessity of this precaution is fax 
more important than many would suppose; for not only have 
printers' errors, manuscript *' slips," and authors' blunders been 
handed down from dictionary to dictionary in a most incredible 
manner, but scores of words have been coined for the nonce, 
scores of others have been tortured in spelling and meaning, or 
dressed up so as to make Jacob look like Esau, while not a few 
have been deemed foreigners which belong to our own Anglo- 
Saxon medley of words. 

Opening the first English dictionary of established reputation 
at hand, a dictionary especially praised by one of our most 
reputed Reviews "for its accurate and very excellent deriva- 
tions," we meet in one page taken at random the following 
specimens : Gale (Danish paZui, a blast), whereas the Danish 
verb is kuU (to blow), and no such word as " galm" exists in the 
language. Gall (to fret) is said to be the French gaUer, but the 
French verb is gaUr (to scratch). Gallon is given (French 
0aUm)t which means " galoon,*' and should be galUm with double 



PREFACE. vii 



2 as in English. Oalley, we are told by the same authority, 
is Latin gdleida, a word most certainly not Latin at all. 
Game is said to be Anglo-Saxon gan^an (sport), which ought to 
be gamen. Gaol (Italian gaiola), a word contained in no Italian 
dictionary, the nearest to it is gdio (gay). Garret (French garite); 
Bot to be found, bat gaUta$ may be intended. These all occur 
in one page. Turning over the leaves, and taking the words at 
liap-bazard, we light on the following : Gloom (German gVumrn) ; 
but no snoh word exists in any of my four German dictionaries, 
and if it did, the obvious derivation is our own gl6m. Spigot 
(Italian <pi^o, a spigot) ; now, it is very true there is an Italian 
wozdfpi^, but it means " lavander " or "nard," and the word 
^ spigot is zipolo. Lease (French laUaement); no such word 
to be found, the nearest to it is lm8$e (a leash). Loch (Welsh 
Uwch, a lake) ; but the Welsh Uwch means " dust," and the word 
oonesponding to " loch " is Uoc (a dam). Quire (French quaier) ; 
no snch word exists, but eahier means a quire. 

It would be mere predantiy to go further. I pledge my word 
that these extracts are copied literaUy and exactly, and that 
BmOar examples may be taken from any page of the book. Of 
eoorse, I cannot mention the author's name, as the work stands 
in good repute, and its publishers are in the fore rank of their 
profession. When, however, it is stated that every word in this 
Dictionary has been personally verified, and that neither the 
spelling nor meaning of one single word has been tampered with 
to make it fit the occasion, it is a great advantage, which may 
be most confidently relied on. 

A goodly number of the "derivations" difilBr from those 
nsaally given, but therein fancy or guess-work has had no 
part. The word "confervae" is usually referred to the Latin 
eonfervere (to boil up), but the connection between water-plants 
and ebullition is not obvious. Pliny teUs us these plants "were 
esteemed cures for broken bones,** and " conferveo" means to "knit 
together broken bones," a good and sufficient reason for the 
technical term. " Psean " (a hymn to Apollo, and applied to the 
god himself) we are told, in Dr. Smith's Classical Dictionary, is 
from Paean, the physician of the Olympian gods ; but surely it 
could be no great honour to the Sun-god to be called by the 



viii PREFACS. 



name of his own vassaL HemiBteifaidi saggestn paud (to make 
[diseaBee] oease) $ bat paiOf " to dart," seems to be the natural 
parent-word of the "far-darter.** Again, the nsaal deriTadon 
of ** mammy" is nrnm (wax); bat Diodoras Sicalas says, that 
" the pe<^le of the BaleazJe Isles used to beat the bodies of the 
dead with ohibs to fendeit them flexibie, in older that they might 
be deposited in earthen pots ealled mwnmaJ* "Morgne (a 
dead-house) is getmr^y assoeiated with the Latin moT9 (death); 
but Bouillet tells as the word means ifUage^ and was first 
applied to prison vestibules, wheM new criminals were placed 
to be somtinised, that the prison officials might familiarise 
themselves with the fitces and igures of the new inmates. 
"Sky-lark" (a spree) has nothing in eommon with the word 
Bhy. It is a contraction of ** Vtdsoi," by which the Westminster 
boys mean " snobs," and a * sky-lark " is a lark or bout with the 
*8ci-men or thiet, a *^town and gown row.^^ ** Lumber;" one 
dictionary gives Uummet^ which it terms "an old Dutch word 
meaning hmd»rAnce'** anotlieer gives the Anglo-Saxon Uwna 
with the meaning " atenEBkb" but iAnb only meaning of ledma is 
" a ray of light." Lady Morray tells t» that the real origin of 
the word is Iwrnhard (a pawnbroker's shop, originally called a 
" lumber-room "): ^ They pat aU the little plate they had in the 
lumber^ which is pawning ft." 

Sometimes the analogy between ft parent woid and its off- 
spring seems so very remote that the gMieral reader cannot 
trace it: the missing link has always been supplied in this 
Dictionary, and in some cases thishas brought oat informatkm 
of a very mteiestmg chaMotor. ArehbieAiop Trenoh has pointed 
oat that the word post (immovably fixed) expresses the idea also 
of the utmost speed. To this examine many others equally 
curious ar« here added: thus, "onion" is the same word as 
union, and, strange to say, both are equally connected with 
precious peark. ^'Complexion" is tiie Latin compUxum (to em- 
brace), and "eoKatenanee** is from the Latin verb Mnteneo (to 
contain); bat it is by no means obvious at isrst sight how 
"embraoe" and *'eontain" oame to signify the "eolknat and 
OTjimiiitiifn of the fiMBe" (»ee complexion and distemper). The 
KUj^iMi of ilowets ȣferd a wide fiefii fbr this eariens lore. 



^St^FACE. 



Speujno Befobh. 

The difficulty and Absurdity of oiur fipelliDg liaye long been a 
very general complaint, and those who interest themselves in 
education will bear witness that spelling is the greatest of all 
stombling-blocks in examinations, even Lord Byron confesses 
*' he conld never master English orthography." Many devices 
haye been suggested to remedy or relieve the diffioolty, bnt 
no system hitherto projected has found favour with the general 
public 

In all spelling refbraifl three things are essential t (1) Nothing 
must be done to render our existing literature antiquated and 
unreadable. (8) Nothing must be done to render etymology 
more 'obscure and intricate. (8) Nothing must be done which 
would render the task of leaniing to read more laborious and 
perplexing. 

Keeping these three things in view, much, very much, might 
be done to make our spelling more uniform and simple ; and 
with very little alteration the perplexity of pronouncing words 
might be greatly relieved. 

The first reform in spelling should be to abolish all printers' 
blunders which have become perpetuated, all wanton caprices, 
and all needless exceptions to general rules. 

L Take those words derived from the Latin eedo (to go). 
Why should pro-ceed be spelt one way and pre-eede another ? 
No reason can be given but caprice. The twelve examples 
belonging to this class of words should be made to conform to 
one uniform pattern: thus aceeed, anteeeed, eonceed^ exceed^ 
interceed, preceedt proceed, receed, retroeeed, seceed, succeed^ and 
eeed. The termination -ceed is preferable to -cede, because 
the word would remain unchanged throughout all its parts, 
whereas a final e would have to be cut off with some affixes and 
retained with others. 

" Snpenede " Is not from udo to go, bat tedeo to rit, and to " supersede " 
Is to ait above another, to sit in a higher place {Luke xiv. S-IO). 

IL We have 130 words ending in e mute which take the 
suffix -meatp but fiye of the group drop the " e." It is rather 



X PREPACK 

curious that four of the anomalous words are examples of 
e, i, 0, u before -dg, as 

Acknowledg-ment • • • « before -dg, 
Abridg-ment • • • • • i bef oie -dg, 
Lodg-ment • • • • • o befpie -dg, 
Jndg-ment « before -dg. 

The only other exception is argtie, which makes arffu-metd, 

ILL The next class of words needing reform is much larger. 
There are two general rules which, if strictly observed, would 
do much to simplify our spelling. 

(a) Monosyllables ending in one consonant, preceded by one 
Towel, double the last letter when a suffix beginning with a 
vowel is added : as "thin/* thinn-er, thinn-eBU thinn-ed, t^tmi-ing. 

(6) Dissyllables accented on the last syllable, under the same 
conditions, are treated in the same way: as '* defer'," defeiY-edp 
deferr'-mgj deferVer, <fec. 

The negatives of these two rules are : — 

(e) Monosyllables, and also dissyllables-aceented-on-the-last- 
eyllable, do not double the final consonant (1) if more than one 
vowel precedes it; and (2) if no vowel at all precedes it: as 
*' clear" (more than one vowel before the final consonant), 
hence clear-&ty elear-est, cZear-ing, cZ«ar-ed, <fec.; "blight" (the 
final letter is not preceded by a vowel at all), hence hright-Qv^ 
bright-est, &q, 

^) No dissyllable (even if it ends in one consonant preceded 
by one vowel) doubles the last letter on receiving an affix, unless 
the accent of the word is on its final syllable : thus " dif 'fer " 
(although it terminates in one consonant, and that final con- 
sonant is preceded by only one vowel) remains unchanged 
throughout, because it is not accented on the last syllable: 
•' differ," differ-iag, difjer-ed, differ-er, dt/'/er-ence, &c. 

If these rules could be relied on they would be useful enough, 
but the exceptions are so numerous that the rule is no rule at 
all. The first palpable observation is that the rule will not 
apply even to the most favoured examples : thus " defer'," it is 
true, makes deferr^-mg, deferr^'edf <fec., but it has only one r in 
dif*er-mee and defer-en'tiaL If it is objected that the accent 
I^^Jfui'disrer.enoe" is thrown back to the first syllable and of 



PREFACE. zi 

"deferen'tial'' is thrown fbrward, the reply is this, fifty other 

examples ean be produced to show that accent has no part or 

lot in the matter. 

We have nine dissyllables ending in p not accented on the 

last syllable. Six of these preserve one p thronghoat, and three 

of them doable the p when a snfflx beginning with ayowel is 

added: — 

Ural '* goe'iip* makes goMipp-er, QonXpp-^A, gotHpp-ing, goulpp-j, 
"Idd'oAp** makes hidnapp^er, feidnapp-ed, hidnapp-iag, 
"wox'ship'' makes wonhipp-et, «oraAlpp-ed, loorsAipp-ingi 

Compare with the aBo?e the following examples :— 

" KWip,- ^Kp-ed, fiUip-big, 

"Gallop," gcUlop-ed, ^ottop-ing, gaUop-mSB, &o. 

"ScaHop," aeaUop-edf aeaUop-ing, 

"WaHop,** lootlop-ed, toaUop-tng, wxUop-^r. 

"CDeJreFop,'* [de]iM2op-ed, idelvdop-iag, Idejvelop-m. 

What reason can be given why the first three of these words 
should doable the p and the last six shoald not? It is mere 
wantonness, and the saperflaoos p of the first three words oaght 
to be suppressed. 

^ The case with words ending in lis still worse. There are 

between ninety and one hundred words of two syllables accented 

on the first syllable and having one consonant for the last letter 

preceded by only one vowel. Of these words about one-half 

conform to the rule, and the rest are a rule unto themselves. 

For example : — 

"E'qual'* makes equaU-ed, equaH-ing, and, to make matters worse, 
equcU'-itj, although the accent is brought to the last syllable of the simple 
word, eguoMse, eguoMsed, e^uaMsing, eqwU-iaer, fto. 

"Mar'shal" makes tnar«ha{2-ed, marthaU'tng, fnarthaU-eit, 
" SJg'nal " makes sigiuM-ed and ngnall-ing, bat aigjialriae, Ao, 

Above twenty other words in -al do not double the I, as : 

Brutal, eamcU, crystal, feudal, final, formal, frugal, local, loyal, moral, 
regal, tocial, tpedal, venal, and vocal. To these add capital, federal, 
general, lih&ral, mineral, national, and rcdional. 

% Of those ending in ^el some fifty double the I, and seven or 
eight do not: thus — 

*' An'geL** makes angel'-io, angel'-ical, &c. 

"Chi'sel" makes c^ue^-ed, chisel-iDg, chisel-er. 

** Impan'nel" makes impamnel-ed, impannel-tng, but not panel 

" Han'sel " makes hanad-ed, hanad-iag. 



xii PREPACK 

"PaiaUel" XMtkm jMrottoI-ed^ psuraJlMring, paeraXte^KJisi^sim, &c. 

"Tea'sel" makes teasel-^, t«a«eMng. 

"Gospel'* makes gospelUet, but ^Mpel-lse, gotptMa&t, &o. 

The fifty which double the I are-^ 

Apparel, barrel, chancel, ehapel, corbel^ eoumd, cudgel, driwi» ^'^^* 
embowel, entrammel, flannel, fuel, gramel, grovel, Tiansel, housel, hovel, 
impail, j&nbel, kennel, hemel, label, knirel, level, Hbel, marvel, model, pangl, 
parcel, pommd, quuirrel, ravtA, revel, rowel, eentinel, shovel, eniixL, spoMoel, 
ewvoel, taseel, Uauel, Unael, ttmnel, tramm^, t/roAkl, vanM,, vowel, dca 

§ Of the dozen words in -il there are fonr which preserve the 
single I throughout and eight which double it. The four are — 

"CivU," civil'-ian, cii/iWst, dviV-iij, cii/iWse. 
"Devil " (to griU), deviled, devO-lng, also deriMsh, demMsm. 
" Fossil/' /oA^^lse, /oMiMferous, /o««iMst, /oMtMsation. 
"Imperil," vmperil-%A, imptriUing, but "peril," p«ul^ed, periU-iag, 
and to make the matter worse, fteril-oiis, perilHsn/iij, 

Those which double the I tx&— 

" Ar'gil," ovvilZ-aceons, orgtill-Ueroas, «rgri2Mte, argiZMtif^ atyiU-oiis. 

** Cavil," eavi{l-ed, caviU-ing, cavi^^er, caviU-ouB. 

"Council,* ODtmcill-or. 

"Pencil," pena{^ed, perveUl-ij^^, pendU-es, 

"Pedl," periXIr^ psrUI-ing, but 2>erU-ou8, ftc 

"Pistil," pi«t^Z^aceous, j>i«<«{l-iferous, i^tiU-ate, ]>i«f{IMdImn. 

"StencU," 8fenci2I-ed, stefuKIMng, steneill-er. 

"T^ranqufl,** fran^ili'-ity, tran'gutll-ise, (ran^Mill-fser, &e. 

§ Of words in -ol only carol doubles the 2, as earo2l-ed, 
carolling, caroll-Qt, and this is so doubtful that some diction- 
aries give it one way and some the other; gambol, pistol, and 
tymbol retain one I throughout. ' 

Nothing can be worse and more perplexing than this uncer- 
tainty, but nothing could be more simple than a substantial 
reform in this respect. Bestore to the simple word the lost 
letter where it is due, and preserve it throughout; but where 
the simple word has but one consonant do not foree upon it a 
second when a sufQx is added. For example, earnl (Latin 
cavill-or) should have double I, but counsel (Latin consul-o) 
should have only one. Similarly gallop (French galop-er) should 
have only one p throughout. The same should be carried into 
words accented on the final syllable : thus excell (Latin excell-o), 
dUlM (Latin distOl-o), (j^o., the douhle I should Ibe restored to 
LJtm simple word and preseryed throughout 



M 



» ... 



fBEFACK xlH 



IV. The Aoct simple teforiQ would be tOTeserve the pliural -e« 
to thoee words oiUy with whieh it makes a separate syllable : as 
church-es^ 6ca;-es, ^a«-es, ta«A-6g; notbing ean be more absurd 
than thiev-es, loav-es, faalv-es^ beev-^s (all of one syllable.) 

$ All noons in ^/» exae/f^ thUf, thieves, make the plural by 
adding «: as belief ^s, brief -s, Mef-n, elef-UtJief-Bt grief -a^ reef^L 
Why should thief form an exception? ** Thief is the Anglo- 
Saxon thedf or thSf, the plural of which was thedfas or thifas 
(thie&); and as th^e was no v in the language, the substitution 
of v for / is most reprdienaibld. 

W« hsT6 the word &e^ the fash of oxen daln for fbo^ and the word 
heemu liviiif oxen, te. ; but the frenob is btmft Imuftm 

§ In -t/and -iff, -of and -off, -uff and ^ulf^ with those in -rf, 
the plural without one exception is formed by adding -«: as — 

Bailiff-B, caitif-B, ealif-B (T), eliff-B, coif-Bf mcutiff-a, ptairUiff-^ 
Sheriff-B, skiff-n, tariff-B, waff-B, wh^'B. 
Hoof-B, proof-B, rtfproof-B, rocf-B, woof-B, seoff-B, 
Cuff-*, huff-B, myiff-B, puff-B, ruff% tni^ff-B, stuff-B, 0u^-a 
Vwanf-B, Bcarf-a, wharf -b, tw^f-Bp iwrf-%, 

I Except *' thief," thieves, therefore, all the nouns in / men- 
tiooed above are normal, but those in -af, -aff, and -If (except 
gulf) are all abnormal. Strange enough, all these nouns are 
native words, not one of which makes such a plural, or indeed 
ooold do so. There are ten in all : — 

"Calf," edheB: "half," halves; "elf,* ehes; "eelf,- sOtfes; "ghelf," 

ah^ffes : irolf , wolves, 
"Leaf," leaves; "sheaf," sheaves; "loaf," loaves; "staff" (a stick), staves, 

but not staff (a body of menX nor yet distaff. 

The original plural of these words was -[fjas, as stafas, 
hldfas, &c, and there is no excuse for the present perversions. 

§ In regard to -fe the case is worse, and even more absurd. 
We have six nouns with this ending, four native and two 
borrowed from other languages. The native words are knife, 
Ufe, wife, and strife; the boxrowed ones are fife and safe (a 
eloaet). 

The natite words have for theii plurals knives, lives, wives, 
(and strifes) ; the aliens have fifes and safes. The origiual 
plural of knives was cnifas Qmifs), but wif and lif were alike 



xiv PHEFACB. 



in both numbers. The word " strife " is a oormption of $trltht 

plural Btritfuu (striths); there is, therefore, no excuse whatever 

for the change of / into v, in any word ending in -/e. 

V. Come we now to the plurals of nouns ending in -o. They 

somewhat exceed one hundred, and may be displayed under 

three groups : (1) Musical terms and terms descriptive of the 

size of a book. All these are Italian words, and make their 

plurals by adding -« : as 

Atto-9, 5CM90-8, foIo-B, flauto^, pianuhB, violoneello-B ; ocmto-t, nwuto-s, 
&o., with /olioHi, quarUMt, octavo^ duodednuHt, and so on. 

As this group is consistent and without exception, no objection 
can be brought against it. The other two groups are about 
equal, thirty-five of one make the plural in s, and thirty-one of 
the other in -es. 

All nouns ending in -2o, -«o, -vo, and -o after a vowel, make 
the plural by adding •«, with one exception, viz., &u^a2o-es. 
Thus we have — 

Armadillo-a, hdlo-E, and peeeadUlo-B In 4o; proviso-t and virtuosos in 
'80; bravo-B, relievo-By and stdvo-B in -vo; imbroglio-B, nuncio-a, oglio-» or 
olios, pistachios, poiifolios, punctilios, ratios, aeraglio-B, studios^ en^ 
bryo-B, euchoos, &o., in -o preceded by a voweL To these add six in 'to, 
not musical terms or sizes of books, vix., centos, grottos, juntos, menM»- 
tos, pinuntos, and gtiUtto-B, with all snoh proper names as the Catos. 
The list complete would contain about seventy words. 

The third group consists of thirty words which make the 
plural in -es, and there cannot be a doubt that the e of these 
plurals should be expunged. It serves no good end, and is in 
every case an interpolation. 

Let us take them in terminational order: (1) -cho and -eo, 
as echo, calico, fresco, magnifico, portico, and stucco (all having 
their plural in -es). Echo is Greek, in which language it has 
no plural; in Latin it is the fourth declension, echo eckds, and, 
of course, could have no such plural as echoes ; in French the 
plural is ichos. What right, therefore, has this word to the 
suffix '68 f " Fresco," " magnifico," " portico," and " stucco " are 
Italian, like the musical terms and the sizes of books, and 
there is no reason but caprice why they should deviate fix>m 
those words. "Calieo" is probably a ooimption of "Calicut," 
Itfid ought also to be deprived of the e. 



PREFACE. xr 

(2) In -do, as hravado, irmuendOt rotundo, tornado, and 
torpedo. Of these "rotondo" is Italian, often written rotunda 
in English; and, to show our spirit of contradiction, the 
foreign words bravata and tomada we^ make *< bravado" and 
** tornado "; innuendo and torpedo are concocted firom the Latin 
Terbs innuo and torpeo, so that none of these five words has the 
least pretence to a plural in -e*. 

3. The words in -go are cargo, flamingo, indigo, mango, sago, 
and virago. Of these, "cargo," "flamingo," and "indigo," 
are Indian. '* Mango" is the Indian- Talmndic word mangos; 
" sago," the Malay word sagu, in French sagou ; and " virago " 
is Latin, the plural being viragines. So that none of these six 
words has a plnral resembling its modem English form. 

4. In -no the only examples are no-es (persons voting " no "), 
aUnno-es, domino-es, and volcano-ea. Of these " albino " is spelt 
both ways in the plural, dUnnos and albinoes; "domino" and 
" volcano" are Italian ; and as for the plural of " no," if this is 
the only word which stands out we must write no^s, as we write 
I's, m*s, and so on. 

5. In -ro there are four words: hero, negro, tyro, and zero. 
" Hero,** like " echo," is common to Greek, Latin, and French, 
in aU which languages the singular is heros. Probably we 
borrowed the word from the French, where the s is silent, but 
there is not a tittle of authority for heroes. As for " negro " and 
"zero," they axe Italian; and "tyro," the Latin word, has 
tyrones for its plural. 

We have now gone through every word ending in -o, except 
six, and can find no reason why the plural of all should not be 
f . By this uniformity an enormous difficulty of spelling would 
be removed, nothing would be lost, and every word would be 
consistent with its original form. 

The six remaining words are those ending in -to. Of the 
twebre words with this termination, six go one way and six 
another. We have already noticed the words eento-s, grotto-s, 
juntos, mamentO'S, pimentos, and stilettos ; the remaining six 
are manifesto-es, mosquito-es, motto -es, mulatto-es, potato-es, and 
tomato-es. Three of these are Spanish, " mosquito," " mulatto," 
and "tomato"; two are Italian, "motto*' and "manifesto"; 



xvi PREFACE. 



and the sixth is a OQrruption of the Amerioan-Iixdian word 
baUUai* In eyery case the Bn£9x -es is an abomination. In 
every case, therefore, it is a violation of correct spelling, an 
anomaly in English orthography, where -€$ should be limited to 
words ending in s, sh, -^h (soft), and -x (with the single word 
topaz-ea in -z) ; it introduces great oonfnsion and difficulty ; has 
not one single excuse ; and ought to be aboUshed. To use the 
words of Lord Xytton, it may be fairly said '^such a ^stem of 
spelling was never concocted but by the Father of Falsehood," 
and we may ask with him, " How can a system of education 
flourish that begins with [such] monstrous ffilsehoods "t 

Indivldual Lettebs. 

A &W words may here be added respecting individual 
letters : 

(1) c. This Latin and French letter is one of the greatest 
pests of our language. It does diity for c, f , and k, and often 
drives us to vile expedients to determine its pronunciation. 
Thus we have the word " traffic," but cannot write trc^ed and 
trafficingt because c before -e and -i ss «, and therefore we are 
obliged to interpose a h. Why in the world did we drop the k 
instead of the c in the word tradg^k f If we had dropped the e 
all would have gone smoothly, "traffik," trekked, traffiking, 
but printers have set up their backs against the letter k, and 
hence the spelling of the language is tortured to preserve a 
faneiM uniformity of type. 

A sinular intrusion of e for « is fSso: more serious. We have 
only six words ending in -eme, but above 220 in -etic«. Here 
the c is an intruder and ought to be turned out. The six 
words are con-demey dis-perue, ex-pense, im-menae, pre-peme, and 
recom-pense. It will be seen that the « in all these words is 
radical, and cannot be touched; but what of -encef Take a 
few examples at random, ** acquiescence," why not acquieaeme 
(Latin acquiescens)? "adolescence," why not adolesoerue (Latin 
adolescens)? "cadence" (Latin cadena)^ "coalescence" (Latin 
eoaUacena), "decence" (La,im decena)^ "efflorescence" (Latin 
^ffloreacena)t "innocence" (Latin irmocem), "licence" (Latin 
Upim), "precedence" (Latin precedena), and so on. In other 



PREFACE. ZTii 

cases th« --ee reprearaits the Latia -tia as n^gn^fteetiM (Latm 
magnificeiitiA), fimn(/lc«iiM (Latin moidfieentia), in,, bat it 
would be no outrage to spell these words magn/yiewMt snd 
wmnificemet for f is as near to ** t" as « is^ if not nearer. 

Another intrusion of c is its being made to do duty for & in 
Greek words. If the Greek k were preserved it would tell the 
^e at a glance <^ nationality of the word, whereas the c gives 
no eertain cue. Thus kardiak^ hriUriom^ hritik would label 
the words " Greek " in origin ; but cardiac^ crileriont and criHe 
may be Latin, Ekeaoh, or pcorverted Gveek. Nothing ean be 
worse than the double sound of this letter, wbioh is some> 
times s f , and sometimes » 1u 

(9) A similar aecusation lies against the letter g wfaieh some- 
times is soft and sonvetimes hard, and bence we are driven into 
all softs of shifts to make it speak an articulate language. For 
example : fatigu-ing, pltf^t^ng, leagu-Hg, We are obliged to 
preserve the useless letter u in order to keep the g from contact 
with the i when it would lose its hard sound and » J. We 
might spell fittigue, plague, and leagoe without the absurd 'Ue, 
but g before e and t is general^ soft, and therefore -ed and -ing 
mi^ alter its sottod. Here, however, we are ineonsisteBt in 
inconsistency, for we find no difficulty in begin and givt, Hnging, 
g€ar, and get. 

Then again, why has g thrust itself into such words as Ught, 
hrightt night, sight, rough, tough, and so on? It does not exist 
in the original forms and is a gross saleciBm. Niht, briht, siht, 
would be §BX better and more normal^ and as for the other two, 
rouh and touh would do as well as rough and tough, although it 
must be confessed that "xuf" and **taf" would express the 
sound attached to these words better than either of the other 
combination of letters. 

(3) The final -e added to words for the sake of lengthening 
the preceding vowel is certainly one of the cluiosiest contriv- 
ances which could be devised, and quite as often fails «f its 
duty as not: thus live, give, festive : come, haxe, love; gemUmt 
sterile, handsome, vine-yard, examine, destine, respite, discipline, 
and hundreds more are a standing protest against this use of 
the letter for such a purpose. How much better would it be 



acviii PREFACE, 



to reintrodaoe the accents of our older forms, and write llf for 
life, Uv for live (1 syl.); mU for mile and mil or mill for mlU; 
$W> for stile and stil or still for stIU. 

% As onr alphabet now stands, we are wholly nnable to 
express certain sounds. Thus no combination of letters can 
give the correct pronunciation of such simple words as these : 
$pirit, merits psalm, ptus^ push, put, foot, only, bosom, whose, 
puU, fuU, rule, qualm, pudding, pulpit, "bush, prorogue, rogue, 
fugue, rugged, waiter, calf, calve, half, halve, sugar, loaves, 
sheath, wreath, beneath, show, woman, and hundreds more. Let 
any one- try to express by letters the sound we give to full and 
put, and show the difference between full and hull, put and hut, 
and it will be presently seen how difficult the task is. Or let 
anyone try to express the sounds attached to woman and water, 
spirit and merit, pulpit and bush, and the necessity of some 
more definite vowels will be readily acknowledged. 

Phoneho SPELLiNa. 

Many schemes have been projected of late years to simplify 
our spelling by making sounds the ruling principle; but there 
are many grave objections to all these systems. First and fore- 
most any material alteration, such as these systems contem- 
plate, would render our existing literature antiquated and 
unreadable, except as a dead language, an evil which no literary 
man would sanction. Next it would fossilise our present 
system, as if it were already perfect, and perpetuate errors 
which are not now immutable. Those who have lived for half 
a century, have seen numerous reforms in the spelling and 
pronunciation of words, and there is no reason to believe that 
we have yet arrived at the period of verbal petrifeustion. 

A third great objection is, that it not unfrequently obscures 
the derivation, but the great tendency should be the other way. 
The gnly fixed principle in language is the parent stock of 
words, and the only plan to make words living symbols of ideas 
IB to show from what " stock" they spring, and how the present 
meaning has arisen from the parent or cognate word : thus hare 
and hair are pronounced exactly alike, but one is the Anglo- 
Bklovl har, and the other hara; so with reed and read (redd 



PliEFACK Tdx 

and r^^Qia[)^ mare and mayor fmearh and Spanish mayor), 
with hundreds more. If any reform were made in snoh words 
as these, it shonld not be to make them more alike, alike to the 
eye as well as to the ear, but to make them speak a more 
definite and articulate language by bringing them back more 
dosely to the primitiye words, and not to perpetuate the notion 
that they are identical in derivation as they now are in sound. 
Before any word is fossilised by phonetic spelling, we should 
feel quite sure that no existing or ftiture scholar either will or 
can imisroYe upon the form isropoeed ; for my own part I believe 
that many of our words are at present in a transition state, and 
that the tendency of the age is to reduce them more and more 
to their etymological standard, and to pronounce them more 
and more according to the letters which compose them* 

Old English* 

Some reason may be expected for the rather unusual substi- 
tution of " Old English ** in this dictionary for what is more 
generally termed ** Anglo-Saxon." The main reason is to force 
upon the attention the great fact too often overlooked, that 
our language is English, substantially English, and that even 
numerically considered it is still English. In the dictionary 
referred to, " so highly commended by certain reviewers for its 
etymQlogy," not a twentieth part of the words belonging to us 
have been acknowledged, but they have been fathered on the 
Greek, German, Dutch, Persian, and often on tongues still more 
remote. The use of the term Saxon or Anglo-Saxon helps to 
&vour the notion, by no means uncommon, that we have no 
words of our own, but that every word has been imported, and 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, are often most cruelly tortured 
to account for a word well known to our forefathers before 
Harold fell at Hastings. 

Again, the language of England before the introduction of 
the Norman element was not English and Saxon, as the word 
Anglo-Saxon implies, nor yet English Saxonised. One element, 
no doubt, was Saxon, but other elements were Keltic, Latin, 
Danish, and Gallic. 

By Old English is meant the English language as it existed 



zx 



BREFAClSi. 



before thfr introduetkm of tiM Noimfltn irietnent, and no posGnble 
confttdon can aiise &ot& tlris nsd Of th6 tem, as aU words due 
dire&dy to tlie Conquest tm^ tended Po^ N&rman, those later 
down are termed tMdiaval, and those stfll later nrehaie. 

It is not nniunial to divide the langooge into flye periods :— 

1. Old EiroLisH dovm to the middle of the twetfOt oentny (say 1160).' . 

5. TEAHinzDwBv(iuBli,wIuiDlliBoldteadiwti«iswer«strags^ii^ i- 
existenoe and onlj those best snited to the langnage snndyed CU60-1260). 

3. Eablt Enoluh, from 1250 to the Beformation (say 1620). 

4. MiDDLB ,t from Oie Sefonnsctfon to Milton'^ death (152S-1674X 

6. MoBnair SinaiiiB, flrem MMton'a ^toatb to the pnaoait tknac 

The following taMe vfiU akow tfte proportion of EngUah, French^ 
Latin, Qreek, and other vtordt in the langua§4. 

This (fiotionaiy oontidns 17,497 distinct fionllies of words. 
Of these groups or families of words— 

3031 are English. 

3505 are borrowed from the French. 
4025 are borrowed firom tiie Latin. 
2098 are borrowed from the Greek. 

146 are English taken from the Latin before the Conquest 
1862 are from miscellaneous sources, as Welsh, Dutoh,Q«rman. 

211 are hybrid. 

541 are from proper names. 
37 are words in imitation of sounds, Hke cuckoo. 
91 are MedisBYal or XiOw Latin. 



17,487 Total. 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNa 



PMfixes and pranoiins may be added to words beginning 
either with a Yowel or with a consonant. 

When a prenonn is added to a word beginning with a vowel, 
the general mle is to take the genitive case of the word 
prefixed withont its termination ; bat when added to a word 
beginning with a comonarU the vowel of the termination is left 
to form a vinculnm: Thns, from the Greek "d^mos" (the 
people) gen. dimau, we get dem-agogue and demo-eracy ; from 
the Latin "Inmen** (lig^t) gen. luffdinif, we get Vwmin-Bij and 
iufiitnt-feroas. 

In Greek words, most nnlbrtonately, we convert " n" into y, 
and "k" into c, after the Latm and French method: For 
example, ''martur" (a martyr) gen. martwoi, gives mariyrAom. 
and more^o-logy; "anthrax" (a coal) gen« <mthrako9, gives 
antAroc-erpeton and antM'oeo-saaras. 

C'Ch** if a dirtfaictduuncter in Greek (written thufx): "th^iialMS 
dittfnct character which existed in Analo-Saxon. but unhappily has been 
dropped oat of use. How very desirable it would be to have two disUnct 
diaractas for iK (soft) uid ih (hard), as in <A« and iMnk. In this Dictionary 
the chmracter r has been introdnoed for the hard letter. 

IrregnlaiitieB. (L) In the first Greek declension the final 
vowel is changed to o. In the first Latin dedension the final 
vowel is changed to i. 



(1) Greek aitea 

oephalS 

h6ra 

Id&t 

phonS 

phnsa 

psuchS 

rhi26 

sphafza 

■eltad 

dda 

staphul6 

tec^nS 

trachflia 



»9 *aa 



-as 



etio-logy 

ceidudo-pod 

horo-soope 

Ideo-loor 

phono-logy 

physo-gcade 

psycho-logy 

rhiao-pod 

spheio-meter 

seleno-graph 

sdo-maney 

staphylo-raphy 

tecnno-logy 



wwHKu* ,. -»• tracheo-tomy 
(Exception: ** iMoT tfOL UukU, thekarphore.) 



palma 


if 


peB&a 


>f 


l)6tra 


» 


pinna 


»> 


rota 


M 


Beta 


tt 


spina 


It 



xxii PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8. 

% The older font oC the gen. case of the first Latin declension 
was 'Oi : as " musa" (a song) gen. musai; the " ai" ig generally 
written a, bat in prenouns it is written i. 
(2) Latin mamma gen, -a (tor -ai) 

-89 (for -ai) palmi-f eroiu 
-89 nbt -fti) |)6nni-f OiAa . 
-89 nbt -ail petii-Qr 
* -89 (for -aiS pinni-ped 
(for -at) roti-fer 
m»r^«i) seti-ferons 
•«9 (for -ai) spini-feroiu 
(Exception: "aqiia'* gen. a^uo;, aqne-duct.) 

(ii.) The <fU K>f th^ fteoond Gteek dedeniiob' Jb scnnetfines 
changed toi: as "OMhot" gem archou gives oroM-p^ago, 
€Tchirtjdct, but not generally, hence from "dainos" gen..detm>u 
we get fl^nno-therium ; "autos" gen. autou giyes aiOo-crat; 
mruto$ gen. amtou gives am to-cracy, <&& 

If The "i" of the second Latin declension is in some few 
examples converted into o:. — 

(20 pianos* (adj.) phml plano-concaye 

primtiB „ priud' ptimorgeultnre 
&e. Ac: 

All snch words are barbarisms: We have the Latin fhrnMaqnoM^ 
jptoni-pedia, ptoni-pes, pkmi-txiAo, and even in English ptoni-sphere. 

Again, jirimo-genftiis 1^ debased lAVtH; dobrottses |>rifni*^ala, Vano 
]}rftni-gfniiu, Lnoretiiu prAmirgenvs, then wa have primifMnk prteti- 
pilaris, pritiM-pUns, &c 

IT The -48 of the foucth. Latin declension is a contraction of 
-uU : as " flactus" (a wave) gen. JIuctuis- contracted to ^fiuet^. 
The vinculum vowel of this declension seems to have puzzled 
bur word-minters, and hence from mamts (a hand) we have 
inona, mani, and manu; as mana-de (a disgracefal word, Latin 
manica}y. mani-f est, mofm-faoture ; bat tdie general vowel for 
this declension is- -i-^ 

(4) fractns gen. frnctils (tor fruduU) frncti-ibr 

maniis „ manfia (for taat^is) Baiil-fasfc 
risns „ ristls (forritfuia) riai-hle 

IT Latin words with Greek endings generally take o for the 

vinculum — 

(5) lao gen. nMtts lact<»4neM» 5^ftergaAHSbo-BMter 
muscns ,, musd mnsco-logf „ mosco-logy 
noz „ Boetls nocto-graph „ nncto-graph 
oleum ,, del oleo4Mccharam „ elsao-sacchanun 
pes „ pedDi pedo-meter „ podo-meter 
pomnm „ pomi pomO-logf 

sonus „ BCfid sono-meter „ phono-meter 

spectrum „ spectlrl spectro-seope 
(Exception: "pofiuri-seope.'* This would be lietter"polaro-scope.'0 

IT The usual vinculum vowel b^re "-pie" is: 

(6) centum - eantu-pla 
Goto octn-ple 
quadra- quaMhr»>de 



quinti*- quintu-ple 
seztu* sextu-ple 
septam septu-ple 



(Bzcepuon : . "vani^pto." This iam-LatlB iaconairttnogr : waim-p2etium, 
a handfnii and mamirjpuliu, a handfuL) 



PMnts^ Aim fifaifOUimsL 



jam 



IT Most weeds of Modem inHiiiifwiiUlif act derired from 
classic soarees, «r if j<iined tngetliMr hf A l^yplien, take the 
vowel o ht the rinetumn — 

(7) afauio^en, F^. aMm •tmn Gothioo-lAtliiiui 

Ai|^>4Mbaw Lsaaib-Att|lkitt 

Ansteo-PmaiMt niMO-Qottle 

Iteaev-Praniaa polttioM«Ugioisi 

f ^be Ibflowiag am almonnal or <ion£rmctdd forms-^ 

(8) «iiti- ybr auto' atatlKsiitato 

birybrW- ba-lanoe 

Off' /iyf <ileo^ or orc^ ort^a&tttai 
^tttiK/^ penM* 

Mlf^o* ^br solpfaik' 
iMMdiO^ ^br pseudao- 
tscx>-/tfrtazeo- 

f«n^>bfteEToxf• iwfi4>ia 

IT Three pmftx^d words aro v«rj ■Bcertaia in the vikMmkiin — 
««"<"™^ cenfl, centft : oeMtuia-vlrt oeliM-pedtt, caMte-pIe 

nuuMia, mana^ maai, &a&ii : mJEHux-cle; nkMii-ple, rtl oa »acilpt 



sal|du>*vtad0 
^aaado-^prophti 



PuMixEs AUD Pftin^cnis. 



Eo^k <^ f!roni» ativy •• •• 
Eng. if, Intensiya . . •« 

Bag; (t/^ intanaiTe 

^.0/ of, off 

luDg. -on, xtpw^ ttte, on . . 

Bog-fe^ ^ 

Lat. a, from (before -m and ■^).. 
Lat a[(ii, i^lo^np 
a-J 6k. a, without, negative 
a- 1ft. a, to, for'sn end- 
ab- Lat. a5,reBMiv«llroni, contrary to 
abe- iM. miUf ttom (before -e and -0> • 
ac- Lat. OG for dd^ to (before -c) . . 
aero- Ok. dkroa, upwards . . .v 
aetiiUH Oikt, ccktin geai. aktlnoSf a ray .. 
ad- Lat. od, to •« .. •• •• 
BMuy- &k.>a(tJUn, huninoaity .. 
aeri- Lat aer goa; aMs,. air . . •• 
Ok.- o^ gaik -aM)s, air «, 
afM Lot. -4A Imr iKi (before •/)' 
after- Eng. (s/Ker .. .■. ^, 
%^ Lat. tdgtinad (before -g) 
agahnato- 6k. ogafomi gem -matoi, deUgl^ 
agap6- 6k. ag&pi, brotkerly love 
agatho^ 6k. cUs^thos^ go<Kl 

al- 1^ cBJ, all, altogether . . 

al- lAt. dlfor adt to (befero -Q .. 

al- Arab. oZ, Ihe 



a-go, a-rise 
a-wake, a-bide 
a»shamed, a-ftraid 
a-board, a-float 
a-way, a>«ieep 
»like, a-mong 
a-vert) a-maouensis 
»-«cend,.i.e. as-acend 
a-cephalons, a-conile 
a-vid], ardiem 
ab-dicate, ab-oormal 
aibs>tract> abe-cond 
ac-eede, ac-oept 
acro-genns, aoro-Ilth 
actino-orinites (-kri.nUeB) 
ad-i4^t, adH>re (2 lyl.) 
setho-gea 
aer-atAkaeri-fy 
a^ro-Ute, aero-nant 
al-finn, af-flz 
aftemoozb after-math 
ag-ffrandlie. ag-gDavate 
agumato-lite 
agape-mone (5 «yl.) 
affwio^phyllam 
al-mighty, al-ready 
aMege, iJ-lude 
al-kali, alHX)hol 



XXIV 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS, 



aletho 

»l6Zi 

aU 
all-, allo- 
alun- ) 
aluno-f 
am- 
am-, ambi- 
ambly- 
ammo- 
amph- ) 
amphi- ) 
an- 
an- 
an-, ana- 
ana- 



QtlL, aUthM,tMB 

Gk. oleoBO, 1 ward off .. •• 
Eng. (b2, atHt all, altogether 
Ok. aXloa, another, different .. 

Fr. a{im, alum •• .. •• 

Lat. am for od (before -m) •• 
Lat (vmbi, abont, around 
Gk. amhlfuSf obtuse, blunt 

Gk. ammdBf sand 

Gk. amphi. both, cm both sides, 

all round 

Lat. an for ad (before •») • . 
Lat. an-Uf before . . .. •• 
Gk. an-a^ without, free fh>m •• 
Gk. ana, upwards . . • 

Gk. attO) sunilar .. .. •• 
Gk. ana, into, up into .. •• 
Gk. aiM, without, apart. . • • 
Gk. anir gen. anaroSf a man • . 
Eng. ang-f painful, troublesome 
Lat. Anglrif gen. -oruin, English 
Lat Anglicus (adj.), English .. 
Gk. amii, reverse of, opposite .. 

Lat. an<€, before 

Gk. aaUMs, a flower 

) Gk. antfurax gen. anthrakos, 

( coal 

Gk« ant^ir<)pds, a man .. 

Lat. atUg, before 

Ok. anii, opposed to, reverse ot 
Welsh op' (prefixed to men oi 

"family") 

Lat. ap for ad (before -p) 

Ok. apo, away from (before •A) . . 

Gk. opo, away from .. .. 

Lat. aqua gen. aqua, water . . 

Lai. ar for ad (before -r) 

Gk. air, air •• 

Teutonic org, crafty 

Ok. archot gen. archou, chief •• 

Ok. ori^tof, the best .. •• 
Lat. a« for od (before -<) . . 
Lat. OMK, gum .• •• 

Lat. at for ad (before -0. . 
Gk. atmda, vapour 
Lat. ater, aira, airum, black . . 
Ok. auUfs, one's ownself . . 

Lat. M-, two, twofold 

Eng. beee, behind, to the rear . . 
Eng. be- converts nouns to verbs 
Eng. be- converts intrans. to 

trans, verbs 

Eng. be- part of adv. and prep. 
Eng. be-, privative 
Bug. be^. Intensive 
be-| Eng. be-, to. in, for, at, about, ko. 
{Added to Bemanee words 
beati- Lai heme gen. beati, blessed .. 



an-, ana 
andro- 
ang' 
Anglo- 
Anglic- 
ant-, anti 
ante- 
antho- 
anthrac- 
anthraco 
anthropo- 
anti- 
ant-, anti- 

ap- 
aph- 
apo- 
aqua-) 
aque-f 
ar- 
ar- 
arch- 
arch- 
archi< 
aristo 
as- 



} 



at 

atmo 

atra- 

auto 

ba- 
back 

be 

be 

be- 
be- 
be- 



ExAJtPLsa. 
aletho-pterls 
alezi-pharmio 
all-wise, all-saints 
all-^ory, allo-pathy 

aluno-gen, alun-ite 

am-munition 
am-putate, amU-ent 
ambly-pterous, ambly-gonita 
ammo-ccBtes, ammo-dytes 

amph-id, amphi-theatre 

an-nex, an-nmilate 

an-cestor 

an-hydrous, ana-ehronism 

ana-cathartic 

ana-logue 

ana-stomose 

an-archy, ana-thema 

andro-genons, andro-id 

ang-nail 

Anj^o-Sazon 

Anglic-[i]sm 

ant-arctic, anti-septic 

ante-cedent, ante-diluvian 

antho-soa, antho-lite 

f anthrac-erpeton, anthraco- 

( saurus 
anthropo-phagi 
anti-cipate, anti-quary 
ant*agoni8t, anti-patiiy 

ap*David, ap' Jones 
ap-peal, ap-ply 
aph-[h]elion 
ajKHrtasy, apo-cryi)ha 

aqua-fortis, aque-duct 

ar-rive, ar-range 

ar-tery 

arch-ness 

arch-angel, archi-tect 

aristo-cracy 

as-sault, as-sume 

asa-foBtida 

at-tend, at-traot 

atmo-meter, atmo-sphere 

atra-biliary 

auto-crat» auto-maton 

ba-Iance 

back-wards, back-gammon 

be-frlend, be-night 

be-speak, be-think 
be-cause, be-fore 
be-head, be-reave 
be-daub, be-smear 
be-long, be-hold 
: be-gln, be-lieve) 
beati<^ 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS. 



XXV 



M-, bis 

bi- 

bin- 

bio- 

bitch- 

boar- 

btick- 

earni- 

OUT- ) 

cMyo-f 
cat-, cata- 



I] 



) 



cath 
ceno- 
cent- 
centi- 
centu- > 

centum-) 
cephal- 
cephalo- 
cheir- 
cbeizD- 
chir- 
dairo- 
cUor- ) 
diloro-r 
ehrom- 
chroma- 
ehromo- 
(f or thro- 

chrono- 

chrys- ) 

chrygo-f 

ehiqae- 

circnm 

cLs- 

co- 



oock 

GOg- 

col- 

coleo- 

com- 

con- 



Lai. hSnit good 

Lat. his, two-fold, double, in pain 
Lat hiSy during two, once in two 
Lat. &i< (before -0) 

6k. hioSf life 

Eng. huxe, a gender-word (fem.) 
£ng. hdtr, a gender-word (malt) 
Eng. bwif a gender-word (fhaJU) 
Lat. earo gen. eomif, flesh, meat 

Ok. Jbdritdn, a nut •• 

Ok. Idto, down, against, accord- 
ing to .. .• .. 
Ok. ibdto (before -A) .. •• 
Ok. ken5», emp^ 

Lat. eentwn, a hundred •• •• 
Lat. centum, a hundred •• •• 
Ok. h^phdU, a head •• •• 
Ok. cMr gen. eheiroSf the hand 
Ok. their gen. eKeiiros, the hand 
Ok. dUtfrtft, green.. •• • •• 
Ok. dtr&ma, colour •. •• 
gen. (hr&mdtot. 



} 



Ok. ehrdma 
colour .. 



1 



oonch- 
oonehi 
eoncho-) 

dio- r 

ocml- 
eont- ) 
eontra-f 
conUx>- 
cor 



Ok. cftmSffufo, time 

Ok. chrOsdt, gold 

Fr. eing, flye 

Lat. circum, all round .. .. 

Lat. cis, on this side 

Lat ewn, together with (before 

-CI, -€, -i, -O, -a) . . . • • • 

(B^ore amy letter wUh a hyphen. 
{Joined to Teutonic toords 
Eng. coe (a gender-word for male 

, birds and insects) 
IJat cum (before -natcor, -nosoo, 

-notnen) .. •• .« 

Lat cum (before -Z) 
Ok. Jb(!(I^()s, a sheath 
Lat eum (betare -b, -m, -p) 
Lat cum (before -c, -d, -/, -y, -j. 



Ok. hogchi or kogchos, a shell .. 

Ok. iogcfcdf, a shell 

Lat. cOnus gen. coni, a cone . . 
Lat contra, against [law], the 

contrary 

Lat contra, against . . • . . 
Lat cum (before -r) .. 



XZAMPLBS. 

bene^lactor, bene-flt 
bi-ped, bia-iextile 
bi-ennial 

fain-ocular, bin-oxide 
bio-logy, Uo-graphy 
bitch-fox, bitch-otter 
boar-pig 
buck-rabbit 
cami-val, cami-vorous 

cary-opfis, caiyo-phylUa 

oat-araet, cata-lepiy 
oath-[h]edral, oath-lh]olic 
oeno-taph 

cent-ennial, centi-pede 

oentu-plicate, oentom-Tlri 

oephal-aspiB, oephalo-poda 

oheir-acanthus, ohelro-ptera 

chir-agra, ehiro-mancj 

chlor-ine, diloro-iidiyll 

chrom-ate, chroma-trope 

( chromato-meter, chromo- 
( lithograph 

chrono-logy, chrono-meter 

chrys-anthemum, chryso-lite 

cinque-ports, dnque-foil 
chrcum-scribe, cixcum-spect 
cis-Alpine, ds-Padane 

co-adjutor, oo-equal 

co-partner, co-sine) 

co-worker, Ac.) 

j pea-cock, turkey-cock 

( cock-sparrow, cock-chafer 

C(^-nomen, cog-nate 
col-lect, col-league 
coleo-pteran, coleo-rhisa 
com-bine, com-mit, oom-ply 

oon-cede, con-duoe, con-fer 
conch-ite, conchi-fer 

concho-logy, cho-splral 
coni-fer, coni-form 

cont-rol, contra-diet 
contro-vert fJtcU.J 
cor-rode, cor-rupt 



XWa 



PREFIXES AND PSBNOUNS. 



cosm- ) 
cosmo-j 
coun- 
coanter> 
cmd' 
crypto- 
cyvji- ) 
cyano-f 
cycio- 
dftis- 
days- 
de- 
der 

de- 
d9 
de- 
deO',4eG^ 
deln- ) 
deino- r 
dem- 
demo-i 
demi- 
de»]t 
deat 



% 
t. 

dia- 
&^ 

dJA-i 



doe. 

dog- 



dog- 
dog- 
dog 
dolcr ) 
dulci- f 
du-, duo- 
dnum 
dyvA- 

dynamo- 
dFB 
e 



k 



G]^ l!«um4t, (1^ woi)d .. 

Lat. cum, in ocajunotton with. . 
Lat. nostra, in the (^pocdte way 
IM. ortUB gcsn. crucify a cross . . 
Ok. hrupi^ eonoealed, eecret . . 

6k. Jbvl^fi^, deeprblne •• ,, 

Ei^. datgrw^ of tl\e day 
Fr. diaa», a n 



raised platform 
Fr. de (prefixed to mniof ' ' fttv^if* 
Lat. de, motion dovmfrom 

Lat. /lie, fautansive 

Lat de, Kwanifm 

Lat. cle, privatiye . . .. ,, 
For dticKf as in <ffrdke . . .. 

Qk* d^!%o^i l^n 

Gk. deinde, dreadful [from its 

^} r 

Gk. d^ntde, the people .. 

Fr. dinvi, half . . . • • • 

Lat. d^nsg^n. dentin (t tootb . . 

Gk. deuUfrds, a doable quota . . 

two e<;ii4yalents of oxygen 

deutero- Gk. deuUrds, a second,' another 

di-. dis- Q¥> ^cl Lat. di-, die-, asunder. . 

^^^Gk. di«, two 

Gk. dia, through 

In (Mem.f donble equiy. of base . 

Gk. dia, through 

Lat 4i9, aauidar 

Lat »nd QK f^^ asunder, the 

TO voFSv •• •• •• 

(^dded Mtp to Te^itonie voordf 

Eng. dd, a gender-word (the tt^ 
male of cfsrtaUi animals) 

A gender-word (the muh of cer- 
tain wimuSs) . . 

Pertaining to the dog .. .. 

Depreciative, oeceptiye . . 

Hog. d^cl], dodget, dodgivg ,. 

Lat. dul<As, sweet 

lAtdutf, two 

Lat duo, two 

Gk. du»dmi», power 

\Gk. dymam* »n. dun^medt, \ 

} power I 

Gk. 4ht9, evil, dii^ased . . 
Li^t. e, out of (before th^ liquidSf 
and -c, -d, -g, -j,-^) 

e- Gk, ek, up, ojat of 

ee- Gk. ek 

ec- l«t » (only «M exvaapU) » . 

eco- Gk. oikos, house f 

ef- L«t. ^ foy #» (b*fpre -/) 

el- Gk. id tot ek» oat 

electii- JM. Megtrwn genu eUfitH, wiher 
(toctro- Gk. eUetron, amber 



EXAMPLXS. 

4iqsin-onwft> «qsm9-gr»phj 

•oun-tenaQQe» foniHwl 
eew»t«r-act, conntfr-march 
.cruci-Dr« crvud-fiMn]! 
eryf)!to-lqgy, caypto^gmm 

Qran-urio, grano-g^ 

dai8:y 

days-man 

Perfiaix, Pe-lolBia 

de-cUne, de-pavt 

de-«Iare, dewwlafte 

dMitno^, da-xnagnetifl^ 

de-capitate, de-odoiise 

de-coy 

dep-|uid?J|i, dewkffP* 

dein-orni^, dfinp-thpilm 
dem-agogue, demor€{racj 

demi-ged, demi-lun^ 
d^nti-frice, denti-^lp 
deut-ozfde of copper: tMiSf 
to one of the b^ (poi^wr) 
deutero-nomy, detiterp'jgMBJ 
di-yide, dis-^olye 
di-cepiui!6us, di-p^tfUpos 
di-rect, di-electric9 
^-sulphate of silyfr 
dia-gram, dia-metfr 
4if -f mie, dif '>fer 

dis-^elieTe, dls-agnee 

as dispi^^ dUli¥«> oMm) 

dog-fox, dofir-oitter 
dog-8t«r, dpg-l^ 
diOg'^leep, dog-Lat|n 
4qg-w»tph (board tiMp) 

didc-aniara, dnlci-fy 

du-p]icat«, dUP-depimal 

duujvirvixi 

dyna-meter 

dynam-ioB, dynamiwneter 

dys-pepiia, dyy-ph^gia 

e^mit, e-finee, e4qc^ 
e-lectuary 
•o-lectie, eo4ipM 
(ic-9Pntxi9 

«D0rnQ|«9^ 

ef-fept, 9t4M» 
eMipstn (a Uafim^ tmfy 
eiectri-fy 
eleotrorscope^ elec^ro-type 



FKBrnCES A1TD PRXNOUSa. 



udidjKt 
1. Gk. •», In . 



■ : BtaMi. an-qnln. sa.tbj 



tjOkcimK 
trt-n, on 



ttor-, Offd- 



K 



Siie./a.fl«n«t.. .. 

1*1. JIm gen. Jlirij, ■ BOWM 
Sag. J^^r-, DBgAtlTe, Mida 
Kog.jtrs-, betora ,. 

■■ — .fort-, front, befure.. 
. Arr> bwUDB, cbief 
.Aitt.pn«Btlj 






K. .fte^rbs, fe brdtiter f 



rowkud, (on-l 
rortb-flofliiiig 




Mn-BroHS, ggnt-eel 

gain-n«t)0D 

geo-g«phT, geo-aeOr 

gej-talcon 

glyo-erlne, gJycyKrliM™ 

gdiTfubH, Eod-eUld 

arud-fAther, gTULCl4DD 
:iV.>iJ, tbrlce niHied) 
grudl4oqik«it 
gatU-psnh*, gntti-hniaa 



K«JH 


PREFIXES AND FRES0UK3. 


gj™. } 


Gk.in«n»4..DiA«l .. . 


gy!™^.^™ 


B7n-,gjno 




irn-andria, irjiiD-BleniluBi 


^i^. 






aiLftod™, hige 




llE^llo 




hiematoi 


4k. haima gun. Aaindtrta, blood 




tuemalo- 


^Ok,ha<niageii.&a4nilMi,bloo 


biemo-CrJrbigB, hioroo-ptyiU 


h»gio 


Ok-Sairiiw.lolr ■ 


liielo««pl.7, iBgio-logy 


hama- 


Ok. M™, togelherirlth 


huai-dirad 


h^rtt t 


Eng.ftfl™i.lb.laiid .. . 


haad-jiel, hindl^mK 


■^".t. 


Eiig.Af«,.™7 


li&r.bliissr, hu-boDT 


bsnt 


Fr ftaui. long. Mgb Bn fliwotti] 






Ellg./l^,»,BdgB 


liaw-Ebara 


hu^ 


Eng.A™U»P 


baml-EDt 




Ok.fc™fl.,th8.mi „ . 


boU-antlim, heUo-trcpe 


haml 


Ok. AiTmi, bilf 

Eog, Am, ■ gender word for 


ieml^aphe™, heml-pter* 




(omalehlrd 




bf^t 


Ok.Wj)org6n.WjvIM.,U.K , 


hepat-iHa,hepato-gMWio 




Gk. Afpta, Bwn 


hept-uob]', hepta-gon 


h^r- 


Ok. iieufilli. maoOitt .. 




bei- heu 
hfu- 
hiera- 


Gk.li«.rii 


hM..aiidrl»,l,eJca,g™ 


Ok. kiirdt, ucted, pilcitly . 




hipp. 


Ok.Mpp«.»h™ .. . 


hlpp-Qrito. Uppo-potamn* 


Eng,W,«l>Dof 


ho^gobllB, hoh-n^ 


hoi-, holo 


Ofc.liaf«,thewhol. .. . 


bol-Hter. ho]o*Mut 


i;on.«> 


Ok. h™(rfM, likB 


homeo-paUij 


homl. 


■la.t.l>omB sea. kemfnU.. 


hoDii-cicle 


bonj- 1 


Ok. WmSs, the uma .. 


Lom-onTm, homo-logom 


h^Sii 


Ok. Iiominoi, like 


kDmoIo-Hdo 


hom- 


Gk. Mrs, tho bonr, Ums 

1*1. *ort«Ben.)iortl,g»fdBii. 


honlHinlm™ ^ 




Eng. Alij, booM 


hoe-band, hiu-nile 




Ok. fcudor, *gter 




Gk. Avgrnt, molBtiue .. 
Ok. Aufaioi adj. of &uM, vocd . 


hrBTo-ineter, bj-gro-logy 

hjilOIMHiniB 


hrlo- 


Gk.AuM, wooil, mfttler ., 


hylo-theUm, hjlo-wlmi 










brsne *^ .. .'. . 


hrioeno-ptera 


hyo-.hTot 




h7por-crilicai, byper-bole 


h/p^t 




hV 


GkilSS^CdS".'*"".. : 




loiT 1 


Ok. fcftnot, tooteUp .. 


lohn-llejchno-logj 


khli^o- 


Ok. Uithuseu. vAlhwi, i tub 


iiihUi.o*aunii,-n.phr 


ICO«h 


Qk-fiMngm-Btoia., Ml Image ioonOHJl^^ Icono-litr/ 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS, 



XXIZ 



icoe- ) 
ioosa-f 
ideo- 

iff- 



il- 
fl- 
im 

im- 

im- 

in- 

in- 

in- 

in- 

intor- 

intra- 

intro- 

ll^ 

it- 

is- 

isa- 

iM- 

jack 

ja<^ 

jeo- 

jnrls- 

JQBtt- 

jQxta- 
kjd 
kick 



Gk. eikdH, twenty •• •• 

■ * • 

Gk. idAxy idea 

Let. {9 for in (before flye.ezam- 

ples of -f»), not 

Lat. ignid, fire 

Lat. il- for in (before -2), in, into 
Lat. itr for in (bef pre -Q, not . . 
Lat. il- for in (before -I), mtenslTe 
Lat. inv- for im (before -h, -m, -p), 

in, on, to 

Lat im- for in (before -^ -m^ -pX 

not 

BomaAce for en- or em- to rerb- 

alise words 

Lat in, in, on, to.. .. •* 

Lat in, not 

I<at in, intenslTe 

added to Bomance words .. 
Lat inUr, between, among 

Lat in^ro, within • 

Lat in^o, within, to .. 
Lat itr- for in (before -rX with, 

OYWE', on .. .. 

Lat. itT' for in (before -r), not . . 

Eng. ed gen. «fs, water .. 

Gk. iMW, -a, -on equal •• .. 

Gk. i«d«, equal 

a gender word fmaUJ .. .. 
coarse, laige .. ■ .. .. 

Fr.itfw, sport 

Lat jui gen. juris, justice 
Lat justtu gen. justi, just 
laA.juxta, ride by side .• •• 
Gk. k&loay beautifal 

Fr. ouelgues, some .. .. 

Uepto- Gk.iUM9b«, thief 

knap-| Germ, hnapptf a boy, a senrant 

I Gk. le^rifMiOB, a maze 

Lat lac gen. lactiSt milk 
Eng. land, land .. .. • 

Lat lapi» gen. lafXdis, a stone 

Lat Wus gen. laiiriB, the side 
Lat. IMua gen. UUi, broad 
Lat. Zaurtw, a laurel 

Lat lego, to read 

Lat IfiB gen. legi$, law .. 
Lat. legitimus, lawful .. • 
Lat Uher gen- libi% a book . 
Lat. liber, free .. .. • 
Fr. lieu, instead of 
Lat ligare, to bind, to tie 
Lat lignum gen. ligni, wood • 

Lat Umaa; gen. limdcis .. . 



} 



labyrinth- 
labyrinthi 
lact-.lacto- 
land 
lapid- 
lapidi 
lateri 
lati- 
laorus- 
leg- 
legis- 
legitam 
lib-, Ubr 
Uber- 
Ueu 
Ugar 
lign-,ligni- 
limac- ) 
limad-) 
lingua-) 
lingui-f 
lique- 
liquld 



•• 



Lat lingua, the tongue .. 

Lat. Uqueo, to melt 
Lat liquidH% Uqnid •• 



Examples. 
ico»andrfa, icosa-hedron 
idao-graphy, ideo-logy 

ig-noble. ig-noramig 
ign-ite, igni-potent 
il-lapse, U-latlre 
U-legal. il-libeial 
il-lustxlous, il-luminate 

im-bibe, im-pazt 

im-mortal, im-perfect 

im-Mtter, im-txown 
in-cite, in-cline 
in-attentive, in-animate 
in-candescent 
in-born, in-bred, in-come 
interKMNde, inter-mix 
intra-mural 
intro-dnce, intro>it 

ir-radiate, ir-rigate 

ir-rational, ir-regnlar 

is-land, £nn-it 

isa-gon 

iso-eoeles, iso-thermal 

jack-ass, jack-daw 

jack-plane, jack-towel 

jeo-pardise 

juris-diction, juilt-pmdence 

justi-fy 

juxta-positlon 

kal-eiaoscope 

kick-fihaw 

klepto-mania 

knap-sack 

j labyrinth-odon 
. ( labyrinthi-f orm , 

lact-eal, lacto-meter 
' land-scape, land-mark 

lapid-ary, lapldi-fy 

lateri-folious 

lati-septsa 

laurus-tinus 

leg-ible, leg-end 

l^is-late 

legitim-ate, legitim-ise 

lib-el, libr-ary 

Uber-al 

lieu-tenant 

liga-ment 

lign-ite, ligni-ty 

limac-ldso, limad-ous 

lingua-dental, Ungul-form 

lique-fy, liqae-factton 
iiquid-iae 



PREFIXES AN9 PXENVONSi 



lithvUibo- Ok. Kttot. stonet 



load- 



logo- 
long- .) 
longi-j 
lad 
Imnin- 
lombii 
Inna-ylimi 
Mac- 



ho^ Ok. loflw^ xatto 



} 



macrw ) 
macro-) 



Bng. Icedian}, to guide 



Ok loflKW, aword .. .. •• 

Lat loNtfM gen. longi, long •• 

Lai. iiu3 gen. luelf, Sight 

JjtiX, tumtn gen. lundaiif lig^.. 

Lat. I«na, moon . . ., ■»• 

aoatok VMM prefixed to the 

names of men of fboMj} «« 

Gk. maerds, large « 



EXAMPLSS. 

Jitb.-omi4 lUhCHiniph 
load-stone, load-star 
log^uiituB 
kgof^nqrii, log»«Mdij 

longHmil, iQcgl-ptniitte 

teid-f ei^ hid-d 

inmin-aix, InQdal-feroaa 



*• 



XnoGiecei; MadDonald 
maer-onra, macuKtlieriam 



mael- NcnregisB mai, evil 



magneto- 

magn- ) 

magni- j 

maid 

mal- 

mal-, malar 

malac- ) 

malaco-f 

male- 

mnift 

malle- 
mamma- 



mammali- 



man 



mana- 
mani 
mani 
mano- 
manu 
mar 
marcion- 

mari- ) 
mari»-r 

marit- 

marqu 
marri 
marti. 

Martin 

marl9^ 
mar^TO- 
Mary 
mas 
mast- 
materi- 
matecn- 
matri- 
xne(U- 
mega- 

megalo-J 



ma^-f Sag. auisiM» man (a gender woni) 
Lat. mantis; the band 
Lath maiMts, the band . .. 
Eng; «MUii(r, many 

Gk. nuMMftudtj 

Lat. OTOMM, the hand .. 
Eng. fnaf«, a hone .. .^ 

Med. Lat. mareto gen. mafici<niii^ 
amarqpda 



Gk. mdgmis gen. -itds, magnesia 

Lat. moiinHi gen. magni, great 

Bng. nuEgth^gendec word) 

Fr. malt e«£U7* not 

Lat. motes fern, mala, naughty 

Ok.«iiaUBbtf9, soft.. .. ^. 

Lat. ttol^ amiss 

ly. «uUs 4(ender word) •• 
Lat. maiZeMS, a hammer.. •• 
Lat. mamma, the breast. . 
Lat. moMtma gen. -a, the breast 
Lat. ma im i M U a , adj. of 
Fx. flioMs, the hand 
Bng. 



magneto-mfeto^ -elactridty 
m«gn-animoii8, magni-floent 

mal-treaty malHwmtMit 
mal-aria» mala-iie^ 

malao-ostrolagy, malaoe-lite 

male-dietioa, male-volent 

male iw ¥■■<» brfia lale 

malleable 

mamma-haty 

mammirf er, mammMorm 

mammaU-ferooB 



man-eaaTT^ matt>iiia 
man-shMghter, miut-tal 
man-aeirant^ Seoteh-aan 



mani-f est, maai-ple 
maBi>fold 

maaoKmeter, manoaacne 
i-iaotiue» maiHMaript 



MariaorHaxy 

IaL marifws (mare, the aesj •.* 
lAt. maritus, a husband • . 

Port mamMio, qninoe .. .. 
Eng. mtar^, borderland.. •. 
LaC mot gm. maris, man •• 
Lat. JMTors gen. Marti$ . . 
Martin, a man's name . . 
) Ok. martur gen. wiartiMfs, a 

r mar^ 

Mary, the "virgin Mary" 
Lat. maB, the male kind 
Ok. madoB, the breast . . 
Lai mater guL matris, a mother 
LaL maiemm, adj. of mcUer .. 
Lat mater gen. matris, a mother 
Lat. we4M», tbamiddle. . 
Ok. m^ga, i^eat ..' 

Ok. megapn. fm^dUow, great . . 



marchion- 

maii-goUU mailo-latiy 

marin-er, martn-orama 
marit-al 



marqQ-is 
»axri-age 
marti^ 
Martin-maa 

martyp^on, iuar lty w )4ogy 

Mary-bud 

mas-eullne 

mast-itis, mast^xlBa 

mateil-al 

matem-al, maiem-ity 

matri-dde, matxi-mony 

medi-eval, medi-terranean 

m^r<H»ros, mega-th«lum 

megal^dhthys, megalo-sanro-' 



FREFOSa AND PREJfOUmt. 



zxzi 



mel«ao- 
mell- 
meUi- 
mel- ) 
meio-f 
mempr- 
mere- 



meio^ Qk. Mai(9ftt» iMi 

meUrn- I Qk.md<MgeiLin<MfU)»,black.. meJaa-chdlT, mel»i>o-«litolU 



meso- 



meta- 

met«Ui- 
metal- ) 
metallo- j 

meteoro- 



■!«** iOk. niMOk «f ter 



1 



Lat. m4 fffi», 9ietti«> hon«7 .. m«U-lt6, meUi-flwmi 

^k. flwbM, floQg nxfil-ioie, mdo-teMOM 

l4at m0f?w» xDindfnl .. .. mempr-able, mem«v-7 

Iiat. merx g. mems, merchsndise merc-er, merc-ery 

Oh, m en t hd t Irnminate . . .. meryao-UMaium 

Ok. «i<s^ in ttAinidst, middle m«Mn»teTMtt|iiiBiim 

Gk. m^wfo, middle .. .. meso-carp, meio-tkQna 



Qk.mHa^Bibm meta-phriiGt, -monboiil 

IM. mdtaUymt |ra^• -Ii» me^l . . vataUi-ionn, meUQi-fonms 

Gk. nKtoOon^ metal 

{• Olu 411^091^ » meteor 
CHc ««^i«(biCoce-AX with 

Ok. m#|rM^ « m«fwiKe .. 

IlaL SMSzo, middle 

Ok. «M4pvt9i^ imMtt i»iexo-MO|w, jnioNHiOiia 

l4it.«»Ue9s«B'«*'tt<^ai<^dier mllU^My, mfliti« 



• ■ 



metaB-nrgy, meUll«-gnplif 

mfleor-tti^ met#9i»>k)gsr 

metMXNl 
metii-yleMit metli-f I 
■mti^-nome, m«tro-poUi 
meuO'tilDtci, me»(hfoprano 



L«t. ^ntOc^ • Uiouand .. .. mUl-eimiam* mllle-pede 

Ok.«ie<fmlMi .. mto< e» » 

Ens. mi«-, wrong, out of pUce.. mi»-b«U«l. mie-lar 

9k.flM»-«eTil mii cihance, wak^hUi 

Lat. laJlMwK uriM, erU ^ mte-caleoUte, mlf-lortime 

Gk. w tim o , lh9l» BKJi»-«iftliJ»pA, mUoijiqr 

XiSft^wodw gen. modi, meMnre.. mod-vie, modi-ff 

Ija^moU9,mwM$ .. m<4»-Cille, mole^ 






gen. a^rtii, deelft 

agm 
Itettfr 

amonw 

•ari^awiU 



Mfftt'^daj 
mort-^naim morHpfe 




anlt-jngnlw; ^wMt-fotM 

QwnA'flMBt, mmi^c^al 
mnn^mcst 

mir-al, mvii-feini 
mnaeo-logy fhjfbrridj 



mreo-logy 

■njel-itis 



Bight 



od-, Ddo- 
odont- I 
odoato- r 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUNS. 

ElAHFLIB. 

•Mkrot, a dead body,. ». aecn^toLDCj'^ necro-logj 

nrctoT EDb. TitctArii * • nHtar-iDe, nectArl'TBroiir 

Bnj. woft, noK .. .. .. DBlgh-boni 

.... neo-logj. nco-phytB 

lo™ .. neitefli- Netber-Undi 

.. neur-algla, nonro-logr 

Eni.-niAt .. idght-ibsdu. DJght-niue 

Ok. ntJrvn, Dltn . . .< ■■ nitro^gen, nltro-nieteT 

L«t.li™gBil.iiiMHt „ .. nocti-T«gant, nooto-gmph, 

Lat. nomen gen. funnCnii •• nomen-claton, nominal 

Ok. lunnaa, Isw .. .. .. uonio-gnplii 

t«t. noini, ulna .. ■. ■■ non-flllon, noM^gflslmBl 

Bnf. RD, QQt BUT BO-lfalDe. ncrbod; 

Ok. floloi, wmlb nol«m|j|. noto-therfam 

l?~"'''"''":'°'°::i3'"!Iir""""" 

lOf'tamllr''') o°CoDnBu"o'Buno™i 

igiliut ob-lajt, ob-Btratl 

., Jor nil (boloM-c) .. oe-rat, e«-flHpr 

' ' I, eigbi .. .* -- oct4ndrU, oct&-goa 

>. elgbb oot-EDDial, octo-sjlUbl* 

J, oigbt trelnplo 

Gk.AMdi.iiraj'.iniad.. .. od-rie, adL)-aiel«r 

Qi. oAhv gaa. odonUiM .. .- Ddcmt-^lgJji, odobto-lc^y 

Gk. fffnoff, irinfl .. -. -flen^nthJc, ffuo-tboi* 

Ut iirrorobCbBfQra/)., .. ol-fend, or-far 

Eng, o/, limy from, fiom .. oMal, off-68t 

L&t. ot^m, oU Dle-flAnt» al«-\a 

Qk. alladi, ii few .. .. .. oUi-vcbr, ollgo-claH 

Bk. oinfifDa, » nbowoc .. ., orobtiviDotar 

Sng. on, upon, forth .. ,. on-alBoghl, cm-wudi 

f Qk.™atiwg.ondiB(I«M,anEiDiB onomitfllogr, onom«to-p.i!)ii 

Ltt. 0)'- tor dA (before -p) .. 0|t-pOi«, op-preW 

Lul. opin, plo. Optra . . . . oparHjDiiUD. opera-moter 

ak, tphU, otpMDi nerpeat „ optal-oldde, DphlD-mency 

Gk, ept-ikot, pertaiiLlng to dght opl-lca, optl-i;r>ph 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8, 



-xxxiii 



org»n- ) 
o^gano-f 
ori- 
oA-f €ftO- 
or-, oti- 
omlth- ) 
omltho- j 
oro- 
ortlio- 
os- 

0M-, OSii 

orteo 
ostrac 

ostro- 

ot-, oto- 

onimno- 

oufc- 

0T-, ovi- 

OTer 

ovo- 

ovn- 

OZ-, ozy 

o«o- ) 

oioixo- r 

pMhy 
pftcnyo- 
p«ci 
pal-, pal»- 
palfldo- 
paU- 
palin- ) 
palim-j 
palm- ) 
palmi-f 
palmao- 
palmati- 
pan- 
pan- ) 
pano-) 
pani- 
pan! 
panta- 
panto- 

panul^o- 
paii- 
parl- 
parri- 
part- I 
p«rti.f 
pass- 
patem 
patho- 
IMktr- 
patri 
pea- 
pecto- 
pecUn- ) 
pectinl-) 



} 



Gk. orgd/Mn^ an organ •• .. 

Lat OS g. crUt the mouth, a gap 
Gk. iir(^ oriik, a mountidn .. 
Fr. or, gold 

Gk. ornis gen. omithdi, a bird . . 

Ok. of09, a mountain .. .* 

Gk. orfAos, right 

Lai 09- for ob (one example) .. 
Lat. 08, a kifls ,i 

Lat. OS gen. of«i«, a bone 
Gk. osteon, a bone 
Gk. ostrdkon, a potsherd, an oys- 

ter(?) 

Gothic osfro, eastem 

Gk. OU8 gen. 6tda, the ear 

Gk. ourdThos, the heavena .. 

Eng. lit, ont 

Lat otntm gen. ovi 

Eng. <^er, too much, abore 

Gk. 6on Latinised (fJiv}on), an egg 

Lat ovum, an egg 

Gk. oonis, sharp 

Gk. dU), to smell [offensiTely] •• 

Gk. poo^us, thick 

Gk. paehuB gen. -eos, thick .. 
Lat paa gen. paeia • . •• 
Gk. potoios, ancient .. .. 
Gk. pototos, ancient 
Gk. pa2in, again 

Gk. polin, again •• •• .. 

Lat pcUma, a palm-tree. • •• 

(as if from palmAcus, paJma palm) 
Lat palmag. palmdtis (the palm) 
Gk. pas, pan everTthing. . 

Gk. Pan gen. P&nds, the god Pan 

Lat. panua g. pani, a qnill of yam 

Lat. panis, bread 

Gk. pas, pin. pa/nta all things .. 
Gk. pas gen. pantos, everything 
Gk. para, from, by itself, near . 
Gk. para{2^I<Is, ptuallel .. 
Lat par gen. paris, equal 
Fr. parler, to speak 
For paM, Lat pater, father . . 

Lat pars gen. partis, part 

Fr. passer, to pass 

Lat patemtu, adj . at pater, father 
Gk. pathds, suffering 
Lat pcUer gen. patris, father ) 
Gk. pater gen. palros „ f 
Dutdi pije, a thick coarse cloth 
Gk. piktOs, curdled, crystallised 

Lat peeten gen. pettinis, a comb 



EXAMPLXS. 

organ-lc, oigano-logy 

ori-flee 

ori-ganum, oro-logy 
or-molu, ori-flamme 

oxnith-iohnite, oxnitho-logy 

oro-logy, orO"graphy 
ortho-graphy, ortho-doxy 
os-teni[ble 
os-oola, osHJolate 
oss-eous, ossi-fy 
osteo-logy, osteo-graphy 

ostnuvfsm, o«trao-tto 
ostro<jk>th 
ot-itis, oto-soope 
ourano-gn^y 
out-side, out-cast 
ov-ary, oTi-f erous 
orer-do, over-come 
ovo-logy, ovo-viviparous 
ovu-lite, ovu-le 
ox-ide, oxy-gm 

oso-kexlte, oxono-meter 

pachy-derm, pachy-pteija 

pachyo-pterous 

pad-hr 

pal-icmthys, palse-ontology 
palsBo-saurus, palsao-logy 
pali-logy 

palin-drome, paUm-psest 

palm-er, palmi-ferous 

palmac-ite, palmae-eous 
palmati-fid, palmati-partite 
pan-orama, {Mtn-theism 

pan-io, pano-phobia 

pani-de 

peni-faction, pani-vorous 
panta-morphic 
panto-graph, panto-l<^;y 
par-allax, para^;raph 
parallelogram, -piped 
pari-syllable, pari-ty 
parl-ey, parl-our f 

parri-dde 

part-y, parti-dpate 

pass-over, pass-port 
patem-al, patem-ity 
patho-logy, pathogeny 

patr-onymic, patri-mony 

pea-jacket 
pecto-lite 

pectAn-aX, pectini-lonn 



xxxhr 



PREFIXES AKD PMINOUNS, 



SStori-j" ^^ 9ock^% jMcWri*. the ckert 



ped-,pedo- 



ped-, pedlx !<•& pw gen. pidis^ a foot 



pedo* 
pel- 

peo^ 



I 



peiini- 

pennv- 
pent- \ 
peni»>f 

pente- 



Ok. pais 90iL-fNud0^ A'^diikl 



For]f(Ni(HjGk.jMm«e.j>da(9«,afoot 
Lat wl-, for per (one example) 
Ok. Ptifopf gtBlL Pel<!f^, PefifiHW 
Lat. 90n«^ n*w]|f» almost •• 

Lat. ptHODA gtsn. jpenncB, a spring. . 

0&. petofis, dye .. .. i. 

Ok. perUjjkontd], fili^ 
Lafe p«r,^Bro«^ . . 



*• 



per- Lat.jrMr, Intengive ... .« 

per- pa €%«iiii.) a maadmnm quaatitf 
p&A- Gk. jMriy roiud^ near . .■ 

Setri- [ '^*' ^**"* ^'^^ ^'^» * ^"® • • 
petro' Gk. petrda^ a ikme, a rock ..< 
Fr. paii^ little 



petti 

phanta- 

plumtwinii- 

„ -mato 

phartfiaco 



} 



pboBwt^ 
phos- 
photo- 
pnospll- 
phosphor- 
phot- ) 
plMto-f 
phreB- ) 
phrena-T 
phyllo 

plursio- 
phyaty* 



} 



P4g- 
pltt' 

pinnr > 

pinni-)- 

pinnaU- 

piscir 

plMSO- 

plaai 

plano- 

platf-V 

plates- 1 

plMo- 

plen- 

pleni 

pleo- 
juedo-j 



Gk. pAanAi[Mnai], a phantom 

iha 



*v 



Gk. |>Aa«iMma» a phantom 
Gk. pha-niaxma g. -mdtCs 
Gk. phafMitiOti^, medioliaa 

J^ JJGk. p^iW», fond of 

►non- 1 Ok. p^^hi^ gen. |)Mn^, MHnd 
<a8 if from phdniHkoBf pHdng) 
Gk. phd$ gen. p^Mte, light 

I Gk. phospMHhy phosptiioras .. 

Gk. ph68 gen. ph6tilJ$, liglit 

Gk. phr&n gen. p/iii^<i llltttd . . 

Gk. phuUon, a leaf 

Gk. phusis, ]^iU8«68 

Gk. fAUM gen» p^uate, a puff . . 



Eag.pk/a 

Lat» pintM, * pkie-tree . . 

Lat ptnna gen; -<b, a wiiig 

Lat. pimnaUis gen. •<»«. winged. . 

Lat. pisciSf a fish 

Gk. pta*i gea. pldkSs, scalf . . 
jMi. plamu gon. plant .. 
.Lab. pbMMM gen. pkmi . . 

Gk. platiit, broad 

Gk; pIMon, mote ... 

Lat. pteniM gem pfeiii» foil* .. 

Gk. plAnif too much 



'esto-fOk, plMos, nuita 



EXAMPLCS. 

peetoar-al,. pectMitloquj^ 

ped-«flogae* pedo^-haptJam 
ped«]^ podh-meni 
pedo-meter, p«doi>man6^ 
pel-ludd 

peBrUunia> pan-Ttittbra 

penn-nlft, penlii^fbiA 

pjnui^wort)i» paitny-wiBe 

pMlt-ailidri«, pMtia^goti 

pente-eost 

per-ambnlate, pet-jore 
per-auade, per-aeeute 
per-ozide, per-solphata 
peri-gee, peri-iBoii 

petr*i»l»alii» p«t»ii4y 

petro-gra{^^ peliro-liogy 
petti^<;oat, pffUl-ioggeit 
phanta-acope 
phantasma-goria 
phantaamato-graphy 
pharmacc^oaia, 4og7 

phll-aiithMpyv pitlo-logy 

plkofl-lea^ ph<»o-log7 

phonet-io 

pho^'S^onM, iHx^tO'graphy 

phosph-ate, phofl|)hoHto 

phot-opsy, pfiolo<4ipto« 

phtexMj, phcraoKlogF 

phyllo-gen, phjllo-pdd 

phya-icB, p^jiHo-logf 

phyao-grad)^ 

phyt-elephas, i^hj^io^ogy 

pig-sty, pig-t»il 
pin-y, pin ltd 

pinA<ate, pinBi-p«d 

pinnati-ped, pi&natl-fld 
pisd-fbrm, pud-cttltitte 
plaMHitom, plado-gaiioid 
plani-aphere, phnd-metty 
plano-ooncaVe, plaAo-oonvei 

platy-orinite^ platyaHomus 

pleio-cene 

I^en-ary, ptanl-potMitiaiy 

pleon-asm 
plMi<MAHyra4, -morpbotti 



Airs pssirommi 



. pod-iign, podo'phrllBu 



L.t.polo^I»I«r .. . 


I*I«-IK. pdui*op. 


ak.pdUm^.m.. „ . 




Ok. fWAii, mux 


I>ilr-u>h«, polT-goB 


tBt.poii™tB£io).paIiU,»ppU . 
L»t.jBmM«(101i.p™t,ipple , 


pomade, poml-raotu 


pomo-TuH 


Ltt. pom gta. fontU, »bddge.. 


pont-acs, poDtl-la 


Lat. pitrn, forwudi 

Ft. pour, for. bj 

Lat. »«rl<>. > (M 

Pr. i»r(o; Lilt, porta, tocury. 
Eng.pirt; Liitpnrtiij.iBsiBonr 

Li«.p™,b*«9 

Lat. prffttr. mon ths, ulde . 

Lot prtiniH, Bri« 

tat. r^i"", ftt»... 

lit. pro, pratlooi. haJorn 
at prfl., bofotB 


port-reve, Port-land 

^ors-p'sxr 


prod-l^pi^-iglm. 


Gk. jiHlWi, ohiat flirt .. 




Gtpn«*.cUtf 


piWho-notaiy 


OH. jwolmoi, pa»lni 






pMnd-qdym, piBodo-ptophrt 


StSlI^™?™^^ :: :: 


piVcho-logT, P«:rcbo-Bi«w 


Qk.i.tSrfl«,.wine .. . 




Gt jrWViu gen. pMrflsoi, ■ wtae 


ptaryg-otnn, ptn«Ma 


lit. jHdiw gm. yuiiii*rij, longi 

Lst puliui. ths piilM ■ ■ 
Lat. pultii gro. puMrlg^ iliut . 


pulmonl-Cer 
pnlMT-iae, pahflpinii 



Ljit- pro, beforduDi^ forlb 



pia-pon, poi-me 



Xxxvi 



PREFIXES AND PRENOUmL 



pur- 

pur- 

pari- 

pari. 

pycn- ) 
pycho-j 

pjrr-,pyro- 
pyret- ) 
pyreto-J 
qnadr' 

quaori- ) 

quadra- f 
quali- 
quanti- 
quart- 
quatem- 
quatre- 
. quin- 
quinq 
qninque- 
quint- 
qulntu 
quint- 
radl- ) 
radio-) 
. radio 
ram- 
rami- 
rare- 
rati 
ration 
re- 



} 



re- 
rect- 
recti 



\) 



red 



otT 
«-)f 



(for 
re' 
rere- 



rere- 

retro- 

rhin- > 

rhino- 

rhiz- 

rhizo- 

rhod- 

rfaodo- 

risi- 

riv 

rota-, roti- 

rub-, rubi 

rubel- 

rubigin 

IUS-, ror- 

8-for«B- 



Fr. powr^ on, off, away .. •• 

Lat. parumt somewhat . . • . 
Lat. pwruB gen. pwri, pure 

Lat jMM gen. pitria, pus. . . . 

Gk. puJknos, thick .. •• 

Gk. pwr gen. piinw, flre .. •• 

Ok. jntf^tds, flexy heat .. .. 

Lat. guodra, a square .. 

Lai qMdnu gen. qvadxit four.. 

Lat. qiuUia, such as, like 
Lat. guannu gen. ^uonfi, much 
Lat. (tuarftM, fourth 
Lat gtMifemi, I7 four .. 

Fr. {uolrs, f our 

Lat. 9uin{fue, five 

j-Lftt guin^ue, Ato •• •• 4 

Lat. ({uinttM, fifth .. 

Fr.guin^; Lat eentum,a hundred 

Lat toMm gen. raHi, a ray . . 

Lat. radist gen. radicis, a root . . 

Lat. raiMU gen. rami, a branch . 

Lat. ranu, rare .. .. . .. 

Lat rattu gen. raM^ firm 
Lat rojtio gen. raUonia, reascm 
Lat. re-, again, back 

(Added to TewUmie ioord»: a» 
Lat ree, matter, affaira .. .. 

Lat nehu gen. recti ' . . •• 

Lat. roe gen. regia, a king •• 

Seven examples 

Eng. hr^an]^ to raise oneself 

Qui the air] 

Fr. arrive, behind .. 
Lat. retr(»-, baekwards •• 

Gk. rhinoM, the nose .• •• 



i 



«a-,8aU 
aalsi- 



Gk. rhisa gen. rhizi$f a root •• 

Gk. rAiiki^, a rose 

Lat rieue, alau^ 

Lat rivuSf a bank, a riirer 

Lat rota gen. rotoif a wheel « . 

Lat ruber, red 

Lat rv!beUu8, reddish .. 
Lat. ruMgo gen. ruMginis, rust 
Lat rus gen. turis, the country 
s-ample, s-earce, s-corch; for 

eetra, s^tray 
Lat eoeer gen. Mteri, saored .. 
Lat sal gen. eolie, salt .. .. 
Lat mZmw gen. »alH 



EXAMFUBS. 

pur-chase^ pur-loin 
pur-blind 
puri-fy 
purl-fbrm 

pycn^odont, pyeno-ttyle 

pgn>ope, pyro-techniD 

pyret-ios, pyreto-logy 

qnadx'Angle 

quadil-dentate^ quadm-ped 

quali-fjr 

quanti-f!y 

quart-er 

quatem-ary, qnatem-lty 

quatre-foil 

quin-deoemTixl,quin-decagon 

quinq-angular, 

quinque-partite 

quint-essenoe, qnintn-ple 

quint-al (a cwt.) 

ndl-ate, radlo-lita 

ladic-ate, radios 

ram-ons, rami-iy 

rare-fy 

rati-fy 

ration-al 

re-Terse, re-animato 

re-opei^ re-build) 

re-publie 

reot-angle, recti-ty 

reg^ 

red-eem, red-olent 

rere-mouse 
rere-dos [or rear-doi] 
retro-grade, retnHQMct 

rhin-enoephalic, rhino-oeroe 
rhis-anth, rl4»>-pod 

rhod-anthe, rhodo-dendron 

risi-ble 
rlv-al, riv-er 
rota-lite, roti-fer 
rub-eola, rubi-cund 
rubel-lite 
rubigin-ous 
rus[Q-io, rur-al 



■aori-floe, sacii-lege 
sal-aiT, sali-ferous 
aalsi-fy 



PREFIXES AND PRElTOUIfS. nnO 

\jJL tal\a%BB. aiatU .. .. nlal-trj 

lAt HimiK, »tB nlv-iMe 

Yag-uan, tuU: Lal.nrni .. um^bUnd 

LaL taiKtui gea. atacti, sacied uncti-f;, «victu4i7 

} Eog. Hm, half uDd-bUnd 

(LaL tanffitit gflju nn^tUnit, 

blood .■ ungul-feroQi, i»n|ndiil-oo» 

Lat, tapitr geu. mji^rie, flaTour. HapornMiBj upoil-lla 

Gk. «I7 gea. nrioi, Seab .. barc-aam, urcD-loir 

Lat. tolur, ecDngii .. ,. uli-ale, uUi-tv 

LaL Mlur. Ml] satur-Bte 

:Eiig. SacUr, ^deltf 10 maea ,, Batnr-dsy 

Gk. MUTOf, ■ liard . , . . aaur-Ichlhiu, laan-piu 

I4>t, nuniM, g«iL lasei, a rock, 

Ok.jcAinnag.Khfjrm'ifi>«,BclUsm Khlaiaat'la 

l&k. arAi^liw, «laf t, oioven ,. Hhlaa-pod 

GJl iJEia gea. fHda, abadoH ■• BOlo-mancr 

Gt. jtWriM, haul KluWrttinito. (clero-dflrm 

Ok. dlei^rra, hardDoa .. .. Bderol-lo 

Glk. nunui, eanfaqiuke.. .. wlsmo-aiapb, »liaii>~«ia|M 

Gk. (eMn*, the moon .. .. «elan-ita. Mleno-gtaphj 

Eng, Mi/, one's proper poraon .. wH-langhl, self .will 

Ok. ttran. >ipi llgnal .. .. Oema-jjh.irB 

Gk. jmiHoj. aelgD, aejmptoni.. HBmHo-luHf 

EDff. «^ffAp leren .. .. .. len-nJi^lil, BOD'niL 

Lai. erptcm, (spii-eeyan .. •epl-cniiiaj, sepll-lateraL 

Lat Kjilim, Bdven .. .. SBptom-ber, t8ptcii.BlB 

Lat. wp""« gen. KpM, a fold .. SEpt-ste, aeptl-f oim 

Lftt! Aovui. Doe-aiid-a-half .. BeHf^ul.broEiiMe, .pedaUaa 

lit. «tii gen. «(«. a btlstlB .. bbl^om, teli-larom 

Lat, AS, ^ >ei-!uiiiita 

Ut. «!(<« gen. (txli, BlI .. Hit-llllon. wrt-lle 

Lat.Mi(i",BU MitupLe 

Eng. jcearp, >hsrp . , . . iharp-Ml, aharp-Qo 

Eng. >(o (a geiKter word, female) sbe-ndlf, Bbe bsat 

Put part, ol s/ied, to throw off.. Bhodd-y 

Lat. airfiwgen. jjrfft^p aatAr „ stdere-al 

Gk. jiiMrSi, Iron sidet-ita, aldeio-Bcopa 



^rt.f 



KAiilo.) 

Rle(t>t 
■dsD- f 

Kd- 
Htsmo- 



Szxviii 



PREFIXES AND pnENOUmi, 



slgn- 

signl- 

silic- 

sUici- 

simpli 

simplici- 

ain-, sine- 

so- {sub) 

soci- ) 

socio- f 

BOl- 

soU- 
8oUd 
somn- ) 
somni- ) 
soni- 

80X10- 

sonor- ) 
soDori- r 
soph- 
Bopori- 
spad- 
spectro- 
spher- ) 
sphero- j" 
spin- \ 
spini- r 
spirit- ) 
spiritu- f 
spiro- 

splanohn- 
•planohno- 

spor 

sporid- " 

sporo- 

staphyl 

staphylo- 

star- 

stear-) 

steat- r 

steneo- 

(for steno-) 

stentor 

stentoro- 

step- 

stereo- 

stetho- 

stom- ) 

stoma- i 

strati- 

strato- 

straw- 

stulti- 

snb- 

snb 

sabter- 

suc- 



} 



ExAMPi^es. 

Lat. aignwm gexL aigM, a sign . . sigii'*!, signi-fy 

Lat. sUex gen. tUicia, flint .. sOio-ate, sUld-calQpireow 

)Lat. simplex gen. aimflidat 

) simple .. sUnpIi-fy, simi^ici-ty 

Lat. sine, without sin-cere, sine-cure 

Through the French .. .. io-jonzn 

Lat. aocius g. aodA, a companion sod-al, sodo-logj 

Lat. sol, the sun sol-ar, aol-stice 

Lat. 8olu8 gen. aolit alone . . soli-loqi^y, 8olirj>ed 

Lat. 8oUdu8f whole, solid .. solid-ungulous 

Lat. somnum gm. somni, sle^. . somn-ambuUst, somni-lerous 

Lajb. 8(mu8 gen. soni, a sound . . soni-ferons 

Lat. ioriAis, a sound . . . . sono-meter 

Lat. aoiMT gen. wnSHs, noise .. sonor-ous, sonori-4c 

Gk. sophos, wise soph-ist, soph-ism 

Lat. 8opor gen. soporis, deep . . sopori^flc 

Lat. species, appearance, species speci-al, sped-fy , 

Lat. spectrum, a spectrum . . spectro-scope, 8i>ectro-log7 

Gk. sphaira g. sphairds, a sphere i pher-los, sphero>meter 

Lat. spina gen. spinas a thorn. . spin-ose, spini-ferous 



Lat. S2nr{tu<, spirit 
Lat spiro, I breathe 
\ Gk. splanchnon, the viscera . . 
Gk. «poro«, a spore 
Gk. sporos g. ^paridos, a «(pore.. 

I Gk. staphOU, a bunch of grapes 
Span, estri, the right-hand side. . 
Gk. stear gen. steatos, suet .. 

I* Gk. stefnos, thin, small 

) Gk. stent&r gen. stent&rds, a 

) Stentor 

Eng. steop, orphan, bereft 

Gk. stereos, solid 

Gk. stethos, the breast, the chest 

Gk. stomOt the mouth . . 

Lat. stratum gen. strati, a layer 

Gk. stratas, an army 

Eng. streaw, straggling . . 

Lat. sttMtu gen. stuUi, foolish, 
a fool 

Lat. sub, under, inferior 

(Added to Teutorvie toords as : 

(in Chem.) the article named 
inferior to the base 

Lat. suhter, underneath, under- 
hand 

Lat sue- for sub (before -e) 



spirit-less, qpiritu-al 

spiro-meter 

splanchn-ic, splanohno-logy 

spor-«le 

sporid-ium, sporo-carp 

staphyl-oma, s^aphylo-raphj 

atar'board 

1 tear-ine, 8t6at4te 

steneo-saums, sleno-graphy 

stentor-ian, stentoro-jdionic 
step.-son, step-mother 
stereo-type, stereo-scope 
stetho-scope, stetho-meter 



stom-ate, stoma-iK)d 

strati-fy, strati-form 

strato-cracy 

straw-berry 

stulti-fy 

sub-side, sub-editor 

sub-writer, snb-wodcer) 

sub-carburet 

snbjber-fuge 
suo-ceed, suc-cumb 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8, 



ZZZIX 



gaf- 

im- 

aolpli' ) 

solpho-f 

sum- 

tompta- 

sup- 

snper- 

sur- 

siir- (for 

€ir-) 

sva- 

txu- 



Lat. ttnf- tar mb (before -/) 
Lat. tuf' for <ud (one exftmple) 

Lat. mi, oneself 

lAt. nUphwr gen. nUph&ris, 
snlphnr . . m^h-orei, nilpho-vinlo 



1 



som-mon 
Bomptn-aiy 
sup-pose, sap-port 
snper-abonnd, si^er-oaigo 
snr-base, sor-moont 

sor-round 

snr-render, snr-rogf te 
sor^pUce, sur-face 
8as4>ect, SOS-tain 
{Only one example qf each, the 

other two are sus^septible and 8n[s]-spect 

gwnrd- £ng. noord, a swcurd .. .. sword-play, sword-stick 
sycor Gk. cttJbo«, a flg .. .. -.. syco-more, syco-phant 
syl-{ 6k. 8iU- for eun, with . . . . syl-logism 

Gk. eum- for *un (before -b, -m, -p) sym-metry, sym-pathy 



sym 
i^n' 

»y 

tanto- 
tazi 
tax- 
taxo- 
techn- I 
techno- f 
tel-, tele- 
teleo- 
^mpot- 
tenaci- 
tenebr 
ter- 



1 



tergi- 
terr- 
terri 
terri- (for 

teTTOTt-j 

teeti- 

tetr- j 

tetra-l 

thaoma- 

thanmat- 

thec- 1 

theca-) 

the-, theo- 

therm- ) 

thermo- f 

thorough 

thuri- 

Thurs- 

to- 

Tom- 

tom- 



ExAMPun. 
8uf-fer, suf-flz 
sug-gest 
Bui-dde 



Lat. 8um- tot tub (before -m) 
Lat. eumptus, eaqranse . . 
Lat. tup^ for $ub (before -p) . • 
Lat. ntper, over, above, extra .. 
Fr.ewr- (Lat. ntper), over 

Lat. cireum, around, about 

Lat. tur- for tud (before -r) 
Lat. mir- for aujMr, over, beyond 
Lat. «tM-for<ud(before-€, -s, -p, -t) 



Gk. tun, with 

Gk. tun (before -e, -z) 

Gk. to auto, the samd ' .. 

Gk. ioxu, arrangement .. 

Lat. taxus gen. taxi, a yew-tree 



syn-onym, syn-opsis 
sy-stole, sy-zygy 
tauto-lbgy, tauto-phony 
taxi-denny 
tax-ite 



Gk. taxia g. taxeds, classification taxo-nomy 



techn-lc, techno-logy 

tel-erpeton, tele-scope 
teleo-saurus, teleo-l(^7 
tempor-al, tempor-ise 
tenaci-ous 
tenebr-ous 



Gk. tec^n^, art 

Gk. tele, far distant 
Gk.UflSd8, perfect, the end 
Lat tempus gen. temp&rie, time 
Lat tenax gen. teTMcie, adhesive 
laX.tenebras, darkness . . 
Lat. ter (in Chem.), three atoms of the substance named, gene- 
rally refers to the negative constituent ter-acetate [of lead] 
(" Ter-acetate of lead = 3 atoms of acetic add to 1 oxide of lead 
" Tiis-acetate of lead = 1 atom of acetic acid to 3 oxide of lead) 
Lat. tergum gen. tergi, the back teigi^versation, tergi-ferous 

Lat. terra gen. terroi, earth . . terr-aqueous, terri-genous 

I Lat. terror gen. terroris, terror terri-fjr, terri-ble 
Lat 



testis, a witness . . 

Gk. tetra, four 

) Gk. thauma gen. thaumdtoe, 
) a marvel 

Gk. ikekS, a sheath 

Gk. theos, god the-ist, theo-logy 

Gk. (/iemuM, heat therm-al, thermo-meter 



testi-fy, testi-mony 
tetr-arch, tetra-gon 

thauma-trope, thaumat-urgus 
thec-odont, theca-phore 



Eng. thuruh, through .. 

Lat. thvs g. thuris, frankincense 

Eng. Ttior g. Thores, a Scand. god 

Eng. adverbial prefix 

A gender word (male) .... 

big, awkward tom-toe, tom-fool 

^^ I Gk. tosrffctf »> polsoo ,, .. toz-odon, toxico-losy 



thorough-fare, thorough-bred 
thuri-fer, thuri-ble 
Thurs-day 
to-day, to-morrow 
Tom-cat, tom-tit 



PREFIXES AND PREN0UN8. 



tracheli- 



} 



trach- 

tracheo 

trade- 

tra- 

traf- 

trag- 

tran- 

trans- 

tres- 

tri 



trigono- 

tri-, teiph- 

tris 

torn- 

tnr 

twi 

Udo- (Jor 
huao-) 
xdtra- 
nmbr- 
nn 
nn-, uni 
nnder- 
and-al- 
ungu- ) 
imgoi-f 
nni- 
up- 

Qgque- 

ura- 

ut-, utt- 

nxoii- 



EXAMPLKS. 

Ok. traehUds, the neck or throat tracheli-pod 
("Tracheli-poda" ought to be trachelo-poda) 

6k. traeheiOf the wind-pipe .. trach-itis, tracheo-tomy 

Eng. tredde, a beat, a tread .. trade-wind 

Lat. trc^- for troma, acrosn .. tra-montane, tra<liice 

Lat. t/nnf' for trans (before -/) . . traf-fic 

Ok. irago$, a goat trag-edy (for irag-ody) 

Lat. iran- for trans (before -«) .. tran-scribe, tran-sept 
Lat. trans, across, elsewhere .. trans-fer, trans-plant 
Romance (Lat. tran^ .. .. tres-pass 
Gk. treiSt three (in Chem.), it denotes three atoms. It gene- 
rally refers to the positive constitntent -tri8-«cetate 
(" Tris-acetate of lead '* = 1 atom of acetic acid to 3 oxide of lead 
" Ter-acetate of lead " = 8 atoms of acetic acid to 1 oxide of lead) 
Ok. trigdndn, a triangle .. •• trigono-metry, -carpon 
6k. treif, three trl-phylloos, toiph-thong 



Gk. treis, thrice 
Eng. tyrnlan}, to tnru' .. 
Eng. (ur, ronnd .. •• 
Eng. tw4on, donbtfnl •• 
Gk. tupos, type .. »« 

I Gk. hvdor, water •• 

Lat. vXirat beyond .. 
Lat. umbra, a shadow .. 
Eng. un-, not, back 
Lat. unus gen. unitu, one 
Eng. under, beneath, inferior 
Lat. wnd-uia, unda, a wave 

Lat. unguis, a nail, a hoof 



•• 



tris-agion, tris-megistns 

torn-stile, torn-coat 

tor-nip 

twi-light 

typ-ic, typo-graphy 

odo-meter (for hydo-meter) 

xdtra-montane, oltra-iadical 
ombr-age, ombr-ella 
on-troe, on-wind 
on-animoos, oni-com 
onder-groond, -fiecretaiy 
ondol-ate 



•• ongo-al, ongoi-form 

Lat. unus gen. unlus, one .. oni-form, oni-son 

Eng. up, mgh, over . . op-lands, op-set 

(Prefixed to nouns, verbs, adjedives, and adverbs.) 

Lrish uisge, water osqoe-baogh 

Lat. usus, ose oso-froct, oso-al 

Eng. au, oot ot-most, ott-er 

Lat uxor gen. uxoris, spoose •• ozozi-oos 



^ 



SUFFIXES AKD TERMINATIONS. 



(By permisHon from Dr. Brewer** " Prefixes and &uffiaDU.**) 



The pftrt ixL brackets [] h either the ytncolam of a rafflx or an accidental 
part of the termination. It is displayed in this list for three reasons : (1) be- 
came tiM general reader will more easily find the termination he seeks 
for by having it written out in full ; (2) because it very often aifects the 
suffix with "a new shade of meaning : ** thus -[<r]eM is more than a mere 
female like -u» (in "lion-ess "X u the i/r denotes that the word is not only 
a /emole but a femait agent : and (3) it guides to a declension, conjugation, 
and sometimes even to a language. 



-[a]ble 



Romance 
Lat. 

Lat. habilia; 
Eng. oXmX 



Koun, denotes a woman 
Koun, (in Bot,) a genus 

Adj., able to be, fit to be 



donn-a, snltan-a 
scabios-a, achills»-a 

eat-[a]ble, cnlp-[a]ble 



(Tha "a," in words from the Lai., denotes that the verb to which this 
suffix is joined is of the frst eonj., Imi the rule is very loosely observed. 
Verbs of oQur conj. take ** -tble " instead. English verbs take only ** -aJbU. "> 



Lat -{<4c-iis; ) AdjeotiTal Koun, pos- 

6k. -Ca]Jb-os f sessed of .. 
Lat -[a^» gen \ 

■Hs, -ia]c-ius, VKonn, made of, pro- 

'iia,-€ia,-€ius ) duced from.. 
Lat -{akeos . . Koun, (in £ot. ) an order 
Lat '^OL^oeva . . Adj., from a ooncrete ) 

noun . . . . j 

Lat -oeeus; ItaL 

-dceto . . Noun 

Lat [a>B g. -cu Adj., from an absfyntct 

noun . . 
Lat •{aJtry>s-ns, Adj., from an abstract 

\acx^-^i» . . noun 

Lat -iayc-itas . . Abstract noun* 
Lat. -{ayc-ul-um Houn, diminutive .. 
Lat -{ac]I-um.. lToun,instrument,place 
Lat -[a]^-ta, 

-{a]e4a 
Gk. -{a]Ua; Lat 

•tia, -^ia 

("-ey" denotes mnJb, .oj^m, jwrisdidtiony bui "-sy*' 
psky* apostasy, minatrel-sy.) 



-Ia]c 
-Cajoe 

-{a]ce8B 
-[ajceous 

-£a]ehe 

-{aldous 

•{aeijoas 

-lajc-ity 
-Ia)o-le 
-(aehle 
-{a]c-y 

-{•ley 



Abstract noon* 
Koun, oflBlce, rank 



demoni-[a]e 

tenKalce, men-[a]ce 
amaranth-[a]ce» 
sapon-[a]ceous, aigil- 
fajceous 

moust-[a]che 

aud-Ca]cioQs, ten- 

[a]cious 
gT[acil-ous, sp[aci>ous 
aud[a]o-ity, teQ[a]c-ity 
tabem-[a]c-le 
recept-[ac]le, orfacjle 

fall-{a]c-y, effic-[a]c-y 

cur-{a]cy, pap-[a]ey 
condition, the arts: <u 



are those which are formed from adjectiyes: as 

flilaJHiy from "wital,*' whiU^ness from "white," audacity from "audax" 
IMIL anuiancg from ''constant" 



xlii 



SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS. 



-ad 

-ade 

-ade 

-[a]dffi 

-age 

-age 



Gk. -<u g. -adroa 



Noon, the concrete of 
an idea 



Lat. 



mon-ad 

lemon-ade, palia-ade 

cannon-ade 

8epHa]d» 

broker-age, marri-age 

assembl-age, vint-age 
(Added aUo to TeuiorUc vu^ns: as "till-age," ** cott-age,*' ** "bond-age") 



Fr. -ade; 
-cUua .. 
Fr. -ade; Lat. 
Gk. -[ai]de8 



Konn, concocted, made 

Verb, to nse, to employ 

Venn, a family, a group 

Lat. agere, to do Kotm, a trade, a thing 

done 

Ft. -age., .. Noun, collective, sea- 
son of 



-age 
-[aig]n 

-[ai]n 

-[ai]n 

-Ta]l 

-[a]l 

-ol 

-[a]l-ity 

-ta]n 

-an 

-ana 

-[a]nce 






Fr. -age 

Lat. thro' the 

Fr. [agyne 
Lat. -[ajrMM, 

-{ayn-is 
Lat. thro' the 

Fr. [ag}ne .. 
Lat -[a]l-i8 . . 
Lat. -[a]^tw .. 
Lat. -all-u8y um 
Lat. -[a]l-ita8 . . 
Lat. -{a]n-ui8 .. 
Lat. -an-va 
Lat. -ana 

Lat. -[a^ gen. 
-nUe, -[ajntia 



Noun, condition, duty 

Koun, characterised . . 
Noun, office, rank (good 
or bad) 

Noun, characterised . . 
Adj. from a noun 
Adjectival noun 

Noun 

Abitraot noun, state. . 
Adj., belonging to .. 
Adjectival noun 
Noim (plu.), things per- 
taining to . . 

) Verbal noun, act of, 

) state of . . 



vassal-age, hom-age 

camp-[aig>i 

capt-[ai]n, vill-[aQn 

mount-[ai]n 

vit [a]l, music-fall 

geher-[a]l, crin]in-[a]l 

met-al 

vit-[a]l-ity 

veter-[a]n, public-{a]n 

Bom-an, equestri-an 

Johnsoni-ana 

viglHa]nc6 



(Also jovfUd to TeiUonic toorde: as "forhear-ancey** "hvndeir-ane€.'*J 
-[a]n-cy 



-[a]nd 
-[a]ne 
-[a]nt 

-[a]nt 
-ar 

-[a]r 

-ard 

-art 

-[a]ry 

-[a]ry 

-[a]ry 
-[a]sm 

-ass 
-astar 
-aster 
-[a]te 
-[a]te 

-ate 



■la]te 

-[a]te 

-[a]te 

■la]t-ic 



} 



Lat. 'lajns, 

-[a}ntia 
Lat. -iajnd-ti8 . . 
Lat. -\a}nu8 . . 
Lat. -{a]n8 gen. 

-nt-is 



Abstract noun, state ) 
of .. .. i 

Noun, to be done 
Adj., belonging to . . 



Participial noun, i^nt 
Lat. -ialnst &c Participial noun, state 
Norse -arer; Lat. 

Noun, agent 



[a]r-ii« 
Lat. -[a]r-t» . . 
Eng. hard 
Eng. hard 
Lat. -[a]ri-t« .. 
Lat. -[ajri-iun.. 

Lat. -[a]ri-t*s . . 
Gk. -la}sm-09 .. 
Fr. -asse 
Fr. -(utre 
Gk. -a^tSr^ a star 
Lat. -{a]t-tis . . 
Lat. -ia]t-u8 .. 
Lat-oi-us 



Lat i-[a]<rus .. 

Lat. •ra]^^ies . . 
Lat. -[a]t-or, -tu 
Lat. -[a]«-ic-iM 



Adj., pertaining to .. 

Noun, one of a class . . 

Noun, one of a class . . 

Noun, one of a craft . . 

Neun, a d6pdt, adap- ) 
ted or set apart for ) 

Adj., relating to 

Neun, state 

Noun, made of 

Noun, in depreciation 

Neun, star-struck 

Noun, office .. 

Verbal noun . . 

Noun rin Chem) denotes 
a salt formed by the 
combination of an 
acid in -ie with a base 

A4j>v inclined to, fa- 
voured by . . 

Vetb, to energise 

Noun, agent . . 

A4j< or Adjectival noon 



pU- 



mendic-[a]n-cy, 

[a]n-cy 
muitiplic-[a]nd 
hum-[a]ne 

infonn-[a]nt 
verd-La]nt 



begg-ar, registr-[a]r 
vmg-[a;h^ 

drunk-ard, duU-ard 
bragg-art, sweet-heart 
lapid-[a]ry, statu-[a]r7 
libr-[a]ry, gran-[a]]^, 
sanctQ-[a]ry, sal-CaJry 
liter-[a}ry, second-fajry 
enthusi-[a]sm, pleon- 
cuir-ass, (cuir, leather) 
poet-aster 
dis-aster 

magistr-[a]te, advoc- 
postul-[a]te 

nitr-ate of soda, i.e., 
. nitric acid combined 

with soda [the base] 
fortun-[a]te, passion- 

[a]te 
anim-[a]te, flnotti-[a]te 
car-[a]te, deleg-[a]te 
lun-Ca]t-ic« aqu-[ali4o 



SUFFIXi:^ AND TERMINATIONS, 



zlilf 



-ber 

-ble 

-ble 

-ble 

-b<Nid 

-bnle 

-{br]ain 

-bund 

■c 

-c 

-{c> 

-ce 

-cede) 

-oeed r 

-oeUi 

-cello 
■Cc]h 
-dure 

-chre 

-cle 

cle 

-cule 

-cnltim 

-Ccjnnd 

-[c]y 



Sanskrit vatwx, 
time . . . . 
fioin. -|){0 •. 
Lai habiliM .. 
Lst. -du{-ttm .. 
IaL -btmd^fu . . 
Lat. -InU-um .. 
Lat. -[ftrjuwi .. 
Lat. -bund^ua .. 
Lat. -C-1M 
Lat -c-tu 



Lat. -[e]a, -[c}ta 
Lat -ei-a, -ti-a 

Lat ecdo, to go Verb, to go 

ItaL-ceUi;Lat 



Venn, time or month 

oftiiejrear .. 
VavB, midtipUcatiTe 
A4J.,fitfor, full of .. 
Koan, instmment .. 
Oenmdial noon 
Koun, d^pOt .. 
Kean, inatmment .. 
Oenmdial noun 

Adi 

AdjeotiTal noon 
Voun, denotingagemu 
Abttraetneiu.. 



ItaL -cello 

Eng. 

Ft. -en; Lat 

er-um 
6k. chroa 
Lat -cul-ui .. 
Lat -cul-um .. 
Lat -cu^-um .. 
Lat -cuZum . . 
Lat -{cyund-Ms 
Vt. -[c}ie/ Lat 

-ti-a .. 
Lat -ti-o, -H^; 

Gk. -ibi-a . . 



VovB, dim. 
Hoon, dim. 
A4jeetival noon, Adj. 
Noun, d^pOt, ingtru- 

ment 

Koun, colonr of . . . . 

Koon, dim. 

Noun, dim. instrument 

Konn, dim 

Noun, dim. 

Adj., endowed with .. 

Abatraot noun.. 



-den 
-dom 



Noon, oflBlce, state, 
Jurisdiction.. 

(For different of -cy and -sy, 8a page xU.) 

Eng. -de, -[e](2e, Past tense of weak 

-io}d€ . . . . verbs 

Eng. den for In names of places, a 
denu .. .. valley 

Eng. -ddm . . Noun, rule, province 



Oeto-ber, Deoem-ber 
dou-ble, tre-ble 
hum-ble. fee-Ue 
sta-ble, mandi-ble 
vaga-bond 

vesti-bule (rohe-d6p6t) 
candela-[br]um 
mori-bund 
frant(i]-c, mst[i>c 
crit(i>c, mania-c 
angell-[c]a, laotu-[c]a 
justi-ce, mali-ce 

pre-cede, pro-ceed 

vermi-celU 

violon-ceUo 
Scot-[c]h, Dut-[o]h 

sepul-chre 
o-chre fegg-coVowr) 
canti-cle, mus-de 
tenta-de, ventri-de 
corpus-cule 
animal-culom 
Jo-[c]und 

ezcellen-rc]sr, oon- 
stan-[c]7 



magistra-cy, cnra-cy 



hear-d, fle-d 



Tenter-den 
king-dom, wis-dom 



^This suffix is also ttsedvyith Romance vx>rd8: as " duke-dom" martyr-dom." ) 



-{djor 

-[d]ore 

-{djoor 

-e 



Span. -[d]or 
Span. -[d]or 
Fr. -i(}pir 

Lat -o ., 



Houn, agent, instrum. 
Noun, agent . . 
Noun, instrument 
Verb 



corri-[d]or fa runner J 
mata-[d]ore 
battle-[d]oor 
produc-e, divid-e 



f Very often it is added merely to lengthen the preceding vowel : as cloth, clothe.) 



-[e]«© 

-[ea]n 

-Ce]d 

-[e]d 



Gk. -C6]ai 

Lat -[ajn-eus . . 

Eng. -de, -[c]d«, 

-[olds . . 
Eng. -d, -[e]d, 

-[o}d .. 



Noun, a sub-genus . . 
Adj. or Adjectival noun 
Past tense of weak 

verbs . . . . . . ' . . 

Past part, of weak 

verbs 



amygdal-[e]8e 
Mediterran-[ea]n 

leam-ed, lov-ed 

leam-ed, lov-ed 



(Also added to nouns: as "hom-ed" '*vnng-ed," "foot-ed."J 



•ed 



-ee 



Eng. 
Pr. 4, -4e 



Added to all verbs not 
from native words 

Noun, object of some 
action 



syllabl-ed (Gk.) 
expand-ed (Lat.) 



legat-ee, mortgag-ee 
(Chiefly used in legal phraseology, the correspsnding active noun, or that 
which is the subject of the action being -or: as" mortgag-or,*^ " legat-or."j 

. -. In some few words this suffix is added to nouns of an active charac- 
ter: as "devot-ee," *'grand-ee," "repart-ee," "absent-ee." 



^liv 



SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS, 



-[ee 
-[e 
-[e 
-[e 



1 
1 
1 
1 
-el 



Lat. -[e\l-i8 
Eng. -I, -[e]l . . 
Lat. thro' the Fr. 
Lat. -[e]2-a, -us 
Fr. -eav, or -elU 



Adj., belonging to 
Koun, instrument 
Noun, instrument 
Noun, dim. 
Noun, dim. 



genH^e]! 
8hov-[e]l, hov-[e]l 
mod-[ell 

lib-te]l, quarr-[e]l 
tumbr-el, parc-el 



(The final -el of many other words is only a part of the termination : 
thus in ** gospel" it is -spel, in "hydromel" it is -mel, in ** rebel" it is 
hell-^m, in " excel " it is cell-o, in " dispel " it is jpell-o, in "refel " faXIrO^ &c 



-[eln 


Lat. -[e]n-iM .. 


-en 


Eng. -aw, -en .. 


-en 


Eng. -en 


-en 


Eng. -en 


-en 


Eng. -en .. 


-en 


Eng. -en 


-[e]n 


Fr. -[i]n, -[e]n7W 


-[eig]n 


Lat. -[a]rirt« .. 


-[eigln 


Lat. -[a]7t-us . . 


-[eo]n 


Fr. -ieoln, -Iw^n 


-[eo]n 


Fr. -[o)» 


-[e]nco 


Lat. -{eynt-ia; 




Fr. -[e]nce . . 


-[e]ncy 


Lat. •{e'\nt-ia ; 




Fr. -[e\nc6 .. 


-[e]nd 


Lat. -[ejnd-tM.. 


-[ejndous 


Lat. -[e]ndu8 . . 


-[e]nsis 


Lat. -[«]7ifiM . . 


-[e]nt 


Lat. -ie\ns gen. 




-cutis.. 


-er 


Eng. -or, -ra .. 


-er 


Eng. -6re 


-[e]r 


Lat. -[i]r, -[e]r.. 


-[e]r 


Fr. -[eiijr 


-lee]r 


Lat. -[a]r-iit» .. 


-erel 


Fr. -erelU, -erel. 


-em 


Eng. -cm .. 


-[e]m 


Lat. -[e]m-iM, 




-[^t]r7^-1t» 


-[e]ry 


Lat. -[e]ri-a. 




-[a}ri-a 


-[e]ry 


Lat. -[ejri-a, ) 
-[d]Ti-a j 




-ea 


Eng. -a«, later -es 


-es 


Eng. -e</i, later ) 
-ea .. .. f 




-es' 


Eng. -es.. 



Noun, one of a class . . 
Plural of certain nouns 
Gender-noun, female 
Adj., made of . . 
Verb, to make 
P. p. of strong verbs 

Noun 

Adjectival novn 

Adjective . . 

Noim, instrument .. 
Noun, instrument .. 

Noun, result, exhibit 

Noun, result, exhibit 
Adj., to be,, to be done 
Adj., fit to produce . » 
Noun, instrument . . 

Participial noun . . 
Comparative d^ree . . 
Noun, agent . . 
Noun, agent .. 
Noun, agent . . 
Noun, occupation,trade 
Noim, agent, dim. . . 
Adj . , in the direction of 

Noun, place .. 

Noim, d€pOt, workshop 
Noun, an art, result of 

art 

PliL of nouns in cA 

(soft), sh, 8,X 
S sing. pres. Ind. of v. 

in ch (sof tX sh, s, X . 
Possessive plu. of > 

nouns in -es.. j 



ali-[e]n 
ox-en 

vix-en fa she-fox) 
wood-en, gold-en 
black-en, thick-en 
writt-en, shak-en 
gard-[e]n, warr-[e]n 
8over-[eig]n (super- 

an\us\) 
for-[eigln (Lat. foris) 
haberg-[eo]n, gall-[eo]i» 
trunch-[eo]n, escutch- 

pati-[e]nce, pre»-[e]nc& 

dec-[e]ncy, cxcel-te]ncy 
rever-[e]nd, divid-[e]nd 
trem-Le]ndous, stup- 
amanu-[e]nsi8 

stud-[e]nt, accid-[e]nt 
near-er, narrow-er 
learn-er, robb-er 
mast-[e]r, defend-[e]r 
labour-[elr, devln-[e]r 
mountain-Lee]r, engin- 
cock-erel, dott-erel 
south-em, north-em 

cav-[e]m, tav-[e]m 

rook-[e>y, 8mith-[e]r7 

cook-[elry, 8cen-[e]ry 
) church-es, flsh-es^ 

Sg^s-es, box-es 
reach-es, wash-es, 
pass-es, fix-es 
church-es', fish-es', 
fox-es' 



(The sign arose from a blunder of old gramma'pians, wfio supposed the 
possessive case to consist of "his,*' and we still have in the Prayer Book 
"for Christ his sake" i.e. ChrisVs sake, or rather Christes sake.) 



-[e]8ce 
-[elsoence 
-[eJBoency 



Eng. .. .. Poss. of proper names 

in -ses, -xes 

Lat. -[e]8C-o .. Verb, inceptive (-sc in- 
ceptive) 

Lat. -[e]8eeat-ia Noun, inceptive, incip- 
ient state 

Lat. •ie]scent-ia Noun, inceptive, ad- 
vanced state 



) Moses^ sake, Xerxes* 
) army 

eflferv-[el8ce, cottl-[e]8C6 

}conval-[e]scenoe» 
putr-[e]soence 

adol-[e]sGen<jy 



Affixes and terminations. 



xlv 



■ie^Bcent 



-ese 



-es8 



Lat. 'ie]9cen8 

gen. -entia 

Fr,-[i]», -[afM, 

Fr. -esse; Lat., 
Gk. -[i]«»-a 



A4)*« inceptlTe, finished 
state 

Adjectival noun, denot- 
uig a people ; Adj. 

}Koun, denoting a fe- 
male 



}conTal-[e>cent, 
putr-[ejscent 
) Chin-ese, Malt-ese, 
I Japan-ese 

count-ess, lion-ess 

^This suffia i» restricted to females of the human family and some few 
qtMdn^peds.J 

A4j., like, of the char- 
acter of 

Ad} .from concrete nouns 

Noun, one of a class . . 

Noun, a small recept- 
acle or instrument . 

(Added to other nouns besides those from the French: 
*'vnck-et,'* *'thick-et."J 

-[e]fce|Lat -[e]^4M .. Past partioipl* .. lobsol-ete, eff-ete 

The words with this ending are all compounds : thus " com-plete " 
and "ro-plete" (Lat. v. pUo), "con-crete** (Lat. v. eresco), "de-lete^ (Lat. 
V. too), "ef-fete*'(Lat.yat-twX "ob-solete" (Lat. v. wieo), 
(Lat. V. eemo). 

KonB m^ 



-esque 

-eons 
-et 
-et 



Fr. "esque 

Lat. -eus 

Lat -et-uSf -et-a 

Fr. -et, -ette .. 



I pictnr-esque, Arab- 

} esque 

calcar-eous (see -ious) 
proph-et, dig-et 

budg-et, buff-et, lanc-et 
as *'dos-et,'* 



and '*se-orete' 



-ey 

-ey 
-ey 



Fr. -^ .. 

Ft. -S •• 

Fr. -[<]«.. 
Fr. -aye 
Vt.-U .. 



•• 



Noon 
Noun 
Noun 
Noun 



all-ey, chimn-ey. Journ- 
ey, vall-ey, voll-ey 
medi-ey (Fr. me«^ 
pull-ey (Fr. poulie) 
abb-ey (Fr. (ibbaye) 
paral-ey (Fr. persil) 



("Barley" is bar-ley, Welsh bora tty«[ian], bread-plants.) 



-ey Fr. -er .. •• verb and verbal noun parl-ey (Fr. jxirler) 
-ey Eng. -i(jr •• Noun .. .. hon-ej (hunig) 

-ey EDg.-ig .. A4j.i after ay- .. ciay-ey, sky-ey 

In **jock^" and "monkey** the-eyis diminutive. See pp. 644 and 676. 
" Purvey" is Fr. pourvoir; "Obey," Fr. obier; "SurvejP' and "Convey," 
Lat. fjefe[o]. 

-fast I Eng. -faut •. Noun, effectually, en- 1 

I tirely I stead-fast, shame-faced 

("Shamefaced** is a corruption ofshomufoest or sham^astj 

Lat. 'fac-ttu .j. Adj., made 

Eng./eald .. Afl^., repeated, multi- 
plied . . . . 

Lat form-iea. Noun, (in Chem.) the 
an ant •• ter-oxide of a hydro- 
carbon. So called 
from its resemblance 
to formic add 

Eng. -full or -fvZ Ad j . , having much . . 

Lat. fado, fids Verb, to make, to be- 
come 



-fie 
-fold 

-form 



•fnl 

(y 



.-gen 

-head 

-hood 
-ia 



Gk.geno, to pro- 
duce .. .. 
Eng. -hdd .. 



Noun (in Chem.) a gas 
Noun, person, state, 
condition . . 
Eng. -hdd •• Noun, „ ,. 
Lat -ia.. .. Noun, things belong- 
ing to 
Lat -ia; Gk. -ia Noun, (in Bot.) an or- 
der or genus ; (in 
J^ooLXadassororder 



beati-flc, calori-fic 
two-fold, four-fold 



Chloro-form the ter- 
oxide of formyle 
(■=.form'M) 

hate-ful, hope-ful 



versi-fy, testi-fy 

oxy-gen, nitro-gen 

God-head 
boy-hood, girl-hood 

regal-la, insign-ia 

monog3m-la, 
mammal-ia, reptil-ia 



xlvi 



SUFFIXJS8 AND TERMINATIOm. 



-iftd 
-[i]ble 



n-iad, Dtmc-iad 
tang-[i]ble, 8^ns-[i]ble 



6k. -iad-08 . . Noon, patrohymlo 
Lat. hdbUia . . Adj., able, fit to 

(8€mit as -aible, but added to Lat. words ilot of the Itt eonjj 

-[i]c I Lat. -{ijiyua . . Adj., belonging to . • I civ-ic, pflUdf-lc 
-{i]o I Ok. -i/e^«, -ik-a Houn, a science .. | mos-lc, log-ic 

(Bxc^ in the 5 loords (arithmetic, logic, magic, music, rhetoric, derived 
from the French) this termination is always plural.) 

Gk. •'ik-os; Lat. Adj., of the nature of, 

-ie-iM.. .k like 

Gk. -ik-08 .. Adj., (in Path.) in an 

excited state 



-[i]c 
-[i]c 



angel-ic, basalt-ic 



titan-ic, chron-ic 



{If not excited, tike termination is -oid or -ode : <m titanoid of tkanode.) 



-[i]c 



Gk.-iJk-M 



Adj., (in Chem.) de- 
notes an acid con- 
taining a maximum 
of oxygeii . . 

(If it contains less than the maximum the term, is -ous : as nitrous, d;e.J 

astronomical, qiher- 



nitr-io, oarbon-le 



-ical 
-ically 

-[i]ce 

-[ilde 
-il}cian 

-ics 

-diet 
-id 
-id 
-id 



-idiB 

-idal 
-ide 



-ide 



-ides 

idion 

-ie 

-ier 

-iff 

-Iflf 

-im 
-in 

-Wn I 



Lat. 'iml-is . . 
Lat. -icdl-is with 

-{y 
Lat. -[t]c-ia, 

-[t]<ia.. .. 
Lat. -l%}eulum., 
Lat. -dan with 

Gk. -ik-os .. 
Qk.-ik-a 



Adj., pertaining to 
Adverb .. 



Abstract noun.. 

Hoiin, dim 

Koun, one skilled in a 

dC16i1C6 • • • • 

Noun, denoting a 
science 

Verbal noun . . 

Noun, outcome, result 

_ Noun, patronTinlo . . 

Gk. eidros, like Houn (in Science), with 

tat vinculun^ and 
the two combined 
into a triphthong . . 

Noun, patronymic, a 
family 

Adj., of the nature of 
Gk. eid-os, like Noun, (in 07^m.)a non- 
acid combination of 
oxygen .. *. 
Gk. eid-os, like Noun, (in Chem.) the 

more negative of two 
elements combined 

Noun, patronymic . . 

Noun, one's own 

Noun, dim 

}Noun, characterises 
an agent . . 

employed 



Lat. dict-um 
Lat. -id-US 
Gk. 4d6s 



G^.-id6s 
Lat. -idal-is 



Ql^-idgs 
Gk. idion 
S<^tch -is 
Ft. -ier; Lat, 
-eri/us, -aHu», 
Fr. -^Z"; Lat. -itnM Noxm, one 
_ officially 
Eng. -ge-rifa .. 
Lat. -W^-fa. 1 

Lat. -[i]^4s 



Heb. -im, plural 
Ohaldee -in, plu. 
Lat. -fijn-tM .. 



Noun, a reeve, a steward 

Adj., from a substan- 
tive stem 

Adj., from a substaur 
tive stem .. 

Noun, plwral .. .t 

Noun, pluraX . . 

Noun 



iron-ically, mus-lcally 

avar-ice, mal-ice 
patt-[i]cle, art-[ilcle 
polit-ic-ian, arithmet- 
ic-ian 

mathemat-lcs, stat-ics 
inter-dict, ver-iUct 
ac-id, luc-id 
J5ne-id, carot-id 



spher-o-ld = tfef.roid 
alkal-o-id = al'.ka.loid 

can-MsB, fprmic-idsB 
pyram-ldid 



chlor-ide, iod-ide 

ox-ide of iron 
chlor-ide of sodium 
Atlant-ides, Oaryat-idas 
enchir-idion 
bird-ie, dogg-ie 

halberd-ier, brigad-ier 

plaint-iflf 
shto-iff, baU-ifr 

civ-[i]l 

gent-(l]le, host-[i]le 
cherub-im, sen^h-lm 
cherub-in, seraph-in 
ru-[i]n, bas-tijn 



SUFFIXm AND TERMINATIOm. 



zlvfi 



-in 

-ina 
-ine 

-ine 

-ln« 
-ine 

•tag 



lAt. •ilMW 

Bom. -ina .. 
Lai -An-ua 

Lftt. -imrMa 

Rem. -ifM 
Ok. in-i«, an) 
offspring ) 
Eng. -ing .. 



Vovm^ (in Ckem.) a 

simple substance . . 
youn,denotes a woman 
Konn, belonging to a 

group 
Noun, belonging to, of 

the nature of 
Noan,denotesawoman 
Vfon; (in Clhem.) ah ) 

element . . S 
VoQn, ion of, deseelid- 

ant of 
Participial noon 
Geruna 



-ing Bng. -wng 

-ing Eng. -igmde 

-Ing Eng. -tndi, -inda Pres. part 
-[i]on Lat.-[i]o,g.-oni«. 

Fr. [-Ion . . Kwm, act of, ona of. . 
-[i]on Lat.-[t]o,g. -ioni« Verbal noun . . 
-Q]or Lat. ^i]or .. Adj., comparative deg. 

(The suffix -CT is added to the first case of the positire which ends in -t : 
thus in tupenu (high) it is added to the gen., but in brevi» to the dat.) 



amid-in 
esar-ina 

feline 

marline, sal-ine 
hero-ine, landcnraT-ine 

chlor-ine, iod-ine 



Athel-hur 

the preach-ing [of John] 
the fear of open-ing. . 
loT-ing, hearting 



compan-r{]on 
admiss-ri]oa, reIig-[i]on 
super-[ijor, infer-[l]or 



-ious 

-Ci]ous 

-ique 

-iM 

-Ise 

-ish 



-ish 
-isk 

-[i]8m 



-ist 

-Ister 

-it 

-it 

-ite 

-ite 



-ite 
-ite 

-ite 

-ll]tis 

-li]t7 



Lat. -itts .. A4Jm (iB Bot.) pertain- 
ing to a class, order, 
or group 

Lat -[<]tts .. .A4j., from an abstract 

noun 

A4j.t belonging to . . 



Fr. from 

•iquui 
Lat -it-lttm, 

Gk.-<s-o 



Lat 



Eng. Att 
Eng. -<ae 



Lat -«se 
Ok. -ish-ot 



Koun, act of, habit of 

Verb, to undertake to 
do, to make 

Adj., external resem- 
blance, hence folk . . 

Adj., added to a noun 
^*Uke'* 
added to an adj. dim. 

Verb, inchoative 

Honn, dim. 

Ok j^iTjmw)*-) ^<'^» * system. ») 

Ok. -Ut-is; Lat 

-ist-a Koun, ag^it . . 

Ok. -i*t-€9 .. Noun, agent .. 
Lat. eo sup. it-um Verb, engaged in doing 
Lat. -{«]t-te«, -Km Houn, „ „ 
Verb, „ ., 
Noun, (in Chem.) a salt 
formed from an acid 
ending in -otu 



Lat. -{t jt-iM, -urn 
Lat -it-ua 



Lat. -[i]^tt« .. 

Lat .[i]Mw .. 

Ok. [J:\ithrOB, a ) 

stone .. r 

Ok. M£mi .. 

Lat-f^;/^ •• 



Afl^eotival noun, one of 
a race or nation 

Verbal noun, svJbjed of 
an action 

Noun, a mineral, a) 

fossil .. .. r 

Noun, (in JIfed.) inflam- 
mation 
AbMtr&otnoun.. 



monosyn-ioos 

grao-ious (see -eoiu) 

ant-ique, un-ique 

exerc-ise, parad-ise 

apolog-ise, sermon-ise 

Engl-ish, Ir-ish 

bo7-ish, girl-ish 
whit-ish, black-ish 
admon-ish, fln-ish 
aster-isk 

Calvin-[r)8m, vulgar- 
[i]sm, organ-[i]8m 

art-ist, antagon-ist 

chor-ister 

edit 

mer-it, pulp-it 

un-ite, inv-ite 
sulph-ite [of potash], 
i.e., sulphurous 
acid with the base 
potash 

Oanaan-ite, infin-ite 

appet-ite, contr-ite 
ammon-ite 

card-itls 

cario8-[i]ty, diiplic-li\tv 



xlviii 



SUFFIXES AND 1ERMINATI0N8, 



-ium 

-ium 

-Ive 

-Ive 

-ix 

-ize 

-kin 

-kind 

-1 

-le 
-le 
-le 
-le 

-le 

-le 

-ledge 

-lent 

-less 

-let 



} 



Lat. -ium; 6k. ) Nmm, (in Chem,) 
-ion .. f .metal.. .. , 

Lat. -ium; Gk. ) Koun, (in Bot) a spe- \ 
-ion .. ) 

Lat. -if)-u» 

Lat. -iv-u» .. 

Lat. -to;.. •• 



Gk. -iorO .. 

G«rm. -cft«n''.. 
Eng. -cyn or -(An 
Lat. [a, e, i, o, ) 
u] with -2-iM f 
Eng. -2, -olf -ul 
Eng. -I, -el, -ol 
Lat. -l-um 
Lat.-[cl^u»,-[tlJ- 

U8, -[U]l-U8 . . 

Lat. -[c\ul-ti8 .. 
Ft. -elU 
Eng. -lachf -Uus 
Lat. -!ent-iM . . 
Eng. -leas 
"EiomAnce -let, -et 



cies .. '.. ) 

Adj., ableorindinedto 

Verbal noun 

SToirn, denoting a 
woman . . . . 

Verb, to make, to pro- 
dace .. •• .. 

Noun, dim. •• .. 

Noun, race 

Noun, instrument 

Noun, instrument 
Adj., dim. 
Noun, instrument 






Noun, instrument •. 
Noun, dim. .. .. 

Verb, dim 

Noun, gift 
Adj., full of .. 
Adj., privative, void of 
Noun, dim 



potass-ium 

delphin-ium 

cohes-ive, ezpress-lye 
capt-ive, nat-ive 

testatr-iz, executr-ix 

scandal-ijie 

lamb-kin, nap-kin 

man-kind 

can[a]l, bu8h[e]l, pen- 

c[i]l, ld[o]l 
hand-le, sett-le, gird-le 
britt-le, spark-le 
exami)-le, temp-le 

ang-le, cand-le 
circ-le, obsta[cH6 
crack-le, dabb-le 
know-ledge 
corpu-lent 
spirit-less 
brace-let, corse-let 



(Used with pure English vxtrds : as ham-let, ring-let, stream-let) 



-ling 

-ling 
-lith,-lite 

-lock 

-lock 
-lock 
-lock 
-long 
-ly 

-ly 

-lyse 



-lyte 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-m 

-ma 

-me 

-me 

-meal 

-ment 



Eng. -ling 

Eng. 4ing 

Gk. 'lUh-os, a 

stone.. 
Eng. -toe, a 

pledge 
Eng. -loce 

-loc 

Uac, aherb 

-linge 

'lie 

-lice 



Noun, the state or con- 
dition 
Noun, offspring of , dim. 

Noun, a stone, a fossil 



Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 
Eng. 



Noun, a pledge 
Noun, a tuft of hair . . 
Noun, the lock of a door 
Noun, a herb or plant 
Adverb and Adjeotive 
Adj., like 
Adv. , in the manner of 

Gk. luro, to loose Verb, to resolve a com- 
pound into its ele- 
ments by the agency 
of electricity 

Gk.{u-o, to loose Noun, a substanpe 

decomposable 
1st pers. sing, of verbs 
Noun .. .. 
Noun, done, made . . 
Adj., established 

Noun 

Noun, made, done . . 

Noun 

Noun . . . . a • . 

Eng. -mcel-um. . Adv., part by part . . 

Lat. -ment-um Noun, instrument . . 



Eng. -m 
Eng. -m-a 
Gk. -m-a 
Lat. -m-tu, &a 
Lat. -m-a . 
Gk. -ma 
Lat. -ma • 
Lat. me-n 



world-ling, hire-ling 
duck-ling, lord-ling 

mel-lite, acro-lith 

wed-lock 
fet-lock, elf-lock 
fire-lock, pad-lock 
hem-lock, house-leek 
head-long, live-long 
god-ly, man-ly 
vain-ly, nob-ly 



electro-lyse 

electro-ljrte 

a-m faiUy example) 

bloo-m, beso-m 

epigra-m, emble-m 

fir-m 

for-m, pal-m 

panora-ma, d(^-ma 

fla-me, f a-me 

cri-me, v(^u-m6 

piece-meal 

ezperi-mmt, flnna- 



(Also added to Teutonic vjords : as fulfll-ment, acknowledg-ment.) 



-ment 

-mn 
•mGHger 



I 



Fr. -'tMiA 

Lat. -[u]mn-iM 
EAg. m<mger(a) 
dealer) / 



Noun, subject of an 
action . . . . 

Noun 

Noun, a dealer, a 
tsadesmaiL •• 



} 



move-ment, judg-ment 
colu-mn, autu-mn 
iron-monger, fish-mon- 
ger, cheese-monger 



SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS 



zlix 



-mony 

-mort 

-mas 

-naut 

-aoe 

-ndnin 



Lat. -moni^um 
'Eng.nuM 
Lat -mus 
Gk. nautSs 
Lat. *n», -fUi-a 
Lat -nti-a ., 
Lat -nd-tu ^ 
Lat -luium .. 



Voan. state, condition 
A4j. (mperlatiye deg.) 
Noun, an instrument 
Noun, a sailor.. 
Noun» outcome, result 
Abstract noun . . • , 
Noon, to be done 
Voun, something to) 



be done 
-nesajEng. -ties, -nii. Abstract noun.. 

(Also added to Bomance words, espedally with "ful " as a yinculum, g.e , 
mCTci{;fnl>nes8, bounti[ful]-ness, &o., savage-ness, factious-ness.) 



testi-mony, patri-monj 
fore-most, mnd-most 
isth-mus, cala-mus 
aero-naut 

abund[a]-nce,indulg[e}- 
infa-ncj, dece-ncy 
leg[e>ncU garl[a]-nd 
memora-ndum, oorri- 

ge-ndum 
good-ness, white-ness 



-nt 

-nt 

-oc 

-{oclity 

-ock 

-od 

-ode 

-ode 

-pedes 

-cecions 



-old 



Lat -n[«] gen. 

-nMs.. 
Lat. •«[«] gen. 

-nMs.. .. 
WeiBh-og .. 
Lat 'iocjitai .. 
£ng. -itc-a 



Participial acyeotive . . 



Participial noun 

Koun, full of .. 

Abftxaot noun. • 

Noun, dim. 
Gk.Ao(ios<away) Noun, a range, a way 
Gk.Aoc{os(away) Noun, a range, a way 



Qk:ddoa 
Gk. pous 

podoB., 
Gk. aikot 

house) 



gen. 



Noun, an ode 



Noun, feet .. •• 

A4j., (in Bot) &T-) 

rangement of sta- >• 

mens and pistils ) 

Gk. eidos (like) Nonn, (in Med.) disease 

in an unezoited state 






abnnd[a>nt, pmd[e]-nt 

sery[a]-nt, ag[e]-nt 

hav-oc 

f er[ocHty. precoc-itF 

bnll-ock, hul-ock 

peri-od, syn-od 

epis-ode (see p. 815) 

ep-ode 

anti-podfis, a-podte 

mon-cecious 



tetan-oid or -ode 
(IMseose in cm excited state terminates in-ic: as tetanic.) 



-old 

-oidal 

-on 

-£i]on 
-on 

-one 

-oon 

-or 



Gk. eidos (like) Noun, like (with o vin- 
culum) • • . . 



Lat. -oMs with 

Gk. eidos 
Romance -on, 

-one .. 
Bomance -iiym 
Gk. -on.. 



} 



Bomance -one.. 



Bomance 

-one .. 

Lat. -or.. 



•on. 



} 



1 



A4j., like in nature 
Noun, act, instru 

ment, state . . 
Absteaot noun.. 
Noun, (in Chem.) 

metalloid . . 
Noun, large, augmen 

tative 
Noun, large, augmen 

tative.. 
Notm, denoting masc. ) 

gender .. ) 



• 

} 



a 






spher-oid, cyd-oid 

cyd-oid-al 
glutt-on, apron 
opin-[l]on, domin-[i]oii 

bor-on, silio-on 

tromb-one 
ball-oon, bass-oon 

auth-or, administrat-or 



(Used especiaUy in legal phraseology to denote the active (tgent im, oppost- 
iion to-eethe oljectvoe agent. Also a/ter tors: as doct-or, spons-or.) 

-or I Lat -or.. .. Adj. (comparative deg.) | superi-or, inferi-or 
(The nkffix is added to the first case of the positive lohich ends in -L) 



-or 
-Co]ry 
-[oJt 

-oee 

-(oe]ity 

-ot 

-ot 



ItaL -or .. Noun, a man.. 

Lat -[o]ri-ttm.. Noun, ad^pOt.. 
Lat-Co]ri-ite,&c Adj., pertaining to, 

province of . . 
Lat. -OS-US .. Adj., full of .. 
Lat. -[os]itos .. Abstract noun.. 
Ft. -otf -otte . . Noun, dim. . • 

Lat -otra, -ot-es Noun, characterises a 

pOTSOO . « . . 



sign-OT 
dormit-[o]ry 

orat-[o]ry, sanat-[o]ry 
verb-ose, joc-ose 
pomp-[os]ity (fse-ocity) 
ball-ot, cbari-ot 

patri-ot, idi-ot 



SUrnXES AND TERMINATIONS. 



-our 


Lat.-^ thro' the 






Fr. -eur .. Abstract noun.. 


▼al-oor, hoD-onr 


-Otis 


laX,-08-us .. Adj.,(in(7/ieoi.)anacid 

with less oxygen 






than -ic denotes .. 


nitr-ous, snlphnr-ons 
fam-oos, deUd-ons 


-oas 


Lat. -O0-4M .. A4J<, fnllof .. 
Lat. [a, e, i, o]« Adj., full of .. 


-OU8 


aad[a(d]-oii8,fer[oci]oa8 



(Ua^ also in many modern formationB : as jey-ous, wondr-ons, itcj 



-over 

-pie 

-r 

-r 

-r 

-r 

-re 

-re 



-red 
-red 
-rel 
-erel 
-rio 



-ry 

-ry 

-a 



Eng. ofer . . Adv., besides 
Lat. p2i-co, to fold Adj., folded 



Eng. -r-e 

Bomance -r^; 
Lat. -r-us ., 

Lat. -[a]r-M ., 

I^t. -[a, €}r^. . 

Fr. -re; Lai 
-1-^m.. 

Fr. 'iaigj-re; 
Lat. -r-tu .. 

Eng. rid (coun- 
sel) . . 

Eng. hrcBth (ac- 
tive) 






Gton. suffix preserved 
in the pronouns . . 

aUJ t • • • • • . 

AuJ . • • . . a , 

Koun . . 

Noun, instrnment, 
place set apart ,. 

Axy* •• «• •• 

Proper name . . 

Koun, active, operative 



Ft. -[e]r with) A4j., dim., deprec^ 



} 



-el, dim. f 
Ft. -erwith-eZ, 

dim. .. 
Eng. -rie 

Bomance -rie . 
Lat. -rira 
Eng. • • • 



} 



ative 

Acy., dim., depreci 
ative .. 

XToun, dominion, ju- 
risdiction . . 

Noun, collective 

Noun, d6p0t . . 

The ordinal^ plural of 
nouns 



more-over 
txi-ple (8-/0M) 

he-r, thei-r, ou-r, you-r 

clea-r. tdnde-r 
famili-[alr, regal-[a]r 
ae-r, cinde-r 

theat-re, scept-re 

meag-re, pn^re 

Mild-rpd, Etheld-red 

hat-red, kind-red 
mong-rel, dogg-rel 

cock-erel, hogg-erel 

bishop-ric 
fai-ry, poult-ry 
vest-ry, atmo-17 



boy-s, tree-s 

(Nouns ending in - c^ (soft), -ah, -s, -x, add -es : as chureh-es, dish-es, 
fox-es. To these add one word in -z, topaz-es.) 

good-s, sweejt-s 



Modem Eng. .. Afl^ectival noun (plural 

number) 
Eng. . . . . The 3 sing. pres. Ind. 

of verbs . . . . love-s, hear-s 

(Verbs ending in -ch (soft), -ah, -a, -x, -z, add -e« : as reach-es, wish-es, 
guess-es, box-es, whizz-es. Till the 11th century it was -th.) 



man- s, men- 
boys', girls' 



-'s Eng. -«s .. Possessive case of nouns 

-[b]' i Eng. -ea (sing.) Possessive plu. after rs 

(This sign (') arose out of a blunder. Our old grammarians supposed 
the possessive -a was a contraction of hia, and wrote it according]^ *8). 
The plu. (') is a double blunder, as -e« is not a plu. gen. term. 



-saur or 

-saurus 

-scape 

-[8]h 

-ship 

-ship 

-ship 

-[s]ion 



) 6k. aawoa 
§ (a lizard) 
Eng. -adpe 
Eng. 
Eng. -acipa 

Eng. -adpe 

Eng. -adpe 



} 



A prehistoric reptile 
of the lizard race . . 

Noun, view 

Adjectival noun 

Noun, tenure, pos 
session, office 

Nonn, form, state, con 
dition 

Noun, skill, art 






Lat^iogen.|3j^^^^ { 



See pp. 1050-1058 
land-scape 

EngU-[8]h, Iri-[s]h folk 
lord-ship, guardian- 
ship 

hard-ship, jFriend-ship 
horseman-ship, work- 
man-ship 
confu-[s3ion, ascen- 
[s]ion 



SUFFIXES ANJ> TEBMWATIONS, 



It 



-6i)B Gk. ••<«.. .. Koii|i«pn>CMii,it8reiult 

-sm Qk.'9in-os .. Koun, ivstem, act 

-^ome Germ. "Mm .. Adj.,^lllof,oonUi]lillg 

-8on Eng. «uti-« .. Added to proper names 

-[a]or Lat. -[«}or .. Hcnm, agent .. 

i-cr is especuUly used in legal phnueology to denote the aeiine pmriy in. 
opposition to -ee tAe ottjeat of an action. It i» aUo used after -t or -$.) 



analj-aiB, lynthe-ili 
metnod-[i}nn, ipa-am 
fflad-aome, light-eome 
John-ioii, Diqk-ion 
8pon-[s]or, 8aooes-(8]or 



-isojry Lat. •{eoyririu . . A^j., full of, able to. . 

-Csojry Lat. -[M>lri-um Noon, a d6p6t 

•fls Vr. -{elsi-^-di,, i^Mtraotnoun.. 

-8t Gk. -ti-ie .. Konn, agent .. 

-Iter Eag.-eter .. Sonn, trade, skill .. 

f-Her does not denote one of the female sex; it is added to any gen- 
der, and means trade, pursuit, or the skiU uihich resuUs thet^from : thus 
" malt'Ster** is one idAom trade or purswU is piaUing, ** spi'niter** is one 
vjhose pwrsuit is spinning. J 



illa-[8o]r7,pertna-[io1r}r 
8en-[8o]r7, insen-CsoJry 
progr-[e]88. dittr-[e|i8 
antagon-[i]8t. art-Oljrt 
malt-ster, spin-tter 



-[8t]ic 
-[8t]ical 

-£8tr}eB8 

[8]nre 

-By 



Gk. -[st}ik-os . . Adj., active qnalitj 
Lat. -ai with 

Gk. -[styUc-os Ac^., active quality 

Fr. •{str]esS'e . . Noun, a female 

Lat. -is}ur-a . . Abatraet noun . . 

Lat. -ca, 'ti-a . . Noun, an art, office 



8ophi-[8t]ic, 8arca-C8t]ic 

8ophi-[st]io-al 
Bong-(8tr]-688, mi[8tr]-e88 
mea-[8]ure, plea-(8>ire 
minstrel-sy, embas-sj 



f-cy is added to Abstract nouns denoting rank, ofUce, as aristocra-ey.J 



dai-sy 
eapbra-[8]7 
courte-CsJ', here-Csly 
tip-sy, trick-sy 
clef>t, 8pel-t, <jU«am-t 



-sy Eng. •«'-«y0 .. Added to certain plants 

-is^ Gk. -sia . . Soun, a group, a genus 

-[s]y Romance -[<]«« Abatraot noun . . 

-sy Romance .• A4j. 

-t Eng. -ed, -d, -< Past part 

(In Ang.Sax., verbs ending in c, h, p, s. t, z, took -t instead of-d in the 
past and past part. In modem Eng. the -i is limited to verbs ending in 
f, 1, Id, m, p.) 

Fartidpial^noun 

Houn 



-t 
-t 



-t 
-t 

-t 

-t 
•t 

-te 

-teen 

-teenth 



Ei^. -ed, -d, 't 
Eng. -t ., ,, 



Romance -t, -te 
Lat. 't-a, -s gen. 

-t-is . . 
Lat -t-wn 
La,t -t-us 
Gk. -t-€8 



Partioipial noun 



Gk. 

Eng. 

Eng. 



t^s 
-tyne 
theet, 



-theoth-e 



Koun 

Partioipial noun 

A4^ • • • • • • • 

Noun, agent .. 

Noun, agent . . 
Numeral, ten added . . 

Ordinal adj., ten added 
wide" 



gif-t, shoo-t 

lef-t (the lef or weak 

hand) 
habi-t, profi-t 



If 



f-th converts nouns to adjectives: a« 
•*long" Umg-th, "deep" dep-th; "broad" lyread-th.J 



ann-t, ar-t, monn-t 
deb-t, rescrip-t 
^ones-t, modes-t 
prophe-t, com-et fone 
who wears long hair J 
hypocri-te, athle-te 
four-teen, six-teen 

four-teenth, six-teenth 
wid-th, "hale" hedl-th 



-Ct]er 
-Ct]er 
-rt]er 
-Ct]er 
-Ctejry 

-th 

-th 
-Lti]a 



Noun, instrummt .. 

Noun, instrument 

Noun, agent . . 

Verbal noun . . 

Noun, condition, state 

Noun, d6p6t, place ) 
set apart . . ) 

OonvertB adj. to ab- 
straotnouns 

-t-a, •ihr4 . Ordinal a^j 

iti^ .. Noun of multitude .. 



Lat. -i(}r-um . 
Romance 
Eng. -l{]er-e . 
"Eng. -it]or 
Lat. -[te}ri^m 
Lat. -itelrir^m 

Eng. -th 

Eng. 
Lat 



coul-[t]er, canis-[t]er 
bols-[t]er, Qa8Ct>er 
wri[t]-er, flghCt]-er 
laugh-£t]er, 8laugh-[t]er 
my8-[telry, ma8-[te]r>' 
baptis-Cbejry, monas- 
[te]ry 

tru-th, dep-th 
six-th, seven-th 
mili[U]-a 



Hi 



SUFFIXES AND TERMTNATIONS, 



■mo 

-[tnon 

-[ti]on 

-Ct]or 
-{t]re 

-CtoTiy 
-[to]ry 
-[tr]ess 

-Ctr]ix 

-tude 

-(t]Tire 

-Ct]ure 

-ty 
-[u)ce 

-dooe 

-nle 

■[a]nd 

-ore 

-ore 
•uret 



-ve 
-ive 



-ward 
-wards 

-ways 

-wig 

-wise 

-worth 

-wrlght 

-y 

-y 

-7 

-y 

.[y]er 
-yl, -yle 



Ok. -Iti]i(H>« .. 
Lat. -al with 

Ok. 'h-08 
Lat. -itilo gen. 

-cn-i*.. 
Lat. '[tilo gen. 

Lat. -itVrr 
Lat -ity-iwa^ 

•{t}ri-a 
Lat -[to]ri-um . 
Lat -\td\ri-u8 . . 
Ft. -[tr]Ma-« . , 



Lat -[tr]i» 
Lat -tiMi-o 
Lat -[Qur-a 
Lat -if^-a 
Eng. -<ig 
Lat •{«](», 

Lat -due-o 
Lat. -[c]u^v«, -a 
Lat -{uJnd-iM.. 
Lat -ura 






Koon, aotlTe .. 

A4j<t active quality •• 

Koun, ak^ of, state . . 

Nenn, a thing made .. 
Noun, agent . . • . 

Noun, instrument .. 
Noun, d6pdt, place for 
Adj., active quality .. 
Noun, female agent .. 

Noun, female agent . . 
Abstract noun.. 
Abstract noun.. 
CSoncrete noun. . . . 
Multiple of ten 
Noun, outcome, pro- 
duct 

Verb, to lead .. 

Noun, dim 

Oerundial noun 
Noun, relating to the) 



arts 
Fr. ant«re(work) Noun, manipulated 



Lat i»r-o 
burn). . 

Lat -V-1M 
Lat -io-vs 



(to 



Noun, (in Chem,.) de- 
notes a combination 
with an inflammable 
or electro • positive 

body 

Noun . . . . • • 
Noun, Inclination .. 

(-V, often changed into " f " : as «(t-/e, bailiff, &c) 

Eng. -iMord .. Adj., tending to 
Eng. -wetvrdes . . Adv. , in the direction 

of 
Adv., in the direction 

of . . . • 



hereCtiK cri[ti]-c 

here[ti>cal, cri[ti]-cal 

mo[tQ-on, no[ti]-on 

poCti]-on, lo[ti]-on 
audi[t]-or, fac[t]-or 

8cep-rt]re, mi-[t]re 
lava-[to]ry,dormi-[to]ry 
inflamma-[to]r7,purga- 
in8truc[tr]-e88, en- 

chantr-ess 
execu[tr>ix, te8ta[tr]-iz 
forti-tude, grati-tude 
na-[t]ure, adven-[t]ure 
pic-[t]nre, aper-£t]ure 
siz-ty, seven-ty 

lett-[u]ce, prod-[u]oo 
intro-duce, re-duce 
pust-ule, q>her-ule 
Joc-[u]na, rubic-[u]nd 
agricult-ure, hortt- 

cult-ure 
man-ore, manufact-nre 



Bng. •¥)i8 



Lat -Koa; Fr. 

uque .. 
Eng. -wis 

Eng. vxyrth 
(Und) 



) 



Eng. wirht-a \ 
or toyrht-a ) 
Eng. -ig 
Eng. -<9 

Gk. -ia .. 

Lat. and Ok. -ia 
Bng. -{gu}ere . . 
Gk. hiui, wood 



Noun, formed . . 

Adv., in the direction ) 
of .. .. I 

In names of places, a 
farm land belong- 
ing to.. 

Noun, a workman or 
Wright 

Noun, dim. 

A^., of the nature) 
of, like . . ) 

Noun, denoting 
science 

Abfltraot nouna 

Noun, an agent 

Noun, the substance) 
from which any- > 
thing is made ) 



n 



sulph-uret, carb-uret 
octa-ve, oll-ve 
mot-ive, pens-ive 



north-ward,80uth-ward 
home-wards, heaven- 
wards 

side-ways or side-wise 



perrl-wlg 

length-wise, breadth- 
wise 

Words-worth, Isle- 
worth 

ship-wright, wheel- 
wright- 
NeU-y, Johnn-y 

snow-7, frost-y 

astronom-y, homeo- 

path-y 
charit-7, modest-7 
law-[y]er, i.e. lagu-^re 

benso-yle = banrtoU, 
meth-yl 



EBRORS OF SPEECH 

AVD OW 

SPELLING. 



a,/ate/ 


«»ab<nt<; 


i,/atfter; 


th^tAe. 


e, meed.* 


8» he^ray; 


ty Oik. looge; 


rh,(Ain. 


i.inf; 


%ia: 


d, Gft. loogo; 


J.i««. 


5,1*0; 


tt,on.' 


dw, grroio/ 


'', the stronger of 


n, unit ; 


tt,ia; 


fiw, now ; 


two accents. 



A- (Old Eng. ftdyerbial prefix) denoting "away," "without,** 
"on,"&c. 

A- (prefixed to verbs) intensifies, as " awake," ** arouse." 

A- (Greek prefix) negative ; an before vowels. 

A (Article) is An with the n omitted, before words beginning 
with a consonant or aspirated h. Exceptions : It stands 
before otw, as "many a one," before Eu- and w=i/w, as a 
eulogy, a u-nit, and not before words beginning with ht 
nnlesB the accent is on the first syllable, as a his'tory, an 
histo'rian. 

Ab- The Latin preposition, used as a prefix, drops the "b" 

before m and v; and adds " s" before c and t. 

** AB " (preflxt) means diminution, 
Bemoval, or complete exclusion ; 
'Tis "A" before both m and t>, 
And " ABS " before both c and i. 

Abattoir, ab.at.twor^t a public slaughter-house (French). 

French dbaitre, to knock down fa battrej. 
Abbaasides, Ah'.bas.sides, A family of caliphs. (Double b and 8.) 

Abbas, MahomeVs uncle; -aides, -ides (patronymic) descendants of. 
Abbe, ab.bay. French clerical title given for scholarship. 
Abbot, feminine abbess. Head of an abbey or nunnery. 
Abbreviate, ah.bre^-vi .ate not a.bree'-vX.ate, (Double b.) 

Abbreyiation, ab.bree'-vl.a"-8hun. A shortened form. 

Latin ah brevidre, to shorten. 
Abet, abett-ed, abett-ing, abett-or (Eule i.) 

Abhor, ab.hoT^ not a.bor^; abhorr'-er, abhorr'-ence, abhorr'-ent, 
abhorr-ently, abhorred (2 syL), abhorr-ing (Eule i.) 

A 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Abide, past tense abode, pcLst participle abided. * 

Ablative, ab'M.tiv not ab.lay'.tlv, a case in grammar. 

-able (Latin suflSx -biliSf jareceded by a). Added to adjectives. 

Tbe " a" is merely a copula. In worets derived firom the first con- 
jugation the copulative vow6l is a, otherwise it is i. 

Abnormal, ab.nor^.mal, out of rule, irregular. 

Latin od norma, not aeooxding to the square [used Ij builders]. 

Abracadabra, db'-r&h-kdh.daV-r&h not aV-d.-kd..dah"-rd.h. 
Abridgment (verbs in -dge drop " e" before -ment). Bule xix. 

Abrotonnm, a-}yriit\6,numy often misspelt ahrotanum. 

Greek ahrdtdndn, the Immortal plant, so called from its great anti- 
septic qualities (a Irotos, not mortal). 

Abstract, db^stract (noun), ab^Pracf (verb). Rule L 

Abuse, aJbtice' (noun), a.buze (verb). Bule li. 

Abuf, abutt-ed, abutt-ing, but abutment (Bule i) 

Ac- (prefix). Latin preposition ad before " c." 

-ac (suffix), Gre^ -ak-ott Latin -oo-im, "possessed of,** " of." 

Acacia, a.ka^hW.ah not a.kay'jher, nor a.kazef^er, 

Latin acdda, a thorn. (The thomj* plant.) 
Academics, ak'.d-dem!' ,lks. Disciples of Plato. 

Because he taught in the Academy, or grounds of Academns. 
Academy, a.kad'.k.my not ak'-A.dim-y, (The " e " is long in Gk.) 

Oreek acddimoa, Latin acddemia. 
Acalephffi, ak'-a.lee"-fi. The " medusae," as sea-nettles, <fec. 

Greek akaUpM, a nettle. 
Acarus, plu. acari (Latin), aV.&.rits, ak\ii.ri, mites, <fec. 

Acarides, a-kar^ry.deezy or acar^idsB. Tbe acari family. 

Greek aJcari and -ides (patronymic) the acari family. 
Acatalectic, a.kaf-ii.lek"-tik not a.kat^-a.lep^'-tlk. 

Accede (not one of the three which end in -ceed.) Bule xxvii. 

Latin ae [ad] cedo, to go. (N.B.—*' exceed," " proceed," ** succeed '*). 
Accelerate, ak.sel\e,rate. To hasten. (Double c, one I) 

Latin ac [ad] eelerare to hasten to [the end]. 
Accent, ak\sent (noun), ak.8enf (verb). Bule 1. 
Accessible, not accessable (Lat. ae [ad] cedire, see -able). 
Accessory, ak*^i8.86.Ty not ak.8es^^d.ry (Bule Iv.) 

Law Lat. ac [ad] cessorius, one who goes to or joins another [in crime]. 

Accidence, elements of grammar ; Accidents, mischances. 

Accipitreg, ak^p'.i.treez. Such birds 4is hawks, vultures^ 
eagles, <fec. 
Lsiin acefpiXer, plural oceipCtrcf , hawks. 



AND OF SPBLUNG. 8 

m 

jlcclimate, akMi'.mate not dk^JiVi.ml6t» 

Aodi'nuttifle, not acclimatize; accslimatiaa'tion (B. xxxi.) 
Latin ac [ad] elima [habituated] to a climate. 

AceliTity, ak.kUv',Lty not a.kl4v\i.ty. A slope. 
Latin ac [ad] eHvUas, a bending upwards. 

Aooom'modate, ftoeoin'niodA''''tion (double e and m). 
Latin ac [ad] jcommodare, to lend help to one. 

Accomplice, ak.hom'.plU not aJkom'^^. A confederate. 
Latin oe [ad] eompHeo, to fold up wlUi one [in mischiefl. 

Accomplish, ak,kom\pli8h not a.konf,pU8h. To finish. 
Latin ac [ad] eompleo, to complete entirely. 

Accord, ak.kord' not a,kord\ To agree with one, to award. 
Latin ac [ad] eorda, [hearts] to hearts^ 

Accordingly, ak.kord\inff.ly not a.k^,ding.li. 

Accordion, aA.^ord^^.on not a,ko7^.de.<m. An instniment which 
plays in accord with others. 

Accost, ak.kosf not a.ftost'. To address another. 

Latin ac [ad] co«ta, to draw near to one's side [to speak]. 

Account, ak.kounf not a,kounf, A bill; to yerify. 

Latin ac [ad] comptUo. A mercantile term, meaning " the particulars 
of a bill set forth," and hence "to state particulars." " Ckunpt*' 
is a contraction of compute (comp't). 

Aocoontant, accountable (1st coi\j., coirvputare^ R. xxiv., xxv.) 

Accoutrements, ak,koo' .tre.menU. I^ilitary equipments. (Fr.) 

Accredit, ak.hred'Xt not a.kred'.iU To give trust to one. 

Latin ac [ad] crtdo, to give credit to one. 

-ace (sufl&x of nouns) Latin c or t, preceded by " a." 

Thus menace (Lat. minocice). preface (Lat. prsBfo^io), 
It means "of the nature of, "pertaining to." 

-ace» (In botany) denotes an ''order:" as amaranth-ace^. 

-aceous, -fusions (suffix, of adjectives), " of the nature of," " ap- 
pearance of," as saponaceoii^ (Lat. sajpo, 8apon\i8'\, soap). 

Acephala, a.8ef\d.ldh. In Geology, molluscs without a head. 

Greek a keph&U, without a head [as oysters]. 
Ache, ake^ pain. Hake, a hook, a fieh. 

"Ache," Greek ackot, pain. "Hake,** Old Bng., haecoa, a hook. 
The jaw of the hake is like a hook. 

Achores, a.ko'.reez not aT^.d.reez. Pustules on the head. 

Greek achdr, an ulcer on the head with an inflamed base. 
Achne, often misspelt acne, ak\ne, A pimple on the fieuse. 

Greek a^chnS, snrftee foam. 
-•eitj added to Ahstrstet Nouns: as Midacity, See -«e^ 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Acknowledgment, ak.kndV.ledg,ment not dk.hnvw^Udg.ment, 
AJl verbs ending in -dge drop the '* e " before -mefid (Rule xviH. } 
-acle (Latin ^alculumj^ "diminutive;" as tabemacZ^, a little 
wooden house. 

Acme, ak.ni&y (Greek). The highest point, the crisis of a 
disease. It means "the edge," hence the Greek proverb, 
iwl ^vpoO &Kfi7is (on the razor's edge), that is, "at the 
critical moment." 

Acne, »ee Achne. Hackney, a horse kept for hire. 

Aconite, dkf.d.nite. The herb Wolfsbane. 

Greek akonlton, the plant without dost, meaning, it will grow on 
rocks where there is not even dust for a soil It is called " Wolfs- 
bane" because meat steeped in its juice was used hj our fore- 
fathers as a lure to i>oison wolves. 

AcomB, a\ko.ru8. " Sweet flag," (fee. 

Greek a kdrSo, to stop diarrhoea, for its astringent properties. Galled 
" flag," because its powers resemble a flag curled by wind. 

Acotyledon, a\kdt-y,lee"-ddn, plu., acotyle'dons, or acotyle'ddna. 
Plants without husks or seed-lobes for their seed. 
Greek a kotuUd&n^ without husks (like ferns, mosses, lichens, ^.) 

Acoustics, a.kHw'Miks not axoo^sUks, Science of sounds. 
Gcreek dkoud, to hear. 

Acquit, acquitt-al, acquitt-ance, acquitt-ed, acquitt-ing (E. i.) 

Acrogenous (plants), a.krodg^^.nHs not ak\ro.jee".ne.u8. 

Greek akro gSnos, growth upwards. Plants, like tree-ferns, which 
grow tall, without increasing much in bulk. Plants which grow 
in bulk, not height, are caUed amphigens. 

Acroleine, ak.kro\U.ln, Acrid fumes &om distilled oils. 

Latin acrt olH, acrid-product of oil. 
Acrolith, aV.krd.lith. A statue partly in stone or marble. 

Greek dkrd-lithos, stone extremities (as head, arms, legs, &c.) 
Act, a deed. Hacked, hakty mutilated. 

Latin acta, things done. "Hack," Old Eng., ha^anl to cut. 
Actsaa, ak.tee^ah. The snake root genus of plants. 

Greek a ktaA, preventive of death [from the bite of snakes]. Called 
"herb Christopher," because St. Christopher was invoked to w>u:d 
off evil spirits, whic)i often assumed the form of snakes (Gen. iii.) 

Actinia, plu. actinisB, ak.tin\i.ahj ak.tin%.e. Sea-anemones, &c. 

Greek aktia. a ray, because their numerous tentacles extend like rays 
from the circumference of the mouth. 

Actinocrinites, ak'-tin-o.kri" -nitesj not ak'-t%n.ok"-ri-nites, A 
subgenus of extinct " actinia." 
Greek aktU krinon, ray-lily (radiated lily-shaped animals). 
Actor, fern, actress ; not acter as it is a Latin word (R. xxxvii.) 
-acy (suflBx) Greek -[aJ&-o» (nouns) "rank," "office :" as papacy. 



AND OF SPELLING. 



-acy (suffix) Latin .[ajfiia, -tia (noung) "state," "condition:" 
celibacy. « • 

Ad- (Latin preposition) to, for. As a prefix it intensifiett or 
denotes " approach," "juncture," " addition." It changes 
its conGlonant in sympathy with the liquids, and with c 
and «, p and /, g and t. 

" At) " (preflxt) meahs augmentation. 
Juncture, or approximatioa ; 
But when preoedinf c, / 9, 
A liquid, or a p, <, t. 
These letters it prefers to d. 

Ad infinitum (Latin) ad in.fi.nt.tum. Without end, for ever. 

Ad n*nseam (Latin) ad nau^ .8(i.am, To disgust, to nausea. 

Ad valorem (Latin) ad tMi.Zd.Vem. A tax in proportion to the 
market value of the things taxed. 
Observe the terminations of these last three words. 

Adage, ad'.adje, a proverb. Adagio, aday'.jH.o uot a.dadg\16.o,^ 
" Adage," Latin addgium. ''Adagio,'* ItaL, slow time (In M\uie).' 

Adamantean, ad^-d'man.tee'''an not ad^-d.7nan''-t^-dn. 
Latin adamantcBut, hard or strong as adamant. 

Adamic, Ad\dm.ik not Ajdam'.ihy as " The Adamic Covenant" 

^dansonia, A''dan.8if-n^-dh, The boabab or Monkey-bread- tree. 
80 called by Linn»u> in oomp. to Michel Adanson, a French botanist. 

^pia, adf.d.pU, An extinct animal resembling a hedgehog. 

This was the. animal which Cnvier worked out from a stray bone or 
two by his knowledge of comparative anatomy. 

^ to join. Had, pcut tense of " have." Aid, help. 

" Add," Latin addo. " Had," Old Eng. htf/de, p. of habban, to have. 
"Aid," ode, French aider, to assist ; Latin adjuddre. 

Addendum, Tplu. addenda (Latin). Things to be added. 
Addicted, ad.dicf.ed not a.diclf.ed. Given up to the habit. 

Latin ad-dictus, given in bondage to [a creditor or habit]. 
Addition, ad.dish^on not a.dUh'.on ; additional (double d). 

Addreas, odAress^ not a.dress^ To speak to, to ^ve the due title. 

French adresser (one d), bixt in English the d is doubled, 
•ade (Lat at-tui)^ termination of Nouns : " state of^" as blocko^. 
-ade, as a termination of Verbs : " act o^" as oannona^f^. 

•adaa (Greek patronymic -idis or -iadSs\ "descent from," "of 
the family of " ; generally -ida as c&nida, 

Adephagans, a.def\d.ganz, A tribe of voracious insects. 

Greek adSphdgos, voracious. 
Adept, a.depf not ad\ept. One skilled in something. 

Latin adeptus, one who has discovered [the philosopher's stone]. 



6 ERROliS OF SPEECH 

Adiantnm, ad' 4.091" -turn, ** Maiden-hair" and other ferns. 
Greek adiantont dry. So called because rahi do^ not wet it. 

Adieu, a.de% Good b'je. Ado, a^oo, foss. 

'* Adieu," Frenoli d Dieu, [T commend yoxk] to Ciod. 
" Ado," Old Eng. verb ad(/n. The noon means a fuss, as if there 
was much to do. 

Adipic (acid), ad\i.pik not a.dip'ik. Fat procured by add. 

Latin adep8, aMpit, t^i, 
Adipocere, ad'.t.'po.seer, A flnhstance, called " grare wax." 

Latin adiposa cera^ fatty wax (found in cemeteries). 

Adipose, ad'.i.poce not ad'.i.poze. Foil of fat, fatty. 

Latin adipostu, containing fat. 
Adjournment, ad-jum\ment not a-jum'.ment. Postponement. 

French aJoumemerU, deferred to another day {jow^ a day). 

Adjure, ad.jure' not ajure'. To hind hy oath. 
Latki ad-juro, to make one swear to [what he says]. 

A^ust, ad.jtL8t' not a.just; adjustment, ad.jti8lf.ment, 

Latin ad-jwtus [righted] to wliat is correct. 
A^utant, ad' .jU.tant. (This word is incorrect in quantity.) 

Latin ad-jutant, one who aids. 

Ad^utor, female adjutriz, ad.jn\tor, ad.jik^trix (B. xlvL) 

Admin'istrator, female admin'istratriz (Latin) B. xlvi. 

Admif, admitt'-ance, admitf-able aUo admiss'-ible, admitt'-ed, 
admitt'-er, admitt^-ing (Bule i) Admittable (R. xxiii.) 

Adonis, A.dd'.nis, The plant called " Pheasant's eye." 

The flower of the ** com Adonis " is poetically supposed to have been 
reddened by the blood of the boy Adoi^ dropping on it. 

Ad'ulator (Latin), not ad^ulatpr (Bale xxxviL) 

Advertised, ad\v^.tizd (in a newspaper). 
ad.vir'.tXzd (by private letter). 

Advertisement, ad-ver^.tiz-mentf not ad'-vir,tizei''-ment. 

Advertiser, ad'-vir.t%-z9r ; not advertisor (R. xx3d.) 

Latin ad verto, to turn [public attention] to something. 
(Advertiser is not a Latin word, but an English coinage, and benee 
the suffix is er, not or (Kule xxxvii) 

Advice {n(mn)y advise (verb). Latin ad vi80, to go to see (B. li.) 

Advisable, ad,vl\zH.b'l (Not of the 1st Lat. conj., K xziiL) 

Adynamic, a'.dy-n&nC-Xky not dynamic or strong. 

Adytum, ad'.y.tum, not a.dy\tum (Gk. adutotij Holy oi Holies). 

iEdile, e\ dile. A Bom. magistrate who had charge of the public 
buildings. (Lat. <ed««, sing. " a house," plu. '' a temple "). 

iEgean (Sea) E.jee\an (Sea). The Archipelago. 



AND OP SPELLma 



iEgicerea, ei'-jl,»er^ry-iiK Order of plants, genus ^Egiceru. 

Ondc tOgot Jo^i^Ui, soat'a horn. iEgic«n, ijltf.i.rah. 
•^^Bgilopi, i'^jlhdps, A sore in the oomer of the eje. 

. Greek aigos ops, a goat'e ej«. Ooatg being inbjeot to the disease. 
JEneid, Bjnee\td, not E'.ni.H, Virgil's epic about iEne'as. 

•id (a patronTmJo) meaning "pertaining to," "oonceming." 
iEolian, B.d'di.Hn. It ought to be E,ol\i,an (o short). 
JEqUc, eM\tk, not e.d\lik. Belonging to MSL'ixk (Greece). 
iEmgo, es^'.go. (Lat.) The green "rust" of bronze omamentc. 

iBthal or Etbal, lth\al, (A word G(»ned by Chevreul.) 
It consists of the fini sy^Uables of Efh [er] and ^I[oohol]. 

iEsihetics, ece.ThefJlks, The philosophy of good taste. 

Greek aitXMifQcoi [betnty as it is] appreciated hj th^senses. (The • 
of the seeond s^laUe^is long in Greek.) 

iEthogen, ethd.jihi. An intensely luminous compound. 

Greek aUMn gin4. I produce luminosity. 
.Sthnsa, e.ThU\zSh. A genus of plants including " Fools' parsley. " 

Greek aith»%i8a, bnming hot. The leaves being very acrid. 
£tites, more correctly Aetites, a'-^.tV-teez, Hollow stones. 

Greek ctttos, an eagle. Supposed to form part of eagles' nests. 

Aer- (prefix). All words with this prefix (except a.e^ri.al) have 
the accent on the first letter. For example : — 
a'erate (3«yU.) a'erog"raphy a'eronaufics 

a'era''ted a'erolite (4 syll.) a'eropho"bia 

a'era''tion a'eror'ogy a'eropbytes (4 syU,) 

a'erifica''tion a'eroman"cy a'ero6"copy 

a'erify a'erom^eter a'erostat'ics 

a'ero-dynam'ics a'eronaut a'erosta"tion 

Afhir, af-fair not a.fair^, busioess; plu.^ transactions in generaL 

French affaire; Latin afitA'\fac&re to do [something]. 
Affect, af-fecf not a.fecf; affec'ted; affec'tion (double/). 

Latin af [ad] fectus, to act on [one]. 
AffettuoBO, af-fe1f'too,o'^-so, (Ital. term in Music.) With feeling. 
Affianced, af.ji'.amX not a,fi\an8t. Betrothed. 

Latin af [ad] fido^ to trust to one's good faith. 
Affidavit, af-f\.da"-vit, ('Davy is a vulgarism.) 

Old law Latin ekffidare, to give an oath of fidelity. 
Affiliated, af.fiV-Ua-Ud not a.fiV-i-a-ted (double/, one V), 

Latin of [adj filiua, [to assign] a child to one. 
Affirm, af.firm' not a.jirm'; affirma'tion (double/). 

Latin af [ad] Jirmore, to make [something] firm to [another]. 
Affix' {verb), affix {ncmn), A postfix (Kule 1.) 

Latin af iMd] Jixo, to fix to [aometbingj. 



8 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Afflatus, af-JUiy'-tus not a.jlay'-tu8. Inspiration. 

Latin of [ad] fiatvs, breathed into one [by divine inspiration]. 
Afflicted, af.fiiyfded not a.Jlihf.ted; afflic'tion (double/). 

Latin of [ad] figo, to dash against one. 
AfEbrd, af.ford^ not a.ford\ To be a£le to bear the expense. 

French afforer; Latin af [ad] forvm, according to nuurket-prioe. 
AfEright, af.frighf not a.frighf. To startle with fear. 

Old Eng. afyrM changed to afryhV (the g is interpolated). 
Affront, af.frwnlf not a.frunif; affronted (double /). 

French affironUr; Lat. a/ [ad] Jrontem [to insult one] to his face. 
A fortiori (Lat.), a for.8he.o\rl. For a stiU greater reason. 

Afraid, a,fraid' not af.fraid. Filled with fear. 

Old Eng. afcBrd' changed to afrced* {" afeard' " is the older). 
Afresh, a.fresh' not af. fresh'. Again, anew, recently. 

Old Eng. a/erse changed to c^resc (c equals ch). 
Aft (Old Eng. aft), behind. Haft (Old Eng. haift)^ a handle. 
Ag- (prefix) is the Lat. prep, ad before " g." 
Agagite (The) Ag*.a.gite, Haman is so called (Esth. iii. 1). 

Agabuatolite, a*-gal.mdf-d-lite, A claj for statuary. 

Greek agalmdtos lithoa, stone for images. 
Again, a.gen' not a.g&ne, (Old Eng. agen.) 

Agama, plu, agamas, ag\d.mdh, &c. A species of lizard. The 
adjective is ag^amoid, as " agamoid Uzards." 

Agama, plu. agamsa, ag'.d.mee, Flowerless plants. The adjec- 
tive is ag'amous, same as cryptogamic, q.v. All the 
species, &c., are Uie agamldie or '* ag^ama " family, 
Greek a gdmos, without sexual organs. 

Ag'anii, plu, ag^&mis. The gold-breasted Trumpeter. 

Agapanthus, ag* 'd.pan" -Thus, The African blue lily. 

Greek agap€to8 anthdt, the lovely flower. 

Agape, ag'.d.pee, a love-feast. Agape, a.gape^ wonder-struck. 

" Agape," Greek agapi, brotherly love. 

''Agape," Old Eng. agedp, open-mouthed with amasement. 

Agapemone, ag'-a.pem''-d-ne. Love's abode. 

Greek agdp4 mOni, Love's mansion. 
Agaric, ag\dr.lk. A genus of fungi 

Greek ogdri^on, fungus : from Agdria, a river of Sarmatia. 
Agathophyllum, ag'-d-rhdjiV-lum. Clove nutmeg of IVIadagascaiu 

Greek agdthon phuUon, the good leaf. 
Agathotes, a.gath\d,teez. One of the gentian family. 

Greek agathdtet, goodness (from its medical vlrtuesX 
Agave, a.gii\vi not ag.&v\ The American aloe. 

Greek agatU, splendid [plants 



AND OF SPELLTNO. 9 

-age (French suffix), '* state of:" as pupilage. 

-age (Lat. agHre) " the act of:" as ijiilage, 

-age {Celt, fulnesi), added to collective nouns : as herba^^. 

Agen'dmn, plu. agen'da (Lat.) Mem. of " things to be done." 

Ageratnm, a-jee^sd.tUm not a.j^.ra\tum (Bot) A flower. 

Greek agMLUm, exempt from old age. Properlj, "Everlastings." 

Agglomerate, ag.glom'-e-rate not a.glonC-t-rate (trouble ^, one m). 
Lat ag [ad] gUvMtSrt, to wind into a ball (jgUmuit a clew of thread). 

Agglutinate, ag-glu'-U-nate not a-glu'-ti-nate. To glue together. 
Lat ag [ad] gluHtnare, to glue together {gluten, glutXnia, glue). 

Aggiandise, ag'.gran.dize not a.gran\dize. To exalt. 
Aggrandisement, ag-gravf-dlz-ment not ag*-gran.dize"-ment. 
Latin ag [ad] grandeaco, to make lazger and larger (Kale xxxi) 

AggreBsiye, ag^gress'-iv ; aggresslcm, aggressor (double g and »). 

Latin ag [ad] gresaio, a going against. (" Aggressor," Bule xxxvii. ) 
Aggrieve, ag.greev' not a,greev\ To do wrong to a person. 

A hybrid word. Lat ag [ad], French grever, to burden with taxes. 

Agilia, a.jiV.tdK Squirrels, dormice, and similar " Eodents." 
Latin agilia, nimble creatures. 

Agio, €Ldg*X.o not a\j^.o. The market difference between banl^- 
notes and current coin. Ago, a.go\ Gone by. 
"Agio,** ItaL aggiOf difference. "Ago/* Old Eng. agdn, gone by. 

Agitator (Latin), af-ida'-tor not agitater. (Bule xxxvii.) 

Agnail see Angnall. 

Agnate} ag'.nate. Belated on the father's side; Cognate, on 
the mother's. 
Latin ag [ad] nalu8, bom to [the same surname]. 

Agomphians, a.gom^-fi-anz. Bodents without grinders. 
Greek a-gomphio8t without a grinder. 

Agora, ag'.d.rdh. The Greek " forum.** 

Greek ageird, to assemble ; the place of assembly ; the market-place. 

Agree, agree-ing, agree-ment, agree-able, agree-ably, &;c. 
(Observe the double e is retained throughout.) 

Agrimony, ag*,H.mun\y, A genus of field plants. 
Greek agros mdni, the field my abode. 

Aide-de-camp, plu. aides-de-camp (French). A military officer. 
A'Aexcmgy plu. aid\de.cong, sometimes aids.de.cong. 

Aiguille, a.gweel (French). For boring holes in blasting. 

Ail, to suffer. Ale, malt liquor. Hail, frozen rain. Hale, healthy. 
" AiL** Old Eng. egl [an], to be in grief. " Ale." Old Eng. eala, ale. 
" Hail/' Old Eng. hagol or luegl, hail. " Hale/* Old Eng. hdl, hearty. 



10 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ailing, ailMg^ suffering. Hailing, hailing, hail falling. 

Ain't, " am not," " is not," should be written " & n't " (a contraction 
of am notf as nott " as " being the old form of is). Ar'n't 
is a contraction of are tiot, (Colloquial.) 

Air (we breathe)^ Airs, oZm., tricks of conceit Are, ar, plu. of 
** am." Hair (of the head). Hare (game). Heir, air (of 
property). Here, in this place. 

"Air/* Latin aer, the atmosphere. 

** Are/' Norse, plural of the Old Saxon rerb icl>e6,tkA Ust, he byth. 
" Hair/' Old Eng., hcer, hair *' Hare/' Old Eng. hara, a hare. 
" Heir/' Latin Jueres, an heir. •* Here," Old Eng. Mr, here, now. 

Airless, without air. Hairless, without hair. Heirless, airless, 
without an heir. 

Airy, adj. of air. Hairy, ac^j. of hair. Aerie or eyrie, an eagle's 
nest. 

Aisle, lie (of a church) meaning ** the wing /' isle, an island. 
French aisle, now €Ale; Latin oto, a wing. " Isle " (Lat.) i/naAla. 

Ajuga, a'.ju.gay not a.joo\gah. The plant called " Bugle.** 
Lat. a JH^ja, averse to Jnno ; supposed to favour miscarrii^e. 

Alaria, aXair" -rS-dh. A genus of sea-weeds, as " badderlooks, 4c. 
Latin aXa, a wing. " Badder-locks " means ** locks of Balder." 

Albeit,' awLhef.it. Although, notwithstanding (Rule Iviii.) 

Albino, plu, albinos, aLhee^no, aLbee'moze (Eule zlii.) 

Al Borak, ^aV Bo,rak\ The animal that carried Mahomet from 
the earth to the seventh heaven. 
Arabic al borclka, the shining one. 

Albucum, al.hvf-hum not al\bu,kum. The white daffodil. 

Albugo, al.hu' -go. A white speck on the comSa of the eyt* 

Albumen, al.bu-m^ not ar,bil.men. White of egg, 

Alcahest, aV.kd.hesif (Arabic). The universal solvent. 

Aloaid, aLknidf ; or alcayde, al.kay'.dS, (Spanish.) 
Arabic al kadi, the governor [of a Spanish fortress]. 

Alcalde, al.kaV-de, A Spanish magistrate. 

Arabic al kaldi, the judge, or justice of the peace. (It is a mistake 
to suppose the Alcay<U and Alcalde axe merely different spellingiB 
of the same officer.) 

Alcedo (Latin), al,seef,d>o. The kingfisher genus of birds. 

Alchemilla, aV -k^.TrnT -Idh, The plant called '* Ladies* mantle." 

The " Alchemists' plant," being greatly priiied by them. 
Alchemy, aV,ke,me, not aUhymy ; alchemist, al',kSamsU 

Arabic al Ji^mia, the secret art. It is a mistake to suppose the word 
mixt Arabic and Greek,— aa al, the ; chuma, somethuig poured out. 



AND OF SPELLING. 11 

Alcohol, aVM.htSL Th« epirit of f«rment«d liquon. 

Arabic al kokol, the TOlatUe labstanee. 
AloohoUze, aVMMMze not al,kd\h6dize ; Al'cSh51iaa''tion. 
Alcorad, aLko-rad. Contrariety of light in planets. (Astrology). 
Alcoran, see Alkoran. The Mohammedan Soriptores. 
Alcoranes, aV-kS,ray'-neez, The high slender turrets of mosques. 

Alcyonite, aVJi,S.nite not al^V.S,nite, A sponge-like fossil very 
common in chalk formations. (See oelcw,) 

Alcyonlum, plu. alcyon'ia. Halcyon stones. Supposed at one 

time to have heen used by kingfishers for their nests. 

Oreek alkiUyn, a kinffflsher. AlkUdTid, daughter of M61xxb changed 
into a kingfiaher. (With or without an initial h. ) 

Aldehaian, aLdelf-d-Hin, The '* Bull's eye " in Tatous. 

Aiabic al ddbdrcMf the follower [of the Pleiades]. 
Alder (tree), oV.deri not aV^der, nor awl\der (Rule IriiL) 

Old English o^er, an alder-tree ; Latin alntu. 
Alderliefest, aV-d^Mef-^U Best or oldest loved (2 Hen.yi. i 1.) 
Alderman, oV,dSr,m(m, A civil dignitary (Bule Iviii.) 

Alembek, aXem'-hSk, A vessel used by alchemists. 

Arabic al an&ig, the cup ; Greek tmJbiXy a cnp. 
Alethopteris, a.lee.rh(yp'-tS-r^, Fossil ferns (coal formations). 

Greek aUtho-pUHs, the true fern. 
Aletris, aV.i,tris not cUe^tris, A garden shrub. 

Greek cUitriBf a miller ; the plant being covered with ''meaL" 
Alezicacon, a-lex'.ik"-d-kon. A medicine. 

Greek aiex6 kdkon, 1 4rive out the evil thing. 
Alexipharmio, a-lexf -l,far^ -mlk. Antidote of poison. 

Greek oieasd pAarmdA)(>n, I avert poison. 
Alezipyretmn, a-lex" -l/pyr^ry-tum. A fever mixture. 

Greek aieaBd pHriftdt, I drive off fever. 
Algffi, aVJee (Latin). Sear-weeds. 
Ai gnn-TJIj alg'.wajseeV, A Spanish constable. 

Arabic al vKuil. t^e man in authority. 
Alien, geo orally pronounced d\Vl.Sn, A foreigner (Bule IviL) 

Alienate, aV.i.^.nate; alienation, aV4-^.nay'^-8hun. 

Latin Alieno, to make another's ; dUBntu, one of another country. 
Alike. *• Two " and " both " should not be used together with 

"alike:" as "The two are both alike;" say "The two 

are alike ;" or " They are both alike;" or " The two are 

exactly alike.** 
AUke (adj.), meaning similar, always stands after its noun, as 

" The darkness and the light are both alike to Thee.** 

(Ps. cxxxix. 12.) 



12 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Alike (adv.)) means in a similar way^ eqtiallyt as "Whether 
they shall both he alike good." (Ecc. xi. 6.) 

Alima, aM'.mdh. A medicine to assuage " craving for food." 

Greek a I'Smoa, antidote for hunger. 
Aliment, aVXment, Food. (Obs, only one L) 

Latin dUmentvm, verb dlo, to nonrish. 
Alimony, aV.l.mun,y, For a wife's separate maintenance. 

Latin alimonia, alimony. (Obs, The o is long in Latifi.) 
Alismaoesd, aV -Iss.may" -sS-e. " Water-plantains," &c. 

Greek alitma, the water-plantain. 

The suffix -da or -eta means "of the same sort." (Gk. -kiat -lua.) 

Alkahest, aV.kd.hest. The Universal Solvent. 

Alkali, plu. alkalis, aV.ka.lif aV.kddize, Soda, potash, &o. 

Arabic cU kali, the kali plant. 

Alkaloid, aV.ka.loid. A substance analogous to an alkali. 

The Greek -eidoa (-id), like oar -ith, is sometimes a diminutive. 
Alkaloids are substances slightly alkaline. 

Alkoran, aV.kS.ran not al.ko\ran. The Arab " Scriptures." 

Arabic <U Koran, the Koran. It ts Inoorreot to say " The Alkoran." 
*' The Koran " means the Readings. We call our " Bible " Ths 
Writings (Scriptures). 

All, awl, every one. Hall, hawl (of a house), a mansion. 

"AU,** Old Eng. eall, or eel " Hall/' Old £ng. heall, a hall or mtosion. 

All- The perfect compounds of thifi word difop one I: as : — 

almighty already altogether 

almost although dlways 

See Kule Iviii. 

But when it is oldy agglutinated to another word, it 
preserves its double I : as all-wise, all-fours, all-saints. 

All of them. In this and similar phrases "a£" does 
not mean dut of, but has an adverbial force, like the 
Latin ex in ex parte (partly), e duobus (two by two, two- 
ly), &c. So all of them means "them whollyi" "alto- 
gether." Both of them " them both-ly," or " both-toge- 
ther," the whole of it " it entirely," " in its entirety," <fec. 

Allantoio (acid), al.lan'.tSM not aV-lan.td"-ik (see below). 

AUantois, al.lan'-to-iss, A membrane like a sausage in form. 

Greek aUantd-eikos, sausage-like. 

Allay, al.lay\ to mitigate. Alley, aVWy, a passage. Ally, aLlV, 

an associate. 

" Allay," Old Eng. aUcg [em], to lay down ; French aUeger. 
** Alley," French alUe, a passage. " Ally," Lathi aX [adj ligo, to tie 
to one. 

Allege not alledge ; allege-able (Verbs ending in -ge and -ce 

preserve tie "e*' before -a&ie). Eules xx. and xxiii. 

Latin al [ad] leg€ret to read an indictment against a person. 



AND OF SPELLING. 18 

Allegiance, al.lee^-j%.ance. Obedience due to an overlord. 
French cMigMnc^, HediATal Latin oUegicmHa {ad-Ugem). 

AUegro, allay' -grii (Itfd. term in Mxisic). Bright, sprightly. 

Alleviate, al,lee^-vK-ate not a.lee.vK.ate, To lessen a trouble. 
Latin ai {ad] Uviarey to lighten [a burden] to the bearer. 

Alley, plwral aUeys, not allies (Rule xIy.) (See Allay.) 
French aUi^, a passage (verb aXUrt to go). 

Alliance, alM'-ance not a.li,ance. Union by treaty or marriage 
Latin al [ad] ligo, to tie together [by treaty, Ac] 

Alliteration, aVMt'S.ray*-elwm not a\Ut-e.ray''-8kun» (One t.) 
Latin aZ [ad] UUfra [words or lines made] to a letter. 

Allinnij aV.UMfn (Latin). Garlic and similar plants. 

AUochroite, al.lok'-rS-ite. Iron garnet which is iridescent. 

Greek tUlos efvrda, [exhibiting] different colonrs. 
AlIocatQr, aV-l6,kay*'tur. Cost allowed in a law suit 

Latin al [ad] tocdtwr^ placed to one's credit. 

Allodium, ahld'-d^i-um, A free tenure, not held of an overlord. 
Norse odd, a patrimonial estate ; Medieval Latin allodium. 

Allopathy, aLlop'-a-rM. Treatment of disease by antidotes. 

HoMXOPATHY.— Treatment of disease by what causes it. " Like 
coring like," as curbig a bum by /Mt fomentations. 

Allopathist, aLlop'M.rhXst. One who practises allopathy. 

Greek alios pathoi, [medicine] different to the disease. 
Homeopathy Iwmoioi pathos, [medicine] like the disease. 

Allophane, al\ld.fain. A mineral whieh changes colour before 
the blowpipe. 
Greek aUos phain^omaij, 1 appear of different [colours]. 

AUof , allott'-er, allott'-ed, allott'-ing, allot'-ment. (Rule 1.) 
Medieval Latin al [ad] lotto, to place to your lot. 

Allow, allow; allowance, allow'. ance; allowable. 

French allotur; Latin cU [ad] locdre, to place to your share. 

Allude, allood\ To hint at, reference to. 

Latin oZ [ad] ludo, to play towards one [wit^ nods and other signs]. 

Allusion. Verbs ending in -d, -de, -s, -se, change these termina- 
tions to -sion, instead of -tion. (Rule xxxiii.) This word 
should be employed only for vague and indirect refer- 
ences : thus, ** Henry V. won the battle of Agincourt '* is a 
positive statement, and a person ought not to say " the 
battle alluded to was fought in 1415," but the battle 
referred to. 

AUure, allure'; allurement, allured. ment To entiee, &c. 
Latin ai [ad], French leurrer, to decoy. 



14 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Alluvium, plu, alluvia, al.Wji)iMm, al.lu\vi,ah. 
Latin al [ad] hUfre^ to wash to [the hank or shore]. 

Ally, phi, allies, oLU, aldize", allied (2 syl.). alli-anoe, ally-ing. 
Alley, aU.ley, a passage. Allay, al.lay't to set at rest, tee 
Allay. 

Almanac, oV.mojndk, A calendar of the year. (Bule Iviii.) 
Arabic al manack, the computation ; or, Anglo Sazpn alm&naght. 

Almighty, awLmigktf.y. All-powerfoL (Eule Iviii.) 

Almon<^ aN.mvm* not aLmon\ The nut of the almond-tree. 
Greek dmugdUUS fdmugd'J; French amande; Spanish Cblmsndm. 

Almoner, ah\m6,n^ not aV.m6.n^. One who diBpenses alms. 
French oumonier; Med. Lat. oMMn&riut; Old Eng. CB<me«-man. 

Almost, oV.most not awl\most (Bule Iviii) 

Alms, arms not alTfit^ Charity. Both singular and plural. 

" Who, seeing Peter and John, asked an alms " {Acti m. 3). 

" Thine alms are come up for a memorial " {Acts x. 4). 

Anglo Saxon oJmes; Old English oelmeMe/ NotmAn aimoignea; Latin 
eUemotyna; Qreeik. iU4md»ibnS (de4m&n, pitiful). 

Aloe, phi. aloes, a^.o, al'Mey a plant. HaUoo, plu>. hallooB, to 

shout, shouts. Hallow, hal',lOt to hold saored. Hal€^ 

hay\lOy a "glory." 

''Aloe," Greek aM, the aloe. "Halloo," Low Ger. Aoito, outcry. 
"Hallow," Old Eng. hdlig [on], to hold sacred. "Halo/' Greek 
halAt, a halo. 

Aloetic, aV'6.ee'-txk hot aV-oM-ik. Containing aloes. 

Greek cdoitik^. The postfix -ic means " pertaining to." To ezpreia 
acids, it means containing the most oxygen possible. 

Aloexylon, aV-o.eex'-U'On not aV-o.&c'-U-on. Wood of aloes. 

Greek aloS xtUan, aloe wood. 
Alopecurus, a.lo'-p^.ku^-rus. Fox-tail grass, &c, 

Greek aldpifkds oura, fox's taiL 
Alopecy, a.ld'-pS-sy, A disease of the hair. 

Greek aUpildUk, fox's evil (o long, e short). 
Aloysia, a,loy'-zS-ah. The Verbena order of plants. 

Greek aXouaia, unwashed ; because rain does not wet the leaves. 

Alpaca, al.pak^-dh. Cloth made of paco hair. The paco of 
SouUi America is a kind of camel with long wooUy hair. 

AlpMtldon, aUfilf-i'dSn. A JEracture with the bone smashed. 

Greek alphtUm, bran (the bone ground like branX 
Already, oLred\p, At this time, in time past (Bule Iviii.) 
Alsine, al^sVjn^ (Latin). Chickweed, mouse-ear, isc, 
Alsinia, aljSfjnMh. The " alsme " or chiskweed groop of phMfes- 
Also, oV,8S, likewise, in like manner (Rule Iviii) 



AND OF SPELLING. 16 

■ ..III 

», alao'-di^e. The Tiol«t sub-order of plants. 
Greek aUOdU, woodlukl plants. 

. Alutmilft, alaiSn'-i-dh, The Dogbane tribe of plants. So name I 
from Charles Alston, a Scotch botanist (1688-1760.) 

Alstonite, al'MlSn^ite, A white or greyish mineral, found in the 
mmes of Alston Moor, in Cumberland. 

Altar (of a church). Alter, to change (Bule Iviii.) Halter. 

"Alttf,** Celtic alt; OlA Eng.. alter; Latin aXtdrt; JCo. 
" Halter," Old Sng. lujOfter, a halter or heacUtaU. • 

Alteration, oV-terjray^'than not clV -ter.ray-ihun (Rule IviiL) 

Alt e rative, oV,fra.f(v not (U\terM.tiv. A medicine to change 
gradually the habits of the body (Rule Iviii.) 
French atterer, alteratUm, alUratif, 

Altercation, <it-ter,kay''-8hun not <>l'-ter.ka/y'''Mkun, 
Latin aUertik^ to talk one against another. 

Alternate, at,t^,nate (verb) ; aLtef^.nate (ac^ectiye). Bule L 

Altemative, al,ter^-na-flv. Choice of two things. 
Latin alter, [if not one] the other. 

Although, alLthdw not alLrhSw, Notwithstanding (B. Iviii.) 

Altitude, at.ti.tude not ot.tl.tude. Height. 
Latin oUKtHLdo, from JaMua, high. 

Alto, phi. altOB, at to, aV.toze. Counter-tenor (Bule xlii.) 

Alto-relievo, plu. alto-relievos, aV.tS reV.td\vo (reV.tW.vaze) 
not al'.to re.leev\o, &c. Term in sculpture (Bule xlii.) 

Alto-primo, ^Zu. alto-primos, aV.topree'.mo (pree'.moze). 

Alto-secnn'do, plu. alto-secnn'dos (Bule xlii.) 

Altogether, alt-tS.geth'-er. Wholly, entirely (Bule Iviii.) 

Aludel, a.W-del. A^vessel used in sublimation. 

Latin a hitum, [a pot or vessel] without late. 
Alumina, al.loo\mX.n(ih. Earth containing alum. 
Alumine, a.loo'.mtn. (Same as alumina.) 

Aluminium, aV.oo.min''.X.um. Metal obtained from aluminia. 
The gold-coloured is a mixture of aluminium and copper. 
Latin aJumen, saltstone. (The u is long.) 
Aluminous, a.loo\m%.nue. In Geology, means clayey. 

Aluminiun, a.loo\m$.num. The metallic base of clay. 

Alnnite, aM>o\nite not (U\oo.nite. Alum-stone. 

French almn, alum ; Greek lUhos, a stone. 
Alunogene, a.loo'jri6.jene. An efflorescence on d^vip walls. 

Fxmeh aMui, alom ; Greek gm6, to produce. 



16 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Alveary, aV-ve.drp not al-vee'-a-ry. The hollow of the ear. 
(The " a " in ary is long in the Latin word.) 
Latin cUvedrium, a bee-hive. (Boles Iv. and Ivii.) 
Alveolar, aV.ve.o.lar not al.vee\8.lar. Containing sockets. 

Alveolus, plu, alveoli (Latin), aVJoS.oMSy aV,vSJ6M. 

Not al,vee\o.lu8f nor al.ve.dWut, (Both e and o short.) 

The hole or socket of a tooth. 
No such word as alveola used by Dr. Mantell, Wonden of Geology. 
Alveolite, aV.ve.S.lite. One of the coral groups. 
Always, oV.wayz. At all times, for ever (Bule IviiL) 

Alyssum, a.W-8um. Madwort, &c. [To prevent madness.] 

Greek a lus8(m, preventive of madness [from the bite of mad dogs]. 
Am- (prefix), Latin preposition ad before the letter m. 

Am, was, been. These are parts of three distinct verbs. 

Am. is Norse ; Be is the old English hed; and Was is the old Bnglish 
Moes {an} " to dwell." Bed is Indicative Mood, and he is still used 
so in rural districts and in poetry. 

Amadou, am\d.doo not am\d.d6w. German tinder. 

French aTMhdou^ from the Latin am. [ad] mMnus duloe (a'ma'duO. 
Amanita, arnf'd.ni"'tah. A fungus common in Amanus. 
Amanuensis, plural amanuenses, a.man'-u.eTiP'SU, 'enf.8eez, 

Latin a manu -eiiHs : a munu, a secretary ; -ensis (suffix) office of. 
Amaranth, am'-d-ranth, or amaranthus, am* -a.rarC -rhui, 

Greek amaranthos, the unfading flower (a ma,raino, I die notX 
AmaranthacesB, am'-d-rdn.Thay"-8e-e. The " order " of the 
above ; -acea, added to plants, denotes an " order." 

Amaryllis, plural amaryllises, am'-a.riV-liSy (fee. A flower so 
called from the shepherdess of classic pastorals. 

AmaryllidacesB, am'-d.riV-li.day*'-ce-e, The " order " . of the 
above; -acea^ added to plants, denotes an *' order." 

Amateur (French), am\a.ture\ One who 'cultivates an art or 
science for his own pleasure, and not as a profession. 

Amaurosis, a.maw.ro^sis. Called by Milton ** the drop serene.'* 
Greek amauros, blindness [without any visible defect in the eye]. 

Amazon, Am'.d.zon. A race of female warriors. Amazo''nian. 
(This word is wrong in quantity, the second "a" is long). 

Greek amMZon, without a breast. The right pap being cut off. 
Ambas'sador, feminine ambas'sadress, not embax^sadoVf <fec. 

Fr. airibassadeur ; Med. Lat. amibascia ; Celt. ambacM, a servant. 
Ambas'sador Extrao'rdinary, plu. Ambas'sadors Eztrao'rdinaxy. 
Ambas'sador Ple'nipoten"tiary, plural Ambas'sadors, <feo. 
Ambergris, anfJf^r.griss not am\hSr. grease. Grey amber. 

French amhre gris (grey). To distinguish it from the noir andiAun«. 



AND OF SPELLING, 17 

Amblyptems, amMip\t^.ru8. A genos of fossil fishes. 
Greek amblua pteron, [fish with] obtuse or large flos. 

Ambreiiie, am\hrS.ln, The active principle of amber. 

Ambreic (acid), ajnf.hrSXk not am.bre'ik, (See above.) 

Ambrosia, am.hrd\z^Mh not am,hro\zhe,ah. Food of the gods. 
Greek a hrotoa, not mortal [immortal food]. 

Ambulacra, am^'bu.lay^-krah. Holes in the crast of sea- 
urchins through which their " walkers " protrude. K* 
Latin am^nildcra, walking places. ^ 
Ambulatores, am".hu.ld.t8,rez. An order of birds; their feet 
have tiiree toes before and one behind (Rule Iv.) 
Latin ambulatdret^ walkers. (The o is long in the Latin word.) 

Ambuscade, plu. ambuscades ; am\btu.kadef, am',hu8.kddz\ 
Ambusca'do, plu. ambusca'does (Spanish). Rule xhL 

Spanish emJwsccur, to retire into the thickest ];>art of a forest. 
Amenable, a.mee'-nd'b'l not a-men'-a-h'L Accountable. 

Italian ammaincMre, to strike sail ; French amener. 

Amend, a.mend\ to correct. Amends, satisfaction. 

French omencZer, to amend ; Latin a menda, without fault. 

Amende honorable (Fr.), a-mend' on''-o.rah''b'L An apology. 

Amenity, a.mee'-ni'ty not a.men''i-ty. Softness of climate. 

Latin amanitoM, agreeableness of climate or manners. 
AmentacesB, a-men.tay''8^-e. An order of plants with catkins. 

Lat. aTneniumy a catkin or thong ; -dcece ^suffix) an " order" of plants. 
Ametabolia, a.m€t''a.hol"-l'ah. Insects which change not. 

Greek a metahdle, without change or metamorphosis. 
Amethyst, amf.^.Thist. A precious stone of a violet colour. 

Greek a methHstdt, preventive of drunkenness. 
Amianth or amianthus, am' -tan" -Thus. A sort of asbestos. 

Greek amicmtos, that which does not contract defilement. 
Amianthoid, amf -l.an*' -rhoid. Like amianth. (Rule xlix:.) 

Greek amianto-eidos, like amianthus. 
Amide, am\ld. A chemical substance not unlike starch. 

Greek am [ulon] -idis (patronymic) of the starch family. 
AtwIHin or amidine, amM.cWn. The soluble part of starch. 
The insoluble part is called amyline, q.v, 

AmmocoBtes, am'-mo.see'^-teez, a genus of sand-fi,shes. 

Greek ammoa koiti, sand-bed [fish]. 
Ammodytes, amf-mo.dyf'-teez. Sand-eels, &c. 

Greek ammoa dvUs, sand-divers. 
Ammonia, am^md'-nt'-aK Spirits of hartshorn. (Double m.) 
Ammoniacal, am''mo.ni"'d-kdl not a''7nojni'''a-kdl, (Double m.) 

B 



% 



18 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ammoniacnm, am' -mo.ni^' -a-hum not a'-mo,ni*'-S-kum, Gum of 
the Persian plant called [dorema] amTnonia^mm, 

Ammonite, am^jno.nite. A family of fossils resembling a ram's 
horn. Ammon-ite, like [the horns of Jupiter] Ammon. 

AmmonitidaB, am'-mo.nU'-i-de, The Ammonite family of fossils. 
-ida (Greek patronymic -idis), of the family or race. 

.'. Ammophila, am.mof-%-lah. Sand wasps. 
<^ Greek ammos philedf I love tho sand. 

Ammunition, am'-mu.nisW-on. Military stores. 
Latfn am [ad] nmnitio munitions for [war]. 

Amoeba, a.mee'.bah. The lowest type of animal life. 
Greek amoib^f the changeable [animal]. 

Amomum, a.m3\mum. The ginger species of plants. 
Greek amdntum, ginger. 

Among, a.mung'y not a.mong. Old English amang. 

Amorphous (rocks), a.mor'.fus. Having no definite shape. 
Greek a-morphos, without [definite] form. 

Amorphozoa, a.mor'-f5.zo'-dh. Zoophytes, like sponges, <feo. 
Greek Or^norphos z6a, living animals without [definite] form. 

Amour propre (French), a.m^oor' propr. Self-respect. 

Ampelic (acid), am'.pe.Uk. Produced from coal tar. 

Ampelin, am'.p^.lin, A liquid resembling creosote. 

Ampelite, am'.pe.lite. Alum-slate. 

Greek ampilis. the vine. "Ampelite" is so called because it was 
used by the ancients for destroying the vine-insects. 

Amphi- (Greek prefix). "All round," "on both sides,'* "doubt" 

Amphibia, am.fib'-i-ah. Animals that live in water or on land. 

Greek avyphi hios, having life both [on land and in water]. 

Amphibichnites, am'-JiMk"-nite8. Animals which have left 
their footprints in certain geological rocks. 
Greek amphibia ichnos, footprints of amphibia. 

Amphibolite, am.jiV -o-lite. Parts of amphibia fossilised. 
Greek amphiJbios lithoSf amphibia [become] stone. 

Amphibole, am.Jib'-d-le, Hornblende. 

Greek amph4Mlds, something doubtful [whether hornblende or 
augite. It being difficult to distinguish them]. 

Amphibology, am'-fi-boV-d-j^. Words which bear two inter- 
pretations, like the responses of the ancient oracles. 
Greek amphibiflds logos, doubtful words. 

Amphibrya, amfiV-ri-ah. Plants which grow in bulk, not height. 

Greek amphi bru6, to swell all round. Those which grow upwards, 
. and not in bulk, are aordgena. 



AND OF SPELLING. 19 

Amphigens, am\fi-gen8. Plants which grow in bulk, not height. 
Greek amphi gifnos, growth all round (like lichens). See AorogenoUB. 

Amphitheatre, am'-fLrhee^-a-t^. A circular theatre. (The 
"a" is long in the Greek word.) Rule Ivii. 
Greek ampM theatr&n, a theatre all round. 

Amphora, ain\f6.rdh, A wine vessel with two handles. 
Greek amphi ph^eirif [handles] on both sides to cany it bj. 

Ample, ajnf.p'l, am'ple.nes8, am'ply. (Latin amplutt large.) 
Amplify, amf.pU.fy, am'plify-ing, but amplifies (3 syl.), am'pli- 
fied (3 syl.), am'plifi-er, am^lifi-ca''tion. (Rule zi.) 
Latin amplificdref to make ample. . 

Ampulla, am.puV.ldh (Latin). A bottle large in the middle. 

Amulet, am'M.let. A charm worn about the person. (One m.) 
Latin cmvuUtum, a charm ; a molior, to drive away [evil]. 

Amuse^ a.muzef, amuse'-ment, amused' (2 syl.), amu'ses, amu'ser, 

amus'-ing, amus'-ingly, amus'-ive, amus'-ively. (R. xix.) 

French am/user; Latin a MuHs, [to turn] from the Muses or study. 

Amygdalesd, a-mig^daV-S-e, A family of plants including the 
peach, apricot, plum, and almond. 

Amygdalic (acid), a.mig'.ddMk, Derived from amygdaline. 

Amygdaline, a.inig'dd,V6n, A crystalline principle contained in 
bitter almonds. 

Amygdaloid, a.mig' .da.loid. Volcanic rocks with almond-like 
cells or cavities filled with foreign substances. 
Greek amugdalos eidos, almond-like. 

Amyl, am\il, or amyline, am'.il.Xn. Insoluble part of starch. 
The soluble part is called amidine, g.v. 
Greek dny&lon, starch. 

Amyridacesa, am' i-rtday^-se-e. Plants of the myrrh kind. 
The genus am'yris (Latin myrrha, myrrh), is type of the order. 

An- (prefix) Latin preposition ad before n ; Greek an (privitive) 
before a vowel. 

-an (suffix), Latin an-U8 " belonging to : " as Roman. 

An (Article), before vowels and silent h ; also before h aspirated, 
when the accent of the word is not on the first syllable, 
as " a his'tory," but an histor'ian. On the other hand, 
the n is dropped before onef and also before eu and u 
pure, as many a one, a u-nit, a European. 

Anacathartic, an^'d'kd.rhaT^'tlk not an'-d-ka.rhark"'tik, 

Greek cma katharsU, purging upwards [through mouth and nose]. 

Anacharis, an.akf.d, rU. A troublesome river-weed. 
Greek cma chaHSf out of favour, a nuisance. 



20 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Anachronism, a.nak\ro.nizm. A chronological error. 

Greek ana dvronos, out of time. 
AnaBmia, a,nee\ml,dh not a.nernfX,ah» Deficiency of blood. 

Greek an aima, without blood. 
Anssmic, ajnee\mih not a,nem\ik. Blood-failing. 

AnsBstdiesia, an.ece.Thee\ztdh. Defect of the sense of feeling. 
Greek an aisthSsia, without the sense of feeling. 

Anagallis, an'-a,gar.li8. The pimpernel gronp of plants. 
Greek a7iagela6, to laugh heartily. Supposed cure of " spleen.** 

Anagrammatio, an'-a-gram.mat" -tlk (double m). 

Greek ana gramma, transposition of letters. 
Analogue, an'.drldg. Something analogous. 

Greek analogos, of similar proportion. 

Analogy, a.7tal'.o,gy, anal'og-ous, anal'og-ously. anaVogist, anal'- 
ogism, anal'ogis^, anal'ogisingj analogical, anf-a.lqj"-i-kal^ 
analog'icaUy, analog'icalness. Kule xi.) 
Latin anaZogia, analogic; Greek ana Idgds, similarity of words. 

Analysis, plural analyses, amaV.y,8%s, a,naV.y.8eez. 

Greek anorlusU, a breaking up. The opposite process is syn'thSsis. 
Greek ntfUJUfais (sun tithSiM), a putting together again. 

Analysable, analysation not analyzdble, analyzation. 

The 8 is pf^rt of the word analysis (liu6 not luzd). 
Anamorphosis, an'-a.mor^-fo-sU, (Wrong in quantity, Kule Ivii) 
In Natural History , development. 

In Botany y when one part of a flower assumes the appear- 
ance of a higher principle. 
In Perspective^ elongating the figure. 
Greek ana morpJidsis, upward shaping. 
Ananas, a.nah'.ndz (Brazilian word). The pine-apple species. 
Ananchytes, an,an\ki.teez not an.anM'.teez, Fairy loaves, &c, 

Greece anamt68 cfv&ti (gaia), steep mounds. 
Anandrous, an,an\dru8. In Botany, without stamen. 

Greek a/n a/ndros, without a male or stamen. 
Anastomose, an.a8\t8.moze. To interlace vessels. &c, 

Greek ana, sUfma, [to insert one vessel] up the mouth [of another]. 

Anastomosis, an'a8''t6,md''-8l8, Ij^ Botany j union of vessels. 

Anathema, plural anathemas, a.nath\^.mdhj a.nath'.e.maits. 

Greek ana-tMma, a thing set apart ; hence a ban of the church, 
which sets a person "apart " from church fellowship. 

Anathematize not anatkematisey a,nath\S.md.tize. 
Greek ana-themdtixd, to make accursed. (Bule zzzii.) 

^LnatidsB, an,af,l.de. Web-footed birds, as swans, geese, ducks. 
Latin andUs -idee, the duck family (-idee, a patronymic) 



AND OF SPELLING. 21 



Anatomy, a.natf.S.my, anat'omist; anat'omise, not anaifomize, 
anat'omised (4 syl.), anat'omiseT, anat/omis-ing, anat'o- 
mls-ation ; anatomical, anatomdcally. 
Iiatiii andtdmej anaUfmXcut ; Greek ana Uhni, a catting up. 

AnatroiMd, a.naf.r^i.pal. In Botany ^ an inverted ovule. 
Greek anartrSp6, to invert [the ovnle], as in apple blossoms. 

-ance (suffix, Latin -ans). Attached to verbal nouns. 

There are nearly 800 words with this termination, and not one 
ending in the more correct form -ante. 

Ancestor, fern, ancestress, an'^Ss.tih; dtc, A predecessor. 
French anceatres, ancitrea; Latin ante ces$or, a predecessor. 

Anchor, an.kor (of a ship). Anker (Dutch), ten gallons. 
Old English aneor; Latin anchdra; Greek a^k&Ufa, hooked. 

Anchovy, an'.cho,vy not an^cho\vy, (In Port, anchdvy,) 

Ancient, ai'nf.shent not an'^hent nor am'^hent, of old. 
The Ancients, plu. People of the olden times. 
French ancitn, old ; Italian anziano ; Latin antiqutu. 

Ancile, an,8i\le (Latin). The sacred shield of Mars. 
Ancillary, an'MLld^ry not anMl'.ld.ry, A handmaid (Bule Iv.) 
Latin andlla, a maidservant. 

Andintal, an.8ip\ttdL In Botany, two-edged. 

Latin anceps^ andipitis, two-edged (am caput, head both sides). 

-ancy (suffix, Latin -ans, -antis). Added to abstract nouns. 

Ancyloceras, an'-siJos^-e-rahs. Fossils curved like a horn. 
Greek agkulos, curved [like a horn]. (Greek " g " before k = n.) 

And (a copulative). Hand (of the human body). 

" And,*' Old English and. " Hand," Old EngUsh hand. 

And SO forth, et caetera. (Old English and swd forth.) 

Andante, an.dan',te (Italian). In Music, moderately slow. 

Andirons, an'-d^-riSnz not hand'.i.on8. Fire-dogs. 
Old En^isfa brandrisen, iron to hold a brand or log. 

Androgynous, an.drof.tnu8 not an.dr5.jee\ni.u8, (Botany.) 
Greek anir gunS, man- woman. (Male and female flowers united.) 

Android, plu. androides, an\droid, an.droi\deez. An automaton. 
Greek andro-eidoa, [an automaton] like a man. 

Andromeda, An.drom\^.ddh. Wild Rosemary, &c. 

Aa Andromeda pined on a rock snrrounded hy sea monsters, so the 
plant droops its head in swampy places amidst reptiles. 

Anellides, an.eV.ltde8y or anellids, an'.SLlids. Earth-worms. 

(All these words should be spelt with one n and double {. Latin 
andlu8, a little ring.— Horace's Satires, II. 7-9.) 



22 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anelytrous, an,eV,y.trus not an,S,ly\tru9. 

Greek an HUUrdn, [insects] without wing sheaths. 

Anemone, a.nem\6.n^ not a.nen\o,me. The wind-flower. 
Plu. anemones not anemonies (Lat. anemoncy Bale Ivii) 
Greek anihn6Sy wind. These flowers love a free open space. 

Aneroid, an\S.roid. The air barometer, which has no mer- 
curial or other liquid column. (The " e " long in Greek.) 
Greek a nMfa HdoK, without [a column] resembling a liquid [column]. 

Anethnm, a.nee'.Thum. The dill genus of plants. 

Greek an^thon, dill : and thein, to run upwards, by rapid growth. 

Aneurism, an\eu,rizm. IMorbid dilitation of an artery. 
Greek aneurilLnA, to stretch or dilate. 

Angel, ain'.jelf a heavenly being. Angle, an'.g\ a comer. 

Angel'-ic, angel^ical, angel'-ically (Rule iii. -el). (This 

is a strong example of the perversity of English spelling. 

Although the accent is on the -ei', the "1" is not doubled. 

while in travel, trai/elling, (fee, it is doubled, although 

the accent is on the first syllable.) 

** Angel," Greek aggelos, a messenger. (In Greek g before gr = '* n." 
"Angle," Old English angel, genitive angles, a fish hook. 

Angelica, an.geV-l-kdh not an' -ge, lee". hah, A plant. 

So called from the " angelic " virtues of its seeds and root. 

Anger, ang'.er, angered (2 syl.), angering (Rule ii.) 
Old English ange, vexation ; Latin angor, sorrow. 

Angina, an.ji.nah (Latin). A disease affecting respiration. 

Angle, a comer. Angel, a heavenly being. (See Angel.) 

Anglican, an'.gU.kan. Belonging to England. 

Anglice, an'.gltse (adverb). In English. 

Anglicism, an'.glttizm. An English idiom. 

Anglicise, Anglicised (3 syl.), Anglicis-ing. (Note s not z,) 
Anglo- (prefix) English : as Anglo -SeLx.on, Anglo-1^ ormaji, <fec. 

Old English Angel-/ as angel-cyning, the English Kg. : angel-thedd, 
the English nation. Angle or Engle, the Angles or English. 

Angnail, not agnail nor hangnail. 

Old English ang-ncegl, a nail-trouble. Similarly ang-hrei/gt^ a chest- 
trouble ^asthma), ang-mo'd, a mind-trouble (vexation). 

Angry with you, not " angry at you," Angri-ly. 

Anhydrite not anhydrate, an.hy'-drite ; anhy'drons. 

The "h" is needless. The Greek is anudria, and &vv^pos. Greek 

an hvdor, without water. It would be impossible, in Greek, to 
express by letters such a word as Anhydrite. (Rule Ixx.) 

Aniline, an'.i.ftn. An oily liquid used in " mauve " dyes. 
Arabic anil, indigo ; from which it may be obtained. 



AND OF SPELLING. 23 

Animalcdle, plural animalcnlea, an'-ljmSV'kule, an^-tmaV'-kUlz ; 
or, an'iinal''ciiliiin, plural an'imarcula. 
Latin anXmal-ctU'um (-culum, a diminutive). 

Anlmalise, an'imalisa^'tion (with a not z, Bule xzxL) 

Anker, ten gallons. Anchor (of a ship). {See Anchor.) 

Ankle, an,k'l Part of the leg. (Old English.) 

Annals (no singnlar). History arranged by years (double n). 
Latin anncUis, f xom cmfMM, a year. 

Annates, an'.nates, First-firnits on presentation to a living. 
Latin awMu, [the valne of one] year's income. 

Annelida, see Anelida (with one n). 

Annex, an\nex (noun), an.nea^ (verb). Rule 1. 
Latin an [ad] neseus, tied to [another thing]. 

Annihilate, a7i.m'.M{.a^«, annihilated, annibilat-ing, annihilat-or, 
annihilation. (Double n.) In Latin the -ni- is short. 
Latin an [ad] n^ilum, [to redace] to nothing. 

Anniversary, plu, anniyeisaiies, an'-nuver"-sS-r^, The return 
of the time-of-the-year at which an event happened. 
Latin anntu versus, [the time of the] year returned. 
Announce, an-nounce' not a.nounce' ; annonnce'ment. 

Frendi annoneer; Latin an [ad] nund^, to tell to [others]. 
Annoy, annoyance, anmoy', an,noy\ance (Bule xxiv.) 

Italian annoiare : Latin an [ad] nocto, to incommode. 
Annual. Yearly. In compounds, -ennial; as hi-ermial, tri- 
ennialf per-ennialf &c, (Double n.) Latin annus. 

Annuitant. One who receives an annuity. The i in tbe^e 
words is a blunder taken from the French, just as well 
write annuilly. 

Annuity, an.nu\l.ty not a.nu'.i.ty, A yearly payment. 

French annuUd; Latin awn/uMim, yearly, ann%LaUa. 
Annul', annull'-er, annulled' (2 syl.), annull'-ing. (Rule 1.) 

French annuller ; Latin an [ad] nullum, [to bring] to nothing. 

Annular not annz^^r; annulated; Skmn]loBe,an'.nu.loze; annu- 
losa, an.nu.lo'.8a. Earth-worms, (fee, composed of rings. 
Latin anniilus, a ring ; annularius, ringed, full of rings. 
Annunciate, an.nun^sh^.ate not a.nun^she.ate ; annunciator. 

Latin an [ad] nuncidre, to cany tidings to one. 
Anode, an\ode. The positive pole of a voltaic battery. (The 
opposite pole is called the Cathode.) Rule Ixx. 
Greek aiuirddos, the way up ; kata-odos, the way down (JiodosJ. 
Anodon, plu. anodons or anodonta, an\5.don, <fec. The river 
mussel. 
Oreek an ddontoi, without teeth. 



24 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anodyne, an\8.dine, A medicine to relieve pain. 
Greek an ddHni, destroyer of pain. 

Anoint, an.oint' not a.noinf. (Note only one n.) 
Norman-French enoindre ; Latin inungo^ to anoint. 

Anomaly, plural anomalies, a.nom'M.ly, a.nom\a,Uz, In tfae 
Greek word the o is long, to compensate for the lost h, 
Greek andmalos, irregular {h&mdlds, like). £ule Ixx. 

Anomopteris, an'-6.m8p"-te-ri8. Fossil ferns. 
Greek andmos pUhris, anomalous fern. 

Anonymous, a.non\y.rrms. The name suppressed. 
Latin anonymxu ; Greek an dnifma, ^thout a name. 

Anoplotherium, plu. anoplotheria, arC-op-lo.Thee'-ri-um, an'-op- 
lo.Theef-ri-dh, An extinct quadruped without horns, 
tusks, claws, or other weapons of defence. (Rule Ixx.) 
Greek andplds, unarmed (an kSplos, but AvorXos, without h). 
-anse. No word in the language has this terminadoD. 
Anserine, an^s^.rine. Of the goose tribe. (Lat. anser, a goose.) 

-ant (Latin participle sufl&x). ** A " is merely the vowel copula 
of words beloDging to the first conjugation. 

Ant- (Greek prefix), contraction of antL " Opposite to." 

Ant, dntj an insect. Aunt, a relation. Haunt, plaee of resort. 

"Ant," corruption of Old English asmete fcem'tj, an emmet. 
"Aunt," corruption of Latin amita fam'tj, an aunt. 
" Haunt," French hanter^ to frequent a house or place. 

Antacid, ant-a^-ld not an'-tta^^-id. Acid counteracter. 

Antacrid, ant-ahf-rid not an'-ttak'-rid. Acrid counteracter. 

Antarctic, ant.ar¥.tlk not an.tar^.tic. Opposite the arctic. 

Greek anti arktos, opposite the Northern Bear. 
Ante- (Latin prefix), " before," as antedate. 

Antecede, an\tS.ceed (not one of the 3 m-ceed). Rule xxvii. 

Antecedent, antecedence, not antecedant, antecedance. 
Latin ante cecUfre, to go before. (Not of the Ist conjugation.) 

Antediluvian, an''t^-di.lu".vtan. Existing before the Deluge. 
Latin ante dllUvium, before the Deluge. 

Antelope, avf.t^.lope, A corruption of antholope. 

Greek anthos ops, beautiful eye. 
Antemeridian, an''te.me-rid"-i-an. Before noon. 

Latin antimiridianus. 
Antenna, plural antenna (Latin). The feelers of insects. 

Anten'ula, plu. anten'ulsd (Latin) diminutive. 

The singular, antenna, is veiy rarely used. 



AND OF SPELLING, 25 

Antepenult, an'-t^-p^-nulf not an'-t^.pee''-mUt, 

Latin anti fOnif lUHmtu, before the almost last (syL) 

Pene uUimtu, the laat-but-one ; ante penultimtu, the last-but-two. 

Anthelion, phi, Anthelia, ant.Jiee\U,ah. A bright spot opposite 

the sun. The *' h " is needless. (Rule Ixx.) 

Oreek antSlios, dvri^Xios (anti MUoSf opposite the son). 

Anthelix, anth\S.lix, The part of the ear opposite the " helix." 
The th of this word belongs to the first syl. (Rule Ixx.) 

^them, an'.rhem, A corruption of the Old English antefen 
(anVfen, anfem)j same as antiphorij Greek antiphdnSs, 
sounds or Toices from opposite choirs. Anthym (anti- 
humnos) might he " a hymn sung by two opposite choirs," 
but anthem can only be Greek anthemU^ avdefds, q.v. 

Anthemis, anWh^.mU, Chamomile and its group of plants. 

Greek antMrniSf verb anthiA, I blossom [abundantly]. 
Anfherozoides, an'-rh&r'd.zoi^^'deez, life-giving corpuscules of 
algse, ferns, mosses, and lichens {li'.kenz), 

Greek aidher mi-eidoa, life-like anthers. 
Anfhesis, an.rhee'Ms not an\ThSM8, In Botany, 

Greek amXh^aiSf the bursting or opening of a flower. 
Anfhodium, an,TW ,d\,um. The flower-head of comp. plants. 

Greek amlMdia, fall of florets (amthoa duo, I put on flowers). 
Anfholites, an',ThS,Ute8. Fossil impressions of flowei*s. 

Greek <mtho8 litha$, fossil or stone flower. 
Anthophore, an'.rho.fore. The column which supports the petals. 

Greek antho-p?ioros, the flower supporter. 
Anthophylite, an.Thof\U.ite. Species of hornblende. 

Greek anthophulUm, a clove (which it resembles in colour). 
Anthozoa, an''Tho.zo"-ah, Sea-anemones, &c. 

Greek anthos z6a, flower animals. 
Anthracite, an^rhrajiite, Cannel-coal (Greek anthrax, coal). 
Anthracosanrus, plural anthracosauri) an'-Thrdk-o.8aw"-ril.<t. 

Anthracosaur, plural anthracosaurs. An extinct saurian. 

Greek aiUhrax sauros, lizard of the coal-measures. 
Anthracotherium, an'-Thrdk-5.Thee'-ri-um. An extinct beast. 

Greek anthrax thirlon, a wild beast of the coal-measures. 
Anthrakerpeton, an^-Thray.ker".pe-ton. An extinct reptile. 

Greek anthrax erpeton, a reptile of the coal-measures. 
Anthropophagi (plural), an'-Thro.pof'-a-ji. Cannibals. 

Greek anthrdpot pfiagein, to eat men. 
Anti- (Greek prefix), " opposed to," "the opposite of: " as anfidote. 

See Ante-. 
Antichrist, an'-ti.krist. A false Christ, a foe to Christ. 

Greek anti ChrUtos, antagonist of Christ. 



26 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Anticipate, an.tiss'.tpate. To forestall. Anticipat-ing, anti- 
cipation, anticipator, anticipa'tory. 

Latin anticipdre (ante capifrej, to take beforehand. This word and 
cmtiquarian, antiquity, Ac, are the only instances of anii- signi- 
fying b^ore in time, fante-J, instead of antagowistic (anti-). 

Anticlinal, an'-ti.kW-naL (Geology,) Applied to strata. 

Greek anti Minein, [strata] dipping in opposite directions. 
Anticolic not anticholic, (Latin colic [us J), 
Antipathy, plu. antipathies, an.tijp'.a.Thy^ an.tip'.a.TMz. 

Greek anti patMs, a feeling repugnant to [something]. 
Antiphonal, an,tif\o.naL Eesponsive or alternate singing. 
(This word ought to be an,ti.fo'-naL An,tif*-5-nal means 
"mutual slaughter" — dvri'tpSvos.) 
Greek anti pkdnos, 6jrri-<l>(OP0St responsive singing. 

Antiphrasis, anM/'-rdsis, Irony. 

Greek anti phrdsis, [meaning] opposite to the words expressed. 
Antipode, plu. antipodes, an'-tl-pode ; anMp'-o-deez, 

Greek anti podoi, [people whose feet are] opposite to our feet 

Antiquary, an'.ttqua.ry. A person fond of antiquities. Not 
antiquarian which is an adjective. 

Antiqnate, an'.ti.quate, an'dquated, an'tiquating. 

Antique (Fr.), an.teeJsf; antiquely, an.teek'.ly ; antiqneness. 

Antiquity (former ages), plu, antiquities, an,tikf.tDt.tiz, 

Relics of olden times. 
Latin antiqua^tis, from ante before ; anticus, one before ns. 

Antiseptic, an^-ti^ep"-tlk not an'-tLskep^-tic, "Antiseptic'* 
means a preventive of putridity, but " anti^keptic " would 
mean oue who is not sceptical or a disbeliever. 

Greek anti af-ptikos, opposed to putridity ((rijircy). 

Antithesis, plural antitheses, an,tith\^.8i8, an.tith\S.seez, 

Greek anti thisiSy words set in contrast. 
Anvil, an',vil. A smith's iron block, (Old Eng. anfilt. an anvil.) 
Anxiety, plu. anxieties, anx.l'.SMz. Distress of mind. 

Anxious, angk'.shus; anxiousness, anxiously. 

Latin anxietaa, arurius, from anxi, I have vexed. 

Any, en'.ny not an'.ny. Old English enig or cenig. 

Aorta, a.or^.tah. The great or trunk artery. (Greek aorti.) 

Ap- (prefix), Latin preposition ad before p. 

Apartment, a.part'.ment (with one p). A room set " apart.** 

The corresponding French word has double "p" appartemaid; 
ap [ad] parti, parted off for you. 

Apathy, ajj'.a.r/i^r; apathetic, op'.a.TTwf.tfc. Without sympathy. 
Greek a pdtMs, without passion or emotion of mind. 



AND OF SPELLING. 27 

Apatite, ap*.a.Hte, a phosphate of lime. Appetite (for food). 

"Apatite," Greek (Mpati, deceit ; so celled because it appears in every 

TuAetj of colour and form, so that it ia often mistaken. 
"Appetite," Latin ap [ad] petitus (appito, to seek for [food])t. 

Ape, male dog-ape, female hitch-ape. (Old Eng. opa, an ape.) 

Apennine, Ap\^.nine, A range of mountains in Italy. 

Latin Apenniiws. (Single p, double n. ) 
Aperient, a,pee'.ri,ent, (The " e " of this word is short in Latin.) 

Latin ap^Hent, opening. (A laxative medicine. X 
Aperture, ap\er,ture. An opening. (Only one p.) 

Latin dpertura, (dp^rio, to open). 
Apex, plu, apexes or apices ; a.pext pin. a\pex.es or ap'X,9eez, 

Latin apex, plural dplces, the summit of ansrthing. ^ 
Aphelion, plural aphelia ; af,hee'.U.ony af.hee\ltdh. The posi- 
tion of a planet when it is furthest from the sun. Peri- 
helion is its position when nearest to the sun. 
Greek apo hilios, away from the sun. Peri, near. (In Greek it 
would be ap6lion, similar to dTrf\t(irr7js not diprjXuanji.) 

Aphis, plwal aphides, a'.fis, afXdeez, The plant-louse. (Lat.) 

Aphorism, af\S.rizm, A maxim expressed with antithesis. 

Greek aphdrismds, distinction {aphorizd, to separate). 
Apiary, plu, apiaries, ap\l.a.riz, A place for bees (Eule Iv.) 

Latin dpidrivm (dpis, a bee). 
Apiocrinite, ap'-%.ok''-ri-nite, A fossil sea-lily or " eu'crinite." 

Greek apion krinon, pear [shaped] lily [zoOphyte]. 
Apo- (prefix) Greek preposition, equivalent to the Latin "ab," q,v. 

Apocalypse, a-poh^MMps. The Book of the Revelation. 

Greek apokalupsia, from apo kaluptd, to un-cover or reveal. 
Apocrypha, apok.ri.fdh. The uncanonical Scriptures. 

Greek apo hrS^ha, things hidden from [the general]. 
Apocryphal, a,pokf.ri.fdl. Belonging to the Apocrypha, false. 

Apode, ap\ode. Fish without ventral fins, like sword-fish, eels, &c. 

Greek a podoi, without feet (or ventral fins). 
Apodons, ap\o.d&n8. A generic name for " apodes " (ap'.odes). 

Apogee, ap\5.jee. That point in a planet's orbit fiirthest from 
our earth. (The point nearest to our earth is the perigee). 

Greek apo g4, away from the earth {peri ge, near the earth). 
Apollyon, A.poV.yon, The destroyer {Rev. ix. 11). 

Greek apolliian, destroying (Angel of the bottomless jAt). 

Apology, plu. apologies, a.poV.o^iz, excuses ; aporogist. 
Apologetdc, apologet'ical, apologet'ically, apologet'ics. 
Apologize, apologized, &c. (Greek apo-logizomai. R. xxxii.) 
Greek apdldgia, an excuse ; Latin apolog€ticii8, apologetic. 



28 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Apophthegm not apothegm, ap'-S.Them. A sententicnis raying. 

Greek apo phtMgma, [a Baying made] by a word. 
Apoplexy, ap'.S.plex.y, Suspension of the action of the brain. 

Greek apopUxia (apo pliktos, one struck by a fit): 
Apostasy not apostacy, a.po8\td.8y. Falling off from the faith. 

Greek apostdsia (apo stasis, a standing away from the faith.) 
Apostatize not apostatise, a.pos\ta-tize. To become apostate. 

Greek apo stdtizd, to place oneself away from [the faith]. 

A posteriori (Lat.) a po8.ter'ry.d".ri. Causes inferred from effects. 
(The opposite is a priori, effects predicated from known 
causes. Natural Philosophy, being based on data, is an 
example of the former ; Mathematics of the latter.) 

Apostolic, a.pos.toVXk not a.pos^t'lMj adjective of apostle. 

Greek apostolikos (apostdlos, apo stelo, to send off on a message). 
Apostrophe, plu. apostrophes (Greek), a.pos'.tro.f^, a.pos\tro.fiz, 
Apos'trophise, apos'trophised (4 syl.), apos'trophising. 

Greek apoetropM. ("Apostrophise " is not a Greek word. B. xxxiii.) 
Apothecary, plu. apothecaries, a.poth'.e.ka.riz, A druggist. 

Greek apoihikS, a place for stores. " Apothecary " a drug-storer. 

Apotheosis, generally called ap'-o-rheco^'-siSj but more correctly 
ap'-o.Th^-o'\8is (ixoOiwa-is). Deification. 
Greek apo the6sis, [placed with the gods] by deification. 
Appal, appalled (2 syl.), appall-ing, appall-ingly. (Rule 1.) 
(This word would be better with double "I" — appalL) 
Latin ap [ad] pall [co], to turn very pale. 
Appanage, ap'.pa.ndje. Lands assigned to younger sons. 

Med. Lat. ap [a,d\ pandgium, f br maintenance (pants, bread). 
In French one " p," apanage. 

Apparatus, ap' -pa.ra" -tiis not ap* -pa.raf -us nor a-par^rat-us, 

Latin ad [ad] pardtvs, [instruments] prepared for [experiments]. 
Apparel, apparelled (3 syl.), apparell-ing. (Rule iii -el.) 

French appareU ; Latin ojp [ad] paro, to dress thoroughly. 
Apparent, ap.pair^.ent not a.pair\ent. Evident. 

Latin ap [ad] parens, parentlis], visible to [men]. 
Appeal, ap.peaV not a.peaV, To refer to a higher court. 

Latin ap [ad] pelldre, to drive or refer to [another court]. 

Appearance. (The spelling of this word is quite indefensible.) 
It ought to be appearence, as " apparent." 
Latin ap [ad] parens; Med. Latin apparentia; French apparence. 
Appease, ap.peez' not a'.peez*. To pacify. (Double^.) 

Latin ap [ad] pac^fico ; French one " p," apaiser (pax, peace). 
Appellant, ap.peV.lanU One who removes his suit to a higher 
court. 
Latin ap [ad] peilo. Medieval Latin appellans (a noun). 



AND OF SPELLTNG. 29 

Appendage, ap.pen\dage not a. pen'.dage. Something added. 
Medieval Latin ap [ad] peridUia, hong on to [something else]. 

Appendant, appendance. (These words ought to he appendent, 
appendence, as dependent, dependence, independent, inde- 
pendence, pendent, impendent.) 

Latin ap [ad] pendent, hanging on to [something]. 

Appen'dix, plural appen'dixes or appen'dices (4 syl.) A sup- 
plement. 
Latin appendix, plural appendices (4 B7I.) 

Appetite, ap\p^.tite. Natural desire for food. {See Apatite.; 
Latin ap [ad] petUua (ap-peto, to seek for [food]). 

Applaud, ap.plawd' not a.plawd^. To praise hy clapping hands. 
Applause, ap.plawz' not a.plawz'. To clap the hands. 
Latin ap [ad] plavdo, to clap the hands [in approval]. 

Applicahle, ap\pVLkd.b'l not a.pli¥.a.b'le, Suitahle. 
Latin ap [ad] plicaMlia, fit to be folded to [something]. 

Apply, applies (2 syl.), applied (2 syl.), applier, appli-able, appli- 
ance, appli-cahle, appli-cability, but apply -ing. 

Latin ap [ad] plico, to fold to (or) against something. 
To "apply a blister,'* is to fold it to the skin. To "apply to your 
books," is to fold your attention or thoughts on them. 

Appoggiatora, aj^-pof-ja.til"-rdh not a-podg'-y-too^-rah. A 
grace-note m Music, (Italian.) 

Italian appoggiare, to lean on something. A grace-note "leans on " 
the note preceding it. 

Appoint, ap.poinf not S.poinf ; appointment (double p). 

French appointer, to give a salary to a person. 
(It is incorrect to say a person is " appointed " on a committee or 
board, if no "pay'* is attached to the office.) 

Apportioned, appor^^shund not a.pot'jihtmd. Assigned. 
Latin ap [ad] partio, [to give] to one his portion. 

Apposite, ap\po.zite. To the point. In Grammar, an amplifi- 
cation without a connecting word: as " Victoiia, daughter 
[of the duke of Kent]. 
Latin ap [ad] poHtus, placed (or) put to [the other]. 

Appreciate, ap.pree'.8he.ate not d.pree'.8he.ate, 

Fr. appredvr. Lat ap [ad] prtiiiuin, [to value] according to its price. 

Apprehend, ap.pre.hend', apprehend-er, apprehend-ing (from the 
root), apprehens-ible, apprehens-ion, apprehens-ive (from 
the supine). 
Latin ap [ad] prehend-^re, appreheM-um, to seize on. 

Apprentice, ap.pren\ti8 not d.pren\tlz. One bound to a trade. 

French apprenti, a learner {apprendre, to learn) ; Latin apprehendo 
or apjfrmdo, to learn. 



30 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Apprise, ap.prizef. To inform, to give one notice of [something]. 

French appris, participle of apprendre, to learn. 
Approach, ap.proctch' not d.proacK ; approacliable. 

French approcher (proche, near), to draw near. 
Approbation, ap'-pro.hay"'Shun. Approval. (Double p.) 

Latin ap [ad] prohdtio, proof or satisfaction given to [the judgment]. 
Appropriate, ap.pro\pri.ate not a.pro\pH.ate ; appropriator. 

French approprier, Latin ap [ad] proprius, [to take] to one's self. 
Approve, ap.proov* not a.proov\ To admit the propriety ofl 

Latin ap [ad] proho^ to prove to (or) satisfy [the judgment]. 
Approximate, ap.proa^ .Inmate not S>.proz\tmate. 

Latin ap [ad] progdmarey to draw next to some one. 
Appui, ap\pwe\ (In honemanship) reciprocity between horse 
and rider. If the mouth of the horse answers readily to 
the bit, the horse has a good appui. If the rider manages 
his reins skilfully, he has a good appui. 

French appui, a support or fulcrum ; the two ends of the lever are 
the reins and bit, the power is applied by the hand of the rider, 
the fulcrum is the comer of the horse's mouth. "Appui" is a 
nice adjustment of power in the rider, and a sensitive response in 
the mouth of the horse. 

Appurtenance, ap.pw/ .tS.nance not a.pwr^ .tS.nance. (The spell- 
ing of this word is quite indefensible.) 
Latin ap [ad] pertinenSt pertaining to ; French appartejianot. 
A priori (Latin), a pri.o\ri. Premising the effects of a cause. 

In Mathematics^ we argue a priori : thus, knowing the 
value of 2 and 4, we conclude that 2x4= 8, 4-^2 = 2. 

In Natural Philosophy we proceed the other way (a poste- 
riori) : thus, we find all unsupported bodies fall to the 
earth, and from this fact we assume there is a power in 
the earth to cause it. The power we call " gravitation." 

Apron, a\pron not a\pun. " An apron " corruption of a nape- 
ron (French), a large cloth (nappe^ a table-cloth). 

Apse CI syl.) of a church. The bay or curved part behind the 
altar. This word ought to he hapse (Greek d^/j.) 

Apsis, plu. apsides, ap'.sis, ap'.si.deez. Two points in the orbit 
of planets, one nearest the sun, and the other furthest 
off. (This word ought to he hapsis, hapsides.) 

Greek hapsis^ a hoop, arch, bow {jkrj/ls). 

Aptera, ap'.tS.ruh. Wingless insects, as spiders, fleas, &c. 
(For the singular we use the word ap'teran.) 
Greek a ptira, without wings. 
Aquatic, a.quat'.ik. Pertaining to water, living in water. 
(In Latin, the second " a " of this word is long.) 
Ijatin agudtictta, aquatic (aqua, water). 



AND OF SPELLING. 81 

Aquazinm, plural aqnaria or aqnaiimns. Cases for the exhi- 
bition of marine animals and plants. (Thii word should 
be aqna-Ylvarium, as the Latin word ** aquarium " means 
a "place for watering cattle,*') 

Aqnednet, not aquaduc nor aquaduct, a'.qu^.duct. 

Latin aqw^-dudtu, a duct or conduit for water. (Aquse, gen. case.) 

Aqueous, a\qtte.us. Watery. (Latin ? aqu^.) (Note, ague not 
aqua,) {The spelling of this word is indefensible.) 

Aquilegia, a'-quLlee^-gi-ah. The Columbine plants. 

(This word is most improper to express "An eagle-like 

plant" It exists in Latin^ and means " vessels to collect 

water ** (aqua-lego). Aqui, a cont. of the old foiTU aqtuii.) 

Xatin aquila, an eagle ; from a fanciful resemblance of the flower to 
eagle's claws. " Columbine " is from Columba, a dove ; from a 
limilar resemblance to the claws of a pigeoa. Probably it is a 
corruption of aquila-chilea—cheU, a bird's claw (the eagle'i-claw). 

Aquiline, a1(f.qut,line. Hooked like an eagle's beak. 
Latin dquiliniia, like an ei^le {dgvXla, an eagle). 

Ar- (prefix) is the Latin preposition ad before r. 

■Mr, (termination) of adjectives is the Latin -r[t»] preceded by 
**a," as vulgar, ** pertaining to** the vulgus (mob). 

-«r, termination of native nouns, " agents " — beggar. 

Aiabeiqne, Ar^.a.hesk. Moorish ornamentation. 
•esque (French postfix for like\ Arab-like. 

Arabic, Ar'r&.blk not A.rah'.&k. The Arabian language, from 
Arabia, Arabian : as gum-arabic. 

Arable, ar'ra.b'l. Fit for tillage, cultivated by the plough. 
(This word in Latin has the second " a " long.) 
Latin eurdbttis (verb arare, to plough). It is the long a of the 1st conj. 

Arachnoid, a.rakfnoid. A membrane of the brain fine and 
delicate as a cobweb. In Botany, soft downy fibres. 
Greek aracni^eidos, like a cobweb. 

AraneideB, a.rain'.Ldeez, The spider family. 

The genus is called arachnida, d.rakf.ntdah. 
latin ardneoridds, the spider family. 

Arbitrary, ar^.bi.trar"rp not af^.btter"ry. Dogmatic. 

Latin arhitrarius (dra Mto, to go to the altar to give judgment. In 
swearing, the Romans touched the horns of the altar, hence the 
phrase tuque ad aras, to assert on oath). 

Arbitrarily, ar^.bl.trai^ry.ly not aj^M.ter"ry.ly. Dogmatically. 

Arbitrator, feminine arbitratriz. An umpire (Law Latin). 

Arboretum, plu. arboreta, ar'-bosee^-tum, ar'-bcree'^tah. A 
pleasure ground of rare shrubs and trees (Latin). 



32 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Arbour (of a garden) not harbour. Harbour (for ships) not arhowr. 

"Arbour," Latin arbor, a tree (a seat under a tree). 
" Harbour," Old English here-berga^ an army-station, hence a place 
for a fleet, and hence a place for shiiM in general. 

Arbutus, ar*.bu.tu8 not ar.bu'.tus (Latin). The strawberry-tree. 

Arc, part of a circle ; Arch (in architecture). 

Latin arcus, a bow. "Arch"— this word is a blunder, from the 
supposition that architect means a maker of arches, and not a 
"directing builder" (Greek oArchiteetdn, archi tektOn), where the 
prefix ar^ir is from the verb arc/id, to direct, and not from the 
Latin a/reue, a bow. 

Arcanum, 'plu. arcana (Latin), ar.kaif.numy ar.kay\ndh, A 
secret [preparation], the secrets of a secret society. 

Arch- (prefix), Teutonic arg, " crafty,** " waggish," as archness. 

Arch- (prefix), Greek arkos, " chief," as arc/ibishop. 

EuiiE i. — Arch- followed by a consonant is pronounced arch. 
EuiiE ii. — ^Arch- followed by a yowel is pronounced ark. 
Examples of Bule i. — 



CH-bish'op 


ARCH- duke 


ARCH-mar'shal 


-bish'opric 


-duke'dom 


-ness 


(Archiepiscopal, E. 


ii.) -du'cal 


-pas'tor 


-bml'der 


-duch'y 


-philos'opher 


-butler 


-duch'ess 


-po'et 


-but' tress 


-fel'on 


-pon'tiff 


-cham'berlain 


-fiend 


-prel'ate 


-chan'cellor 


-flam'en 


•pres'byter 


-conspir'ator 


-flatt'erer 


-priest 


-crit'ic 


.foe 


-pri'mate 


-dea'con 


-gov'ernor 


-proph'et 


-dea'conry 


-her'etic 


-stone 


-dea'conship 


-her'esy 


-trait'ors 


( Archidiaconite, E. 


.ii.) -hyp'ocrit© 


-trea'son 


-di'ocese 


-like 


-ty'rant 


-Dru'id 


-ly 


-wise 


Examples of Bule ii. — 






ARCH-aism ARCH.i.epis'copate 


ARCH'.i.tect 


-fle.ol'ogy 


-i.epis'copal 


-Itecture 


-an'gel 


-il 


-Ltrave 


-angel'ic 


-i.loch'ian 


-i.volt 


-e.go.sau'rus 


-ima'gus 


-ives 


-e.type 


-ee.im'edes 


-on 


-ical 


-i.perago 


•on.ship 


-idiac'cnal 






Exceptions: — 






ARCH-apos'tAte 


not ark. 


.apos'tate 


ARCH-apos'tle 


not ark 


.apotftle 



ARCH-er, ARCH-ery, ARCH-ed, ABCH-es, ABCH-ing, &c. 



AND OF SPELLING, 33 

Archives, ark.ives not ar'.cheevz. Historical records, their d6pdt. 

Greek archeian, a public building, residence of the chief magistrates 
under whose charge the public records were placed. 

Arctic, arVMh not af.tih. Pertaining to the North Pole. 
Greek arktos^ the [Great] Bear, the chief northern constellation. 

-ard (native suffix), " species," " kind : " dotard, dmnkard — one of 
the doting kind, one of the drunken kind. 

Ardent, ardent-ly, ardency. (Latin ardens, ardentU, burning.) 

Ardour, ar^,dor, Fervency. (Latin ardor, French ardeur.) 

Are, dr not air. The old Norse "we, you, they are" has 
superseded the older form of aynd or sinden. 

Areca, a.reef.li&h. The betel-nut tree. (Malabar areek.) 

Arena, plural arenoB or arenas, a.ree'.nah, a.retf.nee, a.ree^.ndz. 

Latin arSna^ sand ; that part of the amphitheatre where the gladia- 
tors fought, which was always well sanded. 

Aieola, plural areolad, a.ree'.dMh, (sing.), means the coloured 
circle round the nipple of the breast ; a.ree'.o,lee (plural) 
means the spaces in the wings of insects between the 
nervures (2 syl.) Aurelia^ ^'V., is quite another word. 

Areopagus, afree.op^-a-giis not ar*ree'-o,pay"^gu8. 

Greek Ares pagSs, Mars' Hill (a cotirt of justice in Athens). 

Argentine, ar'.genUln (a mineral) ; ar'.gen.tine (adj.), like silver, 
belonging to the republic of La Plata. 
Latin argentum, silver. (The metal is also called orgeuton.) 

Argil, ar'.gil, clay ; argill-aceous, argiU^iferous, argill-ite, argiU- 
itic, argill-ous, <fcc. (with double I), (Kule iii. -il.) 

Argonantie, ar^-go.naufik not ar^-g5.nawk''-t%k. Pertaining to 
the argonauts. (Greek Argo nauSy the ship " Argo.") 

Argue, ar^.gu; argues, af.giize; argued, ar^.gude; arguer, 
ar^.gu.er; ar'gument not arguement, ar'gmnenta'^tion, 
ar'gumen'^tatiyet ar^gumen^'tatively. (The "e" in ar- 
gue is a blunder.) (This is the only word, except four 
verbs in "-dgei" which drops the **e" before **ment") 
Rule xviii. 
French argu[er]^ a/rgumenif argumentation, &c. ; Latin arguo. 

Arise, past tense arose, past part, arisen. Aris-ing. 
A.rize\ a.roze^, a.rii'M, a.rize'.ing. To rise up. 
Old English arisian], past ards, past participle arisen. 

Aristocracy, plu. aristocracies, ar'ris,tok'''ra-8p, ar'ris. tokf-ra-siz. 

It U now cuM^mary to spell all the words from the Greek kratia 
"cracy," not crasy : thus, aristocraci/, autocrocy, democracy, with 
the hybrid mohocracy. The ending -cy denotes ' ' rank, " • ' office, " &o. 

Greek aristokratia faHston kraieinj, rule of the best-bom. 





36 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ascaris, plural ascarides, asf.kd.ris, as.kar^ry.deez, 
Greek ctskdrit, afl. intestinal thread-worm. 

Ascend, ascended (3 syl.) : -ed after "d" or "t" forms a sepa- 
rate syUable. 

Ascension not -tion : after " d," " de," or " t," -sion and not 
-Hon is added. 

Ascendency, ascendant ought to be ascendent (not the Ist 
Latin conjugation). 

Ascendal^le, one of the abnormal words in ^ble. (Rule 

xxiii.) It ought to be ascendible, like " descendible.*' 
Latin as [ad] scend^re (ie., scandere), to climb up to [something]. 

Ascertain, as'ser.tain'. To make oneself sure by investigation. 

Latin cm [ad] certus, to assure oneself. 
Ascetic, 08.861' Xk, a hermit ; acetic, a.8ee\tikj sour. • 

Greek askitds [asked, to honour a diyinity). 

Ascii, as'si-i. Those who have no shadow [at noon]. For the 
singular we use the word as'cian. 
Greek a skia, without shadow (people in the torrid zone). 

Ashamed, a.thamed' not as^shamed^ " To be ashamed," and 
'*To be glad," are deponent verbs, that is, passive in form 
but active in sense. 
Old English a-scamian, to be ashamed ; gladian, to be glad. 

Ask, dsk not ask (ax is a vulgarism). Old English asc[ian'\, 

-asm (Greek termination -sm [o«] preceded by " a." It is added 
to nouns), " system of," " state of" — enthusiasm. 

Asparagus, as.par'ra.gus not spar'row. grass nor grass. 

Greek aspdr&gHs, a plant with turios, i.e., unexpanded shoots. 
Asperse, aspersed' (2 syl.), aspersMng, aspers'-er, aspers'-ion. 

Latin aspergo, supine a^persum, to sprinkle. 
Asphodel, a^.fo.del not as.fd'.deh The day-lily, or Eing's-spear. 

Greek asphUdSUis [spdcUfs, ashesX from its use in funerals. 
Asphyxia, a^.fix'Xuh. A lull in the action of the heart. 

Greek a sphvais, without pulse (frcmi suffocation, &c ) 
Aspire', aspired (2 syl.), aspir'-ing, aspir'-er, aspirant. 
As'pirate, as'pirated, as'pirat-ing, a8'pira"tion. 

Latin as [ad] spirdre, to breathe towards or aim at [something]. 

>a88 (French termination -a^se added to nouns), means " made 
of," as cuirass, made of leather [cuir). 

Afls, possessive case ass's, ass'Jlz ; plural assea, ass\ez. 
Aaeail, assailed (2 syl.), assail-ing, assail-er. (Kule iL) 

Aflsailable, a8.sail'a.Vl not a.sait.a,b'l, (Rule xxiii.) 
Latin a$ [ad] tolfrs, to leap on one. 



AND OF SPELLING. 'S: 



»in, <u.ia;^s\n. One who attempts murder by surprise. 

AxmeniAn hashishin, hemp-eaters (Lank) : hoMo,, to lie in ambush 
in order to kill (Volne y). (06«en« double s twice. ) 

AssaBsinate, oiJiojif .i\n.ate. To kill by surprise. (Double « twicv .) 

Assault, as^salf not a^aawlf. To attack violently. 

Latin aa [ad] aaUvmy to leap on another. 
Assay, past tense assayed not assaid. It is no comp. of ** say." 

French essayer, to try ; Medietal Latin assaia, assay. 

Assemble, assembled, as.8em'.Vld^ assem'bl4ng, assem'bl-er 
assem'bl-y, assem'bl-age. (Double s throughout.) 

French assembler, to gather persons together ; Med. Latin OMeni- 
hUUio, (as ladj aimvX hUttio, to chat together). 

Assent, as.senf not a.sent\ To admit as true. 

Latin as [ad] sentio, to think as ynu think. 

Assertion, as.sef.shun not d.ser' .shun. An affirmation. 

Latin as [ad] sertwm. Not the supine of "sero," to sow, which is 
sdtum, but of ser»« to knit or weave; whence serire isollomiia 
(Livy), and seri^re sermdnes (Plautus). Conversation Ls a " web of 
words," or " knitting thoughts with words." 

Assessor, as-ses'^sSr not a.ses\ser. One who assesses. (E. xxxvii.) 

Assessable, one of the abnormal words in -able, (R. xxiii.) 
Latin as [ad] sessor^ a sitter [at a board for adjusting taxes]. 

AsBets, as^setsf (plu.) Property available for payment of debts. 
Latin as [ad] satis, [to be taken till there is] enough to [pay all]. 

Aflseyerate, as.sev\e.rate^ assev'erat-ed, assev'erat-ing, assev'e- 
rat-or, assev'era"tion. To declare positively. 

Latin as [ad] severdre, to speak according to the truth. 

AsBidnous, as.sid'.u.u8 not dMd'.ju.us. Industrious. 
Latin as [ad] sedifo, to sit dose to [work]. 

Assign, asMne not d-sine^. To make over to another. 
Assignor, as^stnor not as.sig\noT nor as. sine'. en- . 
Assignee, a^'.s\.nee not as.sig'.nee nor as.8ine\nee. 
Assignment, as.sine'.ment not d.sine\nient, (Double s.) 
Latin as [ad] sigrio, to mark out for another. 

Assimilate, asMm*.%.late not dMrn' .U.late. To make like. 

Assim'ilat-ed, assim'ilat-ing, assim'ilat-or, assim'ila"tion. 
Latin as [ad] simildre, to liken to something else (-mi- not -mu-J. 

Assistant, assistance, as.sis'.tanty a8.8is\tance (Rule xxiv.) 
Latin aa [ad] aistens, standing by or near another. 

Asdze, plu. assizes, as.size', as.size'.ez. (Double s.) 
Law Latin osstsa ^os [ad] sessioj, a sitting to [hear trials]. 



40 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Atrocious, a.tro'.shu8 not at.tro'.shu8. Very heinous. 
Latin o^ox, atrddSy black, heinous. 

Atrocity, a.tros'.i.ty ; atrocionsness, a.tro. shits. ness^ 
(In Latin the " o " of atrocity is long.) (Atrddta^J 

Attach, attach' ; attachment, at,tach\ment. (Doable U) 
French attadier, to bind to another. Low Latin attachidre. 

Attack, attacked, at.takf not d.takf. To assault. 

French attaguer; Latin at [ad] Greek ta^sgo, to put an army in array; 
hence the Latin word tactici, those who array an army. 

Attain, attain. To touch on, not to complete. Thus a man 
attains his 50th year on his 50th birthday. 
Attainment, attainable (double t). Eule xxiii. 
Latin at [ad] tingre [tenere], to touch on, to reach till yon tonch. 

Attainted, attaint'. ed not a.taint.ed. Condemned to lose one's 
civil rights, stained with the charge of treason. 
Latin at [ad] tinctus {tin^o, to dye ; Greek teggo—tengo). 
Attempt, attempt' not d.tempt An effort, to try. 

Latin at [ad] tento^ to try to [do something]. 
Attend, attention, at. tend', atten'.shun, (Double t.) To stretch 
the mind to follow a person's thoughts, hence to follow. 
Latin at [ad] tendo, to stretch out to something. 

Attendance, attendant. These should be attendence, attendent : 
as superintendent, superintendence. (Rules xxiv. and xxv.) 
Latin attendens, attendentis, verb attendi^re, to attend. 

Attenuate, atten'.u.ate not d.ten'.u.ate. To make thin. 

Atten'uated, atten'uat-ing, atten'ua"tion, atten'uat-or. 
Latin at [ad] tenuo, to make very thin. 

Attestation, aV-tes.tay^-shun not d-tes.tay^-shun. Attestator. 
Latin at [ad] testdri, to bear witness to [a document]. 

Attire, at.tire' not d.tire'. A dress, to dress or adorn. 
Attired' (2 syl.), attiK-ing, attir'-er. 

French atour, a head-dress ; dame d'atour, lady of the bed-chamber. 
Attorney, attur'.ney, plu. attorneys not attomies. 

Law Latin attomdtus, one who takes the tun or place of [his client]. 

Attorney-general, plu. attorney-generals, not attorDeys-general. 
In this compound '* general " is not an adjective, but a 
noun. The word does not mean general or common 
attornies, but head or crown attorneys. Similarly lieu- 
tenant-generals, brigadier -generals, major-generals^ &c. 

Attraction, at.trac'.shun not d.trac'.shun. 

Latin at [ad] tractio, a drawing towards something. 

Attractable, attractability. These ought to be attractible, at- 
tractibilityy as contractible, contractibility (Bole xxiii.) 



AND OF SPELLING, 41 

Attribute, af.tH,bute (noun) ; at.trih\ute (verb) (Rule 1.) 
Latin at [ad] iriJyuifre, to give or ascribe to someone. 

Attributable, contributaftZ^, diatribntable (Rule xxiii.) 

Attrition, at.irish^on not a.trUK.on. Wearing by fnctiou. 

Latin at [ad] trUtu, [one thing] nibbed against another. 
Attune, at.tunef not d.tune* ; attuned (2 syl.); attun'-ing. 

Latin at [ad] tonuSf to put in tune [with other instruments]. 
Auction, awW^ihun not ok^shun. A sale by bidding. 

Latin audio (avgeo, to increase [the amount of each bid]). 
Aucnba, au^ku.bah not a.ku'.ba7i. A Japanese plant. 
Audacious, au.day'shus not ou.day'^shus. Bold, impudent. 

French attdadeux, Latin audaa, atuidds, bold. 
Audible, not audable ; 6o inaudible. (Not the 1st Lat. coiij.) 

Latin avdirei to hear ; avdibilis, What may be heard. 
Audience. " A.B. had an audience of Her Majesty," not " an 
audience with — ; " " the queen gave an audience to — " 

Augean, Au'.j^.an not Au.jee'.an (short e). The king's name 
iv&Q AugSaa not Augeas. A mythical king of Elis (Greece.; 

Aught and naught ; ought and nought. 

Old English dht, anything ; ndht (ne dhtj, nothing. 
Also, 6Mf anything ; ndht (ne dht), nothing. 

Aiigment, aug'.ment (noun) ; aug.menf (verb). Rule 1. 

August, au\gu8t (nouH); au.gusf (adjective). 

Augustins, not Augustines, Of the order of St. Augustin. 

Aimt not ant, a corruption of ami. Ant, ant not amt. 

Latin amit[a] shortened to am't ; similarly " ant " is a corruption 
of emt; i.e., emit shortened to em't. Incorrectly emmit. 

Amelia, au.ree'.li.ah. It ought to be au.rel'.tah. 

Latin aurum, gold, with the diminutive ^el, and the termination 
•ia, the little gold creature. The Greek chrusallis i& the same : — 
(hrusas, gold ; chrusallis, the little gold creature (our " chrysalis "). 

Anieola, au'.rS.S.ldh not au.red.o.ldh nor au.re.d'.lah. The 
circle of gold or *• glory '* round portraits of saints. 
Latin auridlus, golden ; auf€(Ha, the golden nimbus (aurumj. 
Amicula, au.rikf.u.lah. The plant called " bear's-ear." 

Latin auriSy and the diminutive -cula, a little ear ; so called because 
the leaves resemble in sh&pe a bear's ear. 

Auspice, plu. auspices, aiLs'.pUy au8\pi.8iz. Augury. 
Auspicious, aus.pUh'.us, Lucliy ; of good auj<ury. 
Latin aiMpictum, divination from birds [aves specto, I inspect birds). 

AHfltere, ausUear^, comp. auster'er, sup. auster'est. 
Austerity, plu. austerities, avsdey.rXdiz. 
Latin austirus, rough; anuUritas; Greek ausUrds, attstirdtis. 



42 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Anthentic and Genxiine, au.Thcn/.fiky genf.u.in, 

*' Authentic " book, one true in what it states, 
" Genuine " book, one written by the person to whom it 
is ascribed. 

Author, feminine authoress or author. (Latin autJiorf E. xxxvii.) 

Authorise, not authorize, (It is not a Greek word. Eule xxxi.) 

Autocracy not autocrasy. (See Aristocracy.) 

Greek autd-krdtSs, mling by oneself, absolute. 
Autocrat, feminine autocratrix, au\to,krat, au,toh,rd-tr%x. 

Greek auiUkrdt&r, an absolute monarch. 
Auto-da-f6 not auto-de-fe^ pronounce au'-to da-fay' (Port.) 
Autom'aton, pin. autom'ata or autom'atons. 

Greek automaton (atUos mattd, to work of oneself). 
Autumn, aw'.tum ; autum'naL (Latin autumnvs.) 

Auxiliary, plu. auxiliaries, atuciV.iM.riz, not aux.iVM.riz, 

Latin avxilium, hdp ; auaMXdres, avaUXwriuSy sent from allies ; verb 
auxUVlor^ to help, from auglo, perf. avxi, to increase. 

Avail, a.vair, avail-able, avail- ableness, avail-ability, <fcc. (Il.xxiii.) 

Latin a [ad] vaUre, to be strong against [an adversary]. 
Avalanche, av\a.lansh', A vast body of snow sliding down a 
mountain. 
French avaUmge; Latin a [ad] vailem landndre, to tear sway 
towards the valley. 

Avarice, av*.a.r^ ; avaricious, avM.rish'.us ; avariciousness. 

Latin avaritla, avarice ; avdrus, a covetous man. 
Avenge, a.venge' ; avenged' (2 syl.), aveng'-ing, aveng'-er. 

Old French avenffier, to revenge ; Latin a [ad] vindicdre* 
Aver, averred', averr-ing, a.ver^y a.verd\ a.ver'.ing. (Bule L) 
Averse, a.verse' ; averse-ly, averse' -ness, aver'sion. 
Averf, avert'ed, av^rt'ing, avert'-er. 

Latin a verto, to turn away, supine aversum. 
Aviary, pLu. aviaries, av'X,d.riz. A place for fancy birds. 

Latin dvidriurfiy an aviary {dviiy a bird). 

Avocation, av\o.kay'',8hun. An occupation distinct from your 
regular trade or profession. It is incorrect to call your 
ordinary business your avocation^ it is your vocation. 
Thus building is the ** vocation" of a builder, gardening 
may be his " avocation." 
Latin a-vocation, a calling away [from business]. 
Avoid, a.void\ avoid-able, avoid-ance, avoid-er, 

Latin a vitdre, to shun from [seeing a person]. 
Avoirdupois, ai/.wor.du.poiz". The ordinary trade weights. 

Corruption of the Old French a^ers "goods in general," du '* of," and 
poiM " weight.*' A system of weights for goods " sold by wfidght.** 



AND OF SPELLING, 4S 

Awake, piist awoke or [aiDaked, 2 syl. ], pcut part, awoke or 
lawaken] ; awak-iug, a.%Da1ce\ing. To rouse from sleep. 
Old Eng. aiM(e[a»], past aicdc, past pi^. awacen, to awake. 

Awaken, past part, awakened (3 syl.) (In a religious sense.) 
out English awcecnlicmlt past avHBcnede, past part, avxxcned. 

Awe, aw-ing, aw-ful, aw-fully, aw-fulness ; hut awe-struck, awe- 
less. ' Old English ^ge, dread. (Rules xvii. and xix.) 

Awkward means left handed; hence ungracefuly clumsy, 

French gau<^. Awk, the left hand. ''The awke or left hand" 
(HoUand's " Plutarch "). 

Awl, a shoemaker's tool for boring holes. All, every- one. 

Haxd, a catch of fishes. Hall (of a house), a mansion. 

" Awl," Old Eng. afl or aioel. »n awl. " AU," Old Eng. al or al. 
"Haul," French haUr, to haul. •'HaU,*' Old Eng. hecdU a haU. 

Axil, aaf.il, the armpit. Axle, ax.H (of a wheel). 

AyHj ax'ill-ar, ax'ill-ary. (Latin axilla, the armpit.) 

Axle, axle-tree. Axled, a^'.ild. (Latin axis, an axis.) 

AxiB, plu. axes (Latin), ax'.iss, ax'.eez (The plural of Axe is 
also axes, but pronouriced ax'ez.) 

Ay or aye (meaning yes), plu. ayes, eye, eyes. No, plu, noes. 

Aye, a, meaning always. Old English awa, always ; Greek ai. 

Azalea not alalia, ajsay\lif.ah, A genus of shrubs. 
Greek azalifos, dry : so called because it loves a dry soil. 

Azoic, a.zo.ik. Where no trace of life exists, as " azoic rocks." 
Greek a z6on, without a living creature. 

■ 

Babble, bab'.h% to prate. Babel, Barbel (Gen. xi. 9). 
Babbled, bab',b'ld ; babbler, babbling. (Double b.) 
French bdbiller, to prattle. 

Baboon, bd.bocm'. A large monkey. (One b.) Rale Ixi. 
French boMne, a lip, and -oon, augmentative (large-lipped). 

Baby, plu. babies, bay'. by, bay'.bez ; also babe, babes (1 syl.) 
A word common to the whole Aryan family of languages. 

Bacchanal, hah'.ka.nul; Bacchanalian. (Double c.) 
Greek Bakt^s, the wine-god. Latin Bacckdndlis, Bacchus. 

Bachelor, batcK.^.lor; feminine spinster, maid. 

Backgammon, back-gam! .iriSn. (Double m.) 

Either Old English hac-gomen, the back game ; because the art is to 

bring all the pieces back into the adversary's table. 
Or Welsh ba£h cammaun, a little battle. 
Or Danish baJdee gammen, a tray game. 

Backward (adj.), duU. Backwards (adv.), in a back direction. 



44 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bad, worse (comparative deg.), worst (superlative deg.) Worse, 
worst, are the degrees of the obsolete word wear (bad). 

Bade, had (past tense of *< bid"). The final « is to compensate 
for the diphthong in bced, 

" Bad " is probably an ecclesiastical word, taken from Bev. ix. 11 ; 
'* Abaddon," from the verb dbad, to be lost. If so, bad means 
"lost eternally." 

Badinage, had'.Lnarje not had'.tnazh nor had*X.naje^ Banter. 
Bag, bagged (1 syl.), bagg-ing, bagg-age (Rule i.) 
Bagatelle, hag'.a.telV (French). A trifle, a game. 
Bagnio, plu. bagnios, ban*. yd, ban'.ydze (Rule xlii.) 

Bail, surety. Bale, a packet. (Both pronounced alike.) 

•' Bail," French bailler, to give or deliver. 
** Bale," French balle, a pedlar's pack. 

Bailiff, a steward, an officer of justice. Bailey, a prison (R. vi.) 

" Bailiff," Law Latin balllviLs, a bailiff. 

"Bailey/* Law Latin ballium, the enclostire 6f a fortress. 

Bait, lure for fish, refreshment for a horse. Bate, to lessen. 
" Bait, " Old English b(U[anl • ' Bate '* or *' abate, " French dbattn. 

Baize, coarse woollen cloth. Bays, plu. of bay (laurel). 
'* Baize," Spanish bayita ; called in French tspagnoletU. 

Balance not hallance. A pair of scales. (Only one " L") 
Latin bt-^laruxs, two dishes or platters. French balance. 

Balcony, pUi. balconies, baV.ko.nlz. Window platforms. 
In the Italian the " o " is long: balcone fbal.k&.nej. 

Bald, bawld not bawl. Without hair. Baldness not bawl.ness. 

Bale, a packet. Bail, surety. {See Bail.) 

Balk, bawk. Old English balca, a balk. 

Ball, retains double Hn all its compounds ! as ball-oon, ball-ot, 
ball-room, football, snowball, <fec. (Rule x.) 

Ballad, Ballet, Ballot, bdV.ldd, baV.lay, baV.lot, 

Ballad. A song containing a tale. (French ballade.) 

Ballet. A theatrical dance. (French ballet.) 

Ballot, " A little ball " used in voting. (French baUotte,) 

Balloon, bal.loon\ Ball with -oon augmentative. (Rule Ixi.) 

Balluster, baV.lus.ter. A short ornamental pillar. 

(The guard of a staircase is corruptly called banister.) 

Ballustrade, bal'.us.trdde\ A set of ballusters. 
French baliLsire, balustrade. 

Balm (the herb). Barm, ferment, leaven. 

" Balm," contraction of haUam (bal'm), Latin. 
*' Barm," Old Bnglish heortna, leaven. 



AND OF SPELLING, 45 

Bamboo, plural bamboos (Malay), ham^hoo'^ ham'.hooz*. 

Ban, banned (1 syl.), bann-ing. Banns (of marriflge). Eule i. 

Latin hannum, a ban ; tanna (matrimonialia), banns. 
Banana (Spanish), hamdh'.nah not hd.nay'.nah. 

Bandit, plural bandits or banditti, han.ditf, han.ditf.ty, 

Italian "banditio, plural handittiy outlaws. 
Bandrol, hand\rol. The little flag attached to a trumpet. 

French haiideroU (2 sjL), hande and -role (diminutive). 
Bandyi plural bandies (2 syl.), ban'died (2 syL), ban'di-er, hut 
ban'dy-ing, ban'dy-legs, <fec. (Rule xi.) 

Banian (days) han'.yan'. Days when no meat is served. The 
Banians of India abstain from animal food. 

Ban'ister. The guard of a staircase. Corruption of ballnster. 

Bankmpt, banhf.rupt not bankf.rup. One who has failed. 

Bankmptcy, not bankrupcy. State of being a bankrupt. 

Italian banco-ruttOf broken-bench; because when a money-lender 
failed, his bench was broken, and he was expeUed from his office. 

Banner, ban'.ner, A 4ag. (Double n.) 

Latin panntM; Welsh baniar; French bannUre. 
Banns (of marriage), not bans nor bands. {See Ban.) 
Ban'qnet, ban'quet^ed, ban'quet-er, ban'quet-ing. (Rule iii.) 

i-ed forms a distinct syL after dl or i.) French banquet. 
Baptize' not baptise, bap'tism, bap'tiat. Baptized' (2 syl.), bap. 
tiz'-ing. 

Greek baptiad, baptisma, baptiatos. 
Bar, barred (1 syl.), barr-ing, barr-ister, barr-ier, barr-icade, 
barr-ulet, barr^y. (Rule i.) French barrer, to bar. 

Barbarize, bar^.ba^rize not barbarise. To make barbarous. 

Greek barbdrizd, to make barbarous. 
BarT)erry. A corruption of berbery, (Genus herheris.) 

Barefoot or barefooted. *' Walking naked and barefoot." 
(Isa. XX. 2.) Old English bcer-f6t, bare- foot. 

Barley. The plural barleys means different specimens or sorts, 
the general crop : as, The barleys look well (the general 
crop). Barleys were higher (the specimens offered for 
sale). Welsh bar a Wy«[iaw], bread plants. 

Barm, leaven. Bahn, balsam. {See Balm.) 

Baron, a lord (one r). Barren, not fertile (double r). 

Baron, feminine baroness. Baronry, baronet, baroniaL 
fca'.ron, bd^ron.ess, bd\ron.ryy ba\ron.et, but bd.rU\nl.al. 

"Baron," Latin ftoro (a dolt) ; Barones dicuntur servi militum, qui 
utique ttultisaimi sunt, servi videlicet stultorum^' (Scholiaatj. 
First a serving soldier, then a military chief, then a lord. 



46 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Barouche, ba.roushf. A four -wheel coach with a falling top. 

Latin blrdta, a cart with two pair of wheels (bis rota), through the 
German barutsche. 

Barrack, plural harracks. The plural is more generally used. 
The singular is used in compound words as barrack- 
master, barrack-life, 

Bar'rel, bar'relled (2 syl.)^ bar'relling. (Eule iii. -Eii.) 
Spani^ barrel. In Welsh and French barilf only one " r." 

Barren, not fi-uitful. Baron, a lord. {See Baron.) 

Barricade, bar*.ri.hade!. Originally meant to block up a 
thoroughfare with barrels (French barriques) filled with 
stones or earth. (French barricader, to barricade.) 

Barrier, banvLer. A bar to keep out intruders. 

French barri^e, from barre^ a bar; Welsh bdr, a bar. 

Barrister, har^ris.ter. One called to the bar, a pleader. 
Bar and the Old Eng. termination -ster, business, habit. 

Baryta, bar^ry.tah, incorrectly ba.ryf.tah, A heavy mineral. 
Greek bariiUs, heaviness; so called from its weight. (See next.) 

Barytone, bdr^ry.tone. A deep tenor voice. 
Greek barUa t&nds, heavy tone of voice. 

Base, vile. Bass (voice). Both pronounced alike. 
" Base," Welsh bds, low, mean. ** Bass," Italian baaso. 

Bashaw, now called " Pasha," pah'. shah. 

Basilisk, ba^.tlisk. The cockatrice. Basilic, adj. of basilica. 

LaUn basiliseus (Greek bastteiis, a king). The *' king serpent ; " to 

cail«d from a crest on its head like a crown. 
** Basilica," a royal hall of justice ; such a hall used for a church. 

Basin, ba'sin not bason. (The French word has double «). 

Basis, plural bases (Latin), bay'. sis, bay'.seez. {See Base.) 

Bass, plural basses; or basso, plural bassos: base, base'.ez; 
bos'. 80, bas^soze. {See Base.) Kule xlil. 

Bass-relief, plural bass-reliefs; or basso-relievo, plural baaao- 
relievos: base re-leef\ base re-leefs' ; ot bas'-so rel.i.a\vo, 
bas'-so rel.l.a\vdze. (Rule xlii.) 

Bassoon, ba8.zoon\ A deep bass wind-instrument. 

Bass and -0(m (augmentative). Italian ba^sone; French bamm. 

Bastille, bos. teeV. A State prison in Paris. (Not bastile,) 
French bastir now bdtir, io build. It means the building. 

Bastinado, plural bastinadoes, bas'-ti.nah"-doze. (Rule xlii.) 

Bat, batt-ed, batt-ing. Bat (the winged mouse), batt-ish. B. i 

"Bat, " Old English bat, a bat French battre, to beat 
'*Bat " (the animal), Welsh batlwr. a dormouse. 



AND OF SPELLING. 



Bftto, contraetkni of abate. Bait, refreshment. {See Bait) 

Bath, tdXh not hath (noun); bathe, hathe (verb). Bule 11. 

Bathos, hatlUiSt mock sublime. Pathos, patKos, Words 

which excite a feeling of grief. 

^* Bathos ** (Gxeek), depth ; the rerene of tviblitu. 
<' Pathos" (Greek), feeling of grief. 

Baton (French), hat.tone. A small staff used by the leader of 
«n orchestra, a marshal's staff of office, &.c. 

Batrachiana, bo. tra1i^X.am, The frog order of reptiles. 

Greeik hcdrdLchott a frog. 
Battalion (double t and one Z), but in French hata%ll<m, 

Latin batuo, to fight ; Italian haUaglUnt 
Battery, plu. batteries, hatfAe.riz, (French batterie,) 

Battle, balf.t'lf battled, batted, battling, battlement. 

Wiflsh hatd. French bataUle. Italian hattaglia. Spanish baiaUa. 

Bazaar, bdjsar^y a depot of fancy articles. Bizarre, fantastic. 
** Bazaar," Persian bazar, a maiket. *' Bizarre " (French), fantastic 

Be- ^Hrefix) added to nouns, y^bs, prepositions, and conjunc- 
tions. Added to nouns, it converts tbem into verbs, as 
he-friend. Added to verbty it intensifies them, or adds 
the idea of about, at, before, for, in, on, over, <fec. In 
prepositions and conjunctions it has the force of by or in. 

e (▼erb). Bee (insect). " Be " forms parts of the verb " To 

Be." It is used in hypothetical propositions, as : " If I 

be,*' that is, " If I should be.** 

** Be "(verb), Old English bedn; present tense <e be6, thii b^st, he 

hfih. ; plural be6th faU personsj. 
**Bee " insect, beo, plural beon (without accent). 

veh, coast. Beech, a tree. (Both pronounced beech.) 

''Beach," Old £ng. becc, a brook. *' Beech," Old £ng. bice, a beech. 

die, bee'.dl. A church officer. {See Bedell.) 

Old English badel, one who bids or cites [to a court of law]. 

l-ioll not bead-rol. A list of those to be prayed for. (R. x.) 

Beadsman, feminine beadswoman ; plu. beadsmen, beads- 
women. One employed to pray for another's welfeure. 

3ld English bead or bid, a prayer, 
pulse. Been, bin, past participle of "To be." 
Id English bean, pulse. " Been," Old English ben of the verb beon. 
o carry), pa^t bore [bare], po^t participle borne. 

*r (to bring forth), past bore [bare], jpa«« part. bom. 
tear" (to carry, to produce), O. Eng. birian], past beer, p.p. boren. 

X (a wild beast) ; he -bear, she-bear. Bare, naked, 
ear " (the animaU Old Mng. bera. " Bare, " Old Eng. bMiomA. 



4« ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Beast, heest, beast-ly, beast-liness : hut beBt-ial, best-iality, 
bestially (without "a"). (The "a*' of beast is inserted 
to distinguish the word from **be8t.") 
- Latin bestia, a beast ; hestidlis, bestial. 

Beat, to strike. Beet, a root. (Both pronounced beet.) 

Beat, past beat, past part, beaten or beat. (We say: 

" He was dead beat," but beaten is the general past part. 

Old English bedtlan], past bedt, past part, bedten. 

'* Beet ' (the root), German beete; Latin beta; French betU. 

Beatify, be.af.i.fy; beat'ify-ing ; but beatified (be,afA.Jide) ; 

beat'ifi-ca"tion, beatif'i-cal. (Rule xi.) 
Latin, bedtus facto, to make happy. 
Bean, 60, a fop. Bo I an exclamation to frighten children. 

Bow, plural bows, an instrument to propel arrows. 

(Bow to rhyme with grow.) 

Beau, plural beaux, 65, boze; feminine belle, plural 
belles, bell, bells (French). Gentlemen and ladies admire^* 
Latin bellus, beautiful. Beau is a contraction of bellus (be'u*). 

Beau ideal, plural beaux ideals, bo i.dee\al, boze i.dee'.al 
(French.) A fauoy model of beauty or excellency. 

Beau monde, bo mdnd (French). The fashionable world. 

Beauty, plural beauties, bu'.tiz ; beautirful, beauti-rfully, beauti« 
fy, beauti-fying, beauti-fied (3 syl.), beauti-fi-er (Rule 
xi.) : beaute-ous, beaute-ously, beaute-ousness (with e). 

French' &6aitM. (There is no sufficient refison for the change of voweL) 
Beautiful, bu.Hful. In poetry the superlative beautifulest is 

sometimes used. 
Becafico, ought to be beccafico, be¥^kafee''-ko. The fig-pecker. 

Italian beccafico (becearejico, to pick the fig or fig-tree). 
Becalm, be.carrnf not be.calm ; becalmed, be.carmd. 

Fr. calme: Ital. and Sp. calma, quiet, with prefix 5e-, '*to make.** 
Become, past became, past part, become, pres. part, becom-iiig. 

Old English becum{an'\, past becom, past part. becv/iMn. 
Bed, bedded, bedd-ing; but bedpost, bedstead, &c. (Rule i) 

Old English bed or bced (noun) ; bed[ian\ to go to bed. 
Bed-clothes, bed-cloze (no sing.) Sheets, blankets, and quilt. 

Bedell not beadle, bee'. dell. A university or court mace-bearer. 

Always styled the Squire bedell. (Latin bedellus.) 
Bedim, be.dim\ bedimmed (2 syl.), bedimm-ing. (Rule i.) 

Old Eng. dim, dark, with prefix &e<, which converts nouns to TertM. 
Bedlam, bed'lum. Corruption of Bethlehem, the name of a 
religious house converted into a lunatic asylum. 

Bedouin, Bed'.win, An Arab tribe (dwellers in the desert). 
Arabic bedawi (from bodw or bedto, a desert). 



AXD OF SPELLING, 4f) 

Bee, the insect. Old £ng. heo. Be (the verb). Old Eng. he6. 

{See Be.) 
Beech, a tree. Beach, a coast. {See Beach.) 

Beef, the flesh of slain oxen; plural beevet, living oxen. 
(Rnle xxxviii) 
Frendi bmi/, plural hce^f$ ; Latin hoves, oxen. 

Beef'^teak, beef stake not beef-steek. 

** Steak " iB Old None tUk ; Danish tUg, a broil, or sUce to roast. 

Beef-^ateiB, beef .eat.er8. Yeomen of the guard. 

Korman French bvffetien or boufititrs^ waiters at the boufets. 

Been, bin, past part of '' To be." Bin (for com, wine, refuse.) 
''Been,** Old Eng. be&n. "Bin," Old Eng. bin or binn, a crib, hutch, &c. 

Beer, malt liquor. Bier, beer, barrow for the dead. 

" Beer/* Old English bear, ** Bier," Old English bdr, 
BeeetingB, beest.ingz not beestlings. First milk after calving. 

Old English batting, which is the better spelling, and sing, number. 

Beet, a root. Beat, to strike. (See Beat.) 

Beetle, be^.t% an insect; a mallet. Betel, beg'M, a shrub. 

Old English beM or biM^ a beetle ; bytel or bytl, a mallet. 
''Betel/' an East Indian plant, the leaf of which is much used. 

Beeves, beevz, black cattle ; plural of beef. (See Beef.) 

BefisU, befell, befallen ; not befal, befel, befalen. (Rule x.) 

Beftf , befitt-ed, befitt-ing. To suit, to become. (Bule i.) 

Befool, Old Eng. prefix be- makes verbs of nouns. (Eule Ixii.) 

Beg, begged (1 syl.), begg-ing, begg-ar, beggared (2 syl.) beggar- 
ing, beggarly, beggarh-ness, beggary, beggar man (all with 
double g.) Rule i. " I beg to inform you " means *' I 
beg leave to inform you." 

Beggar, a corruption of begiarer (Norse). This accounts 
for the termination " -ar." 

Begef, past begot" [begat], past part, begotten [begot], be- 
gett-er, begett-ing, begott-en. (Rule i.) 
Old English beged^an], past begedt, past part, begoten. 
Begin", p<ut began' [begun], past part, begun, beginn-ing, 
beginn-er. To commence, <fec. (Rule i.) 
Old Eng. begiwn{(m'], past began, past participle begunnen. 

Begird, pa^t beglrded, past part, begirded or begirt. 

Old English begyrdlan], past begyrde, past participle btgyrded. 
Begonia, |>2ura{ begonias, be.gd'.nlMh, Elephant's ears (a plant.) 

So called from M. JBegon, French botanist. 
BegidiiB, Beg'.winz, A sect of religious women of Germany. 
So caUed from a linen cap (or beguin) which they wear. 



I 



60 ERROnS OF SPEECH 

Behalf. A cormption of the Old English heh€fe fhenefit). 

Behold, past and past participle beheld. The more ancient 
participle beholden means " under an obligation." 
Old English Uheald\!am.\ past hiiuold, past pari behealden. 
Behoof (noun), behove (verb), Old Eng. be.h6f[ian]. Rule li. 

Belay, past a.nd. past part, belayed (2 syl.), not belaid. (R. xiv.) 

Old English beldw[an], past beldtode, past part, heldwed. LdwOf a 
betrayer, and prefix be- which converts nouns into verbs. It has 
no connection with the verb "lay." (Old English lecgan.) 

Beldam (French belle dame). A euphemism for " an old hag.** 
Similarly the French say bel age for great age. 

Belemnite, beV.em.nite not beV .emdte. ** Thunderbolt." 

Greek hSUlntmony a dart. (These " stones " are fossil molltucs.) 

Belie, be.ll\ past be.lied', part. pres. bely'-ing. {See b^y.^ 
Old Eng. helec^an\, past htlege, past participle beled. 

Belief {noun), believe {verb); be.leef, be.leeve. (Rule K.) 

Believe, believ-ab)e, believ-er, believ-ing, beliov-ingly. 

Belle, plural belles, feminine of Beau, plural beaux (French), 
belly bells ; bo, boze. Pretty girls and their admirers. 

Belles lettres (plu), bel lettr. Polite literature. (French.) 

Bello^ni (plural), may refer to a single pair, but always requires 
a plural construction : ** The bellows are broken." 
Old English bylig, bellows (from bcelg, a bag). 
Belly, plural bellies, beV.llz ; bellied, beV.lld. (Rule zi.) 
Belly-ing, belly-ache, belly-ful. {See Belie.) 
Old English belig (from bcelg, a bag) ; Welsh boly. 
Belong requires to after it : as ** This belongs to me." 
Old English gelang, belonging to, property of. 

Belvedere, beV.ve.deer^. A lookout in a garden. 
Italian bel vedere, fine sight ; Latin bellus videre 

Bend, past and past part, bent; bended (a^j.), as '*0n- my 
bended knee." 
Old English bend[an], past bende, past participle bended. 
Beneath, be.neetK not be.neerK. Old English beneothan. 

Benedick or Benedict. A man who vows not to many. 
" Benedick '' (in Miu:h Ado about Nothing) vows he will 
not marry, but afterwards marries Beatrice. " Benedict" 
is a play on the proper name. It means ** Blessed," or 
" Made happy," and is applied to an old bachelor who 
has become a bridegroom. 

Benefactor, feminine benefactress, ben.ef&kf.tor, ben.e.faW.tren. 
-or is more common than -er after t and s. Unhappily 
no uniform rule is observed. 
Lattn hmspKio, tedo well ; benefieivm, a benefit or good -deed, fte. 



AND OF SPELUNG. (A 



Benefit* poM and past part, benefited not "benefitted ; benefiting 
not benefitting. (Latin beneficio.) Hole iii. 

Bemgn, benignly, bejititufy be.niiU'.ly ; but benignant, benig- 
nantly, benignity, be.nig" .nant, be.nig\ni.ty, &c. 
Latin henigntu, benignant (b^n%u old form of b&ims, goodX 

Benmnb, be.num'. To make numb or insensible from cold. 

Old English .&enim[an], past bendm, past participle henumen, to stn- 
T^ty, to bennmb. (The b is interpolated.) 

Benzine, benjseen\ A fluid obtained from coal-tar. 

Better BenzolB, ben-zoUf as tbe termination -ine denotes 
a gas. So called by Mitscberlich, who obtained it from 
benzoic a^id. It was Ftuuday who discovered it in whale 
oil and coal tar. 

Benzoin, &en.2;a^n^ resin of the Benzoin plant (Styrax Benx<nn), 
In French Styrax Benjoin, and hence called *' Gum Benjamin." 

Benzoine, benjso^ln not ben.zoin\ Obtained from bitter almonds. 
Beqneef (noun), bequeath (verb), be.kweeth\ 0. Eng. bectoHhlan], 
Berbeiis, ber^M.ris (Latin). The barbeiiy genus of plants. 

Bereave, past and past part, bereft or bereaved (2 syl.) 
Old Sng. bered{f[ian], past bered^ode, past part, beredfod. 

Berg, a mountain. Burg or burgh, a fortified place : as 
" Heidelberg," the heather-hill (Germany) ; 
" Edinburg," the fortified town of Dimedin (Scotland). 
Old English berg, a hilL Bwrh, genitive bwrQe, a f<Mrt. 

Bemardine, Be'/.nar.dine not Ber.nar^.dine. Adj. of the next. 

Bemardins, Ber^.nar.dins. So called from St. Ber'nard. 

Berry, plu. berries, ber'.rizy a fruit. Bury, to inter (only one " r "). 
Both Old Eng. : Berie (only one " r "), a berry. Buriian], to bnry. 

Berth, a place to sleep in. Birth, the act of being bom. 
Both Old Eng. : Btir, a bed-room ; Beorth or berth, birth, 

Beiyl, ber^.nl. A precious stone somewhat like an emerald. 

Greek hirullda. (In tbe Greek word the " e " is long.) 
Beseech, pMt and past part, besought. (The " g " is interpolated.) 

Old Eng. besedian] ; past besdht ; past part, besffht. 

Beset', past and past part, beset ; pres. part, besett-ing (R. i.) 
Old English besettan; past besette; past part beseten or beaetten. 

Beside, by the side of. Besides, in addition to, moreover. 
Besom, beei'.zum not bee^sum. A large broom. (0. Eng. besm.) 
Besot', besott-ed, besott-edly, besott-edness, besott-ing, besott- 

ingly. (Old English besot.) Bule i. 
Bespeak', pcut bespoke; past participle bespoken [bespoke]. 
Old English &espr^e[an] ; past be^prcec; past participle besprooen. 



52 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Besprinkle, past besprinkled, past part, besprinkled or be- 
sprent. (The prefix be- added to verbs intensifies them.) 

Old English bespren^an], past hesprengde, past participle he*prenged ; 
also hesprinciim^f past hespranc, past participle bespruncen. 

Best (superlative deg.) Good, better, best. (Obsolete positive 
bet more.*) At best; at the best : as ''Life, at best, is but 
a shadow ; *' " Life, at the best, is but a shadow." " Life 
at best" means — to say the best of it, "Life at the best " 
means — in its best condition^ taking the most favourable 
example. The two ideas are not identical. 

Bestial, bestiality, bestially (Latin bestia). See Beast. 
Bestir", bestirred (2 syl), bestirr-ing. {Be- intensifies " stir.") 

Old Eng. bestyT^ian], past bestyrde, past participle bestyred. 
Bestrew, past bestrewed (2 syl.), past part, bestrewed or be- 
strewn. (The prefix be- added to verbs intensifies them.) 

Bestrew, past bestrewed (2 syl,), past part, bestrewed or 

bestrewn. To scatter thoroughly, to strew, well. 
Old English be8treow[ian], past bestreowode, past part, besbrwwod. 
Bestride, past bestrode or bestrid, past part, bestridden. 

Old Eng. bestT(Bd{(m\y past bestrode, past part, bestrxeelen.. 
Bestud, past bestudd-ed, pa>st part, bestndd-ed or bestad, be- 
studd-ing. To decorate with studs. (Rule i.) 
Old Eng. stvdUy % stnd. Be- added to noons converts them into yerbs. 
Bet, pa^t and paxt part, bet or betted. Bett-or, bett-ing. (R. i) 
(** Bettor,*' with -or, to distinguish it from the adjective.) 
Old Eng. I>eu2[tan], past badode, past participle badod. 
Betake, pa^t betook, past part, betaken ; pres. part, betaV-ing. 

Old English betd(ian\ past betdhte, past participle betdht. 
Bethink, past and past part, bethought. To call to mind by 
thinking. (The " g " is interpolated.) 
Old English bethenc[an], past bethdhte, past participle bethdhi. 
Betray", betrayed' (2 syl.), betra/ing, betray al, betray'er. (R.xiii.) 
The prefix be- added to " traitor " converts it into a verb. 
Betroth, be.trSth not be.troth. To pledge to marry. 

Old Eng. tr^owth, troth, pledge. The prefix be- makes verbs of noiuu. 
Better, more good. Bettor, one who bets. {See Best.) 
Betonia (no such word). It should be Petunia, pe.tu\ni,aK 
Bevel, bevelled (2 syl.), bevell-ing, bevell-er. (Rule iiL -el.) 

French biviau or biveavk (nonn), a sloping edge. 
Beware-of. No past tense, participle, or gerund. Without an 
auxiliary it is used only in tbe Imperative and Infinitive 
present. {The auxiliaries used with it are shall and 
should, may and might, also the verbs must, needn, can, 
and could, but not do or did, have or had, am, be, or was.) 
Old Eng. «M^, caution. Prefix be- converts nouns to verbs. 



AND OF SPELLING, 53 

Bey, a Turkish prince. Bay, a smaU gulf; a laurel. 

" Be^," Tnzkish Ug " Bay," French bote, Old French b^ 

Bi- or Bis- (prefix). Latin &M. Twofold, doable. "Bis "drops 
the 8 before consonants. The two exceptions are biscuit 
and histextile. Before " o " it is written bin as bin-oxidf, 
bin-oxaZaU, &o. (This prefix it often added to Greek 
words, instead of dis.) 

In Chemical nomenclature the Greek and Latin 
numeral prefixes have an arbitrary force : Thus in meta- 
loids, if the base is in excess the Greek prefixes are 
employed : di- (2), tris- (3), &c. ; but if the gas is in 
excess the Latin prefixes are used : pro- (1), sesqui- (li), 
di- (2), ter- (3), &c. Thus a " dinoxide of A " (tlie base), 
wotdd mean 2 quotas of A to one of oxygen ; but " bin- 
oxide of A" would mean 2 quotas of oxygen to one of A 
(the base). 

Bias, ii^xu, A leaning or tendency in one particular way, 
(verb) bi'assed (2 syL), bi^ass-ing. (French biaiSy bias.) 
The doubling of the s in this verb is an outrage. (B. ii.; 

Kb| bibbed (1 syL), bibb-er, bibb-ing (Rule i.), but bib-a^cious, 

bib-aclty, bib'-ulous, bib'-io (the wine-fly). 

Latin bibo, to drink ; bihaXf genitive bibdcis, given to drink ; M6iUu«, 
having the ci^iacity to sop up like sponge. 

BtUe, bi.ble. The Book [of Books]. (Li Greek, the t is short.) 

BibMI.cal, bib'Ji.og"-ra-pher, bIb'-H-o.ma"-ni-a, bib'.U.pole. 

"Bible)'* Greek bibUfs, a book. 

*'Bibli(%rapher," Greek biblidgrapTios or bihlio-grapter, a writer of 

books. 
''Bibliomania," Greek bibli(Hnomia, book madness. 
"Bibliopole," Greek biblio-pdUs, a bookseller (pdUo, to sell). 

SSoarbonate, bi.kayM.natA, A salt with two equivalents of 
carbonic acid to one of a base. 

Latin bi [bis] ca/rbo (-aU, in Chem., means a salt formed by the anion 
of an add with a base). The ' ' acid " two to one of the ' ' base. " 

Biocaroon. No such word. S6€Bigaroon. A white-heart cherry. 

Biceps, biceps. Any muscle with two heads, as that between 
the shoulders and elbow. Bicipital, not bicepitaly bicipl- 
tous. (Note -ci, not -ce.) 
Latin bi [bis] capui, genitive HcflpiHtf with double head. 

Bicephalous, bi,8ef\d,hu. Having two heads. 

An ill-oomponnded word: Latin bi [bis], Greek kgphdlSt a head. 
(It ought to be dicephalovs : Greek di [dis] kephaU,) 

Bfeliiomate, bi.kro\mate. A salt with two equivalents of 

chromic acid to one of the base. 

Latin bi [bis], Greek chrdma {-ate, in Chem., means a salt formed 
by ihe union of an acid with a base). Bi- is used in Chemical 
nomenclature to denote that the gas prevails. JH- (Greek) to 
denote that the base prevails. 



I 



54 ERRORS OF 8PEECB 

■» 

Bicuspid, }n,lnu'.pid. Having two points or two fangs. 

Latin hi [bis] cuapis, two spear-points (as a tooth with two itaiffi). 

Bid, past bade (bad), past part, bidden [bid]. {Bod is a tuI- 
garism.) Bidd-er, bidding, bidd-en (Rnlei.) 
Old English bidd[an], past bad, past participle hedm, to M«L 

Bide, past bode or bided, past part, bided, bV.ded. To abide. 

Old EngUah bid[an], past bdd, past participle Hdtn, to aUde. 
Biennial, huen^niMl. Lasting two years, once in two years. 
It should never be used in the sense of " twice a year." 
(See Bi-monthly.) Annual becomes -ennial in the com- 
pounds bi-ennialy tri-ennial, per -ennial, &c. (Double n.) 
Latin biennis (Jbis annus, doable year), one year twice over. 
Bier, a barrow for the dead. Beer, malt liquor. {See Beer.) 

Biestings or beestings. The first milk of a cow after calving. 

Old English, bystingi, byst, or beast. 
Biffin, bif\Jm, An apple which is dried in an oven and flattened. 

Bifurcated, bi.fw/'ka-ted. Forked, divided into two branches. 

Latin bi [bis] f'ttirea, [like the] two prongs of a fork. 
Big, bigg-er, bigg-est ; big-ness, big-ly (Rule i.) 

Cormption of ''btig," swollen. (Old £ng. verb fttigfcm], to fwelL) 
Bigamy, big\a.mp ; big^amist. A man with two living wives. 

An ill-compounded word : Latin bi [bis], Greek gdmds, donble mar- 
riage. The word ought to be digamy. Greek dir^amos. 

Bigaroon, hi(f.&.roon\ Corruption of Bigarreau. 

French bigarreau, the mottley cherry (a "White-heart ") ; Low Latin 
bigarella, a corruption of bivarella (bis variiu, doubly mottled). 

Bight, a small bay. Bite (with the te+'th). (Both bite.) 

*',Bight," Old Eng. biga, a bay. " Bite/* Old Eng. &«[on], to bite. 

Bignonia, big.nd\ni.dh. The trumpet flower, yellow jasmine, *c. 

So called by Toumefort from the abb6 Bignon, a botanist. 

BignoniacesB, big-nd'-ni.a'*-8^-e. The order of which Bignonias 
are types (-acea, in Botany, denotes an order). 

Bigot, big\ot, bigoted not bigotted. A religious zealot. (B. iiL) 

Old Eng. b{f^an\ to worship. Suffix -ot, dim. or depreciatory. 
Bijou, plu. bijoux (French), bee\zho&, bee'jshooz\ Trinkets. 
Bijoutry (French), bejshoo\try not b^outery. Jewellery. 
Bilbo, j^^u. bilboes. The singular means a "rapier," so eaDed 
from Bilbao, in Spain. The plural means "fetters.** 
Latin bi [bis] boia, double collar of iron. 
Bilious, biV.yus, having the bile out of order. {N,B, — One I.) 
Biliary, biV.tS.ry not biWd.ry. Relating to the bile. 
BHiary duct, MV.tS.ry duct not biVM.ry due, 
UUn biliOsus, full of bUe (Jbilis, bUe). 



AND OF SPELLING. 55 

Billet, &ir.l^ A log of wood; to quarter soldierg. BiU'et-ed, 
bill'et-ing. (One t. Kule iii.) 

"BiUet of wood,'* French hilUt. "BiUet" (to quarter •oldiert). 
French biUet, s ticket (Latin hyUa^ a seal to authenticate the 
order) ; Low Latin bUetuty a billets 

BOlei-doiix, pttL, billets-doux, bee'.ya.doo', he€\yu.dooze\ not 
billo.doo, billy.dooze (French). A love-letter. 

Billian, biV.ytm. A million million. 

L«Un &i [bis] million, a milUoa twice over. 
Billy-goat, a male goat. Nanny-goat, a female goat. 

Bilobate, ln.W-hate, (Botany,) A leaf with two lobes. This 
word is wrong. The o is short, and the Bi should be Di. 
Oreek di Wwm. '* Bilobate " is part Latin part Greek. 
Bimana, ln.7na^-ndh not bima'nia. It ought to be hV.mdn-ah. 
Animals with two hands like men. (" Bima'nia " would 
mean triad on two subjects^ double madness.) 
Latin hi [bisl mdnu9, having two hands. 
BiiDoiithly, bi.manth'ly. Twice a month. In this sense tbe 
word is quite indefensible. It can only mean "Every 
two months; " as Biennial^ "every two years." Besides, 
bi (Latin) monthly (Anglo-Saxon) is a filse compound. 
It should be Tifrymonthly (twice montlily). 

Binade, bin*.a.cle. Corruption of the French habitfacle or 

'bitacle, a box containing the compass and lights. 

Bin'ode, a telescope with two tubes. 

" Binacle," Latin hahitdcutwrn, a small house or abode. 
"Binocle," Latin Mn [bis] oaUtu, for both the eyes. (Set B1-.) 

Binary, bi\nii.ry not bin'.a.ry. Combination of two bodies (as 

double stars), two compounds, two figures, <fcc. 

Latin blndrinii (binus, Le., bi [bis] unus, one twice). 

Bind, past and past participle bound, to fasten by bonds. 

Boiinden (adjective), obligatory : as *• My bouuden duty." 

Old English bindian], past band, pa«t participle bunden. 

Binnacle or binacle. (See Binacle.) 

Binoxalate, bin.ox' .&.late. Binoxide, bin.ox\ide. In Chemistry 
the Latin numerical prefixes j>ro- (1), sesqui- (li), hi- (2), 
ter- (3), denote that the ga^ is the part refeiTed to, and 
prevails. The Greek di- (2), tris- (:)), <tc., denote that 
the base is the part referred to, and is 2, 3, <fec., to one of 
the gas. {See Bi-.) 
Latin bin [bis], Greek oxMis,, 
Biography, bl.og'.rd.fy. The written history of a person's life. 

Greek bios grapho, I write the person's life. 
Bblogy, M.oV.d.gy. The science which investigates the pheno- 
mena of life, whether animal or vegetable. 
Oreek bios logos, a treatise or discourse about " life." 



56 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Biped, bi\ped. One who has two feet, like men and birds. 

Latin M [bis] pifdes, two feet 
Bipennate or bipinnate, bLpen\nate or M.pin^nate, 

Latin b% [bis] penna or pinna, having two wings. 

Bird {common gender). Cook-bird (male\ hen-bird (female). 
Old Eng. bird, a bird ; brid, a young bird or a brood. 

Birr, ber^ a whirring noise. Burr, a prickly plant. 

" Birr/' an on'omatope (4 syL) " Burr," Old Eng. bwre, the bnrdock. 

Birth, act of being bom. Berth, a sleeping-place. {See Berth.) 

Bis- (prefix), Latin bis, "two," "twofold," "double." The "s" is 
dropped before consonants (except in bis-cuit and bU-sex- 
tile. Before " o " it becomes bin-, as bin-ode^ bin-oxide. 
In Chemical nomenclature it denotes that the gas is two- 
fold the quantity of the base. Thus bi-carbonate of 
potash means : two equivalents of carbonic acid gas to 
one of potash. 

Biscuit, bis'.kit (Ft. bis-cuit, twice cooked ; Lat. bis coctlus]). 

l?his word and " bis-sextile " are the only two which 
retain the 8 of "bis" before a consonant. 

Bisected, bi.sek\ted. Cut into two equal* parts. 

Latin bi [bis] sectua, cut into two parts (called biseg'ments). 

Bishop. In the Saxon period called bisceop or biscop, and his 
diocese a bisceopdom or biscopdom. Contraction of Greek 
episkdpos, Latin episcopus ('piscop'). 
Greek epi 8k6p6$, an overseer (of the clergy) ; verb dOpfy, to look. 

Bismuth, biz.mUth not biss.muth (French). A metaL 

In German it is h^mulh or vfismnth. 
Bison, bi'.8on (Greek bison). A wild ox with a hunch. 
Bissextile, bis. ses^. tile. Leap-year. {See Biscuit.) 

Latin bis sextilU, the sixth [of the calends of March or February 24, 
* counted] twice. Now, a day (29; is added to February. 

Bisulphate, bi.suV-fate, A salt containing two equivalents of 
sulphuric acid to one of the base. 

Latin hi [bis] mlphur, sulphur twice. The suffix -ate denotes a salt 
where the acid is mo<tt oxidised, and therefore ends \n -ic: as 
sulphu'ric acid ; -ite denotes a salt where the acid is less oxidised, 
and therefore ends in -ou«, as sulphite a salt formed of suXphUnnu 
add with a base. 

Bit, a morseL Bitts (plural), two pieces of timber in the fore- 
part of a ship round which cables are fastened. 

Bit, bitt-ed, bitt-ing. To put the bit into a borse's mouth. 

Bitt, to put the cable round the bitts ; bitt-ed, bitt-ing. 

" Bit,*' Old Eng. U^anl P^t hdt, past part, hiten, to bite. 
" Bitt," Old Eng. hitol, a bridle fa cable is the ship's bridle]. 
{The second "t " i« added to distinguish the ttoo vords.) 



AND OF SPELLING. 57 

Bitch, femxnine of dog. Also a gender-word as hitch-fox^ dog- 
fox ; biteh-ape, dog-ape ; bitch-otter, dog-otter, &o. 
Old English bioee or bycge, s bitch. 
Bite (with the teeth). Bight, a bay. {See Bight.) 

Bite, past hit, past part, bitten [bit] ; bit-ing, bit-er. H. xiz. 

Bitter, bi1f.tert aeiid. Biter, bVAer, one who bites. 

*' Ktter," Old £ng. biter, bitter. ** Biter/' Old Eng. bitt, s moraeL 
BittB (for cables). Bits (for horses). See Bit. 
Bitumen, bttu\men not b%f,u.men. Mineral pitch or tar. 

Bitn'miniae, bita'minisa"tion (s not "z.") Kule xxxi. 

Latin bitumen; (Greek pUia, pitch or tar.) 

BiYonao (French), biv\oo,ak. To encamp in the open air. 

It onght to be pronounced biv.wdkf '* on ** in French being equal to 
«: thus "25ouave'* (1 syL), Zwarve, "Edouard," Ed.ward. 

Biweekly, bi.weekly. Twice a week. This word is quit<« inde- 
fensible. It means ** Every two weeks " (once a forr- 
night). The compound is also abnormal. Bi (Latin) 
weekly (Ang.-Sax.) It should be Twyweekly, twice a week. 

Bizam not bizzarre (French), &i.za/. Fantastic. 

Bazaar is a mart or d^pdt of fancy articles. (See Bazaar. ) 
Blab, blabbed (1 syl.), blabb-ing, blabb-er (to tell tales). (R. i.) 

Norse blahble, to gabble ; QArman plappem, to blab. 
Sadder (double d). The old form has but one " d," blcedre." 
Blain, a sore. The old form was bUegen. 

Same, blam-able (not blame-able), blam-ably (B. xix. xx.), 
blame-ful, blame-less, &c,, blame- worthy. (Rule xvii.) 
{Only words ending in " -ce *' and " -ge " retain the " e " 
before the postfix "-able.") 

Blancmange, blam-mo'nj\ A white jelly-like confection. 

An English i)erver8ion of the French blancmanger. 

Blaze, blair (like a cow). Blear, ble'-ar, sore : as " blear-eyes." 

" Blare,** Low Oerman blarren, to cry. " Blear," Danish blcere, a sore. 

Bbufpheme', blasphe'ming, blasphemed' (2 syl.), blasphe'raer ; 

but blas'phSmous, blas'phSmously, blas'phSmy. (The 

" 6 " long in Greek.) 

QnekbUuphimed (blapris ph4mi), to opeak hnrtfol words. "Blas- 
phSmy/' Greek iUupfUmia; " blasphemous," Greek blaspMmds. 

-Ue (postfix) Lat. -bil[i8], added to nouns : " able to," "full of,"&c. 
Bfeach, bleech. To whiten. (The ' * ea " is the diphthong d.) 

Old Eni^h Uddian] or blddiicm], to bleach. 
Bleak, bUek, Cold. (The *• ea " is the diphthong d.) 

Old Eng. bUhe or bUUs, pale, bleak. So Lat. pallidiis, pale, bleak. 
Bear, bleer, sore. Blare, blare, to bellow. {See Blare.) 



58 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

^BA&bX, hleet (like a sheep). (The " e&" is the diphthong a). 

Old Eng. hUxt^ a bleating ; verb hlasUm, to bleat. 
Bleed, past B^ndi past participle Ued; blooded, by venesection. 

Old English bUdJian\, to bleed, or to draw blood. 
Blend, past blended, past participle blended or blent. 

Old English &2encl[an], past blond, past participle bUmden. 
-blende, a word added to several metals : as " horn-blende,'* &c. 

German hlendejit to dazzle. The metals so named are Instrow. 
Bless, to make happy. Bliss, happiness. Old Eng. hliSy joy. 
Bless, past blessed (1 syL) or blest, past participle blest 

Blessed (a4j., "happy," "extolled"), bUss'-ed (2 syl.) 

(Blessed be the dead which die in the Lord. — ^Rev. xiv. 

Blessed be the God of Abraham.) Similarly, blessedly, 

bless'. eddy ; blessedness, ble82f.ed.ness. 

Old English hU88[ian\, xMut hUstode, past participle hltuodf to bless. 

Blight, blite. A disease of plants by which they are withered. 
Old English btoctA, nut, mildew. 

Bliss (Old English &2m, joy). Bless (Old English bUs»\ianlX/o 
make joyful). 

Blithe, not bllrh, cheerful Old English blUhCy joyful. 

Blithely, blitheful, blithesome, blithesomeness,blithesomely. 
(Only " whole" " due," and " true" drop the " e " before -ly,) 

Bloat, blote ; bloated, bloater. A herring slightly dried. 

Blond (adj.) ; blonde (noun), a woman of fair complexion and 
light hair. A dark woman is a brunette. (French.) 

Blossom (double s). The old form had but one " s," bldsm. 

Blood, bliid ; bloody ; bloodi-er, blud\\.er ; bloodi-est, blud^'X^estt 
bloodi-ly, blud\i.ly ; bloodi-ness, blud'.i.ness. 
Old Eng. bldd, blood ; bUSdig, bloody ; blddgian (verb). 

Bloom, not blume. Old Eng. bldsm, softened into bWm (B. Ixi) 
Old Eng. bl6sm\ian\, past bldsmode, past part, bldsmod, to bloom. 

Blot, blott-ed, blott-ing, blott-er, blott-y (Rule i.) 

Old Eng. bldt, black [spot] ; verb blatian], past blatode, p. p. blatod. 

Blouse, blooz not blduze. A short blue smock-frock worn by 
French artisans. German blau-los, loose blue. 

Blow, past blew, past participle blown. 

Old Eng. bMtcian], past bUow, past part, bldtoen, to blow, or bresQM; 
but bl&w[ian], past bl&wode. past part. bl&u)oa, to blow or blossom. 
" Let the pealing organ blow," is correct, because ths organ toundi 
only when the organ pipes " blow " or trantmit the blast of the M- 
lows. " Let the fire blow," would be nonsense, beeaui* the fire dom 
not bum by trammUiing ike liUuA qf t/M beUotos. 



AND OF SPELLING. 69 

flue, a colour. Old Eng. hUo. Blew (did blow), tee above. 

BlneneaB, blnebeU, <fec. ** A fit of the bliies," spleen (B. xvii.) 
Bla-ish, blu-ishly, blu-ishness (Bule xix.) 

nor, blurred (1 syl), blorr-ing. To blemish. (Bule i.) 

Soft (a serpent), hd'jih. Boar (a pig), hd\ar. Bore (to make ^ 
hole), tore. Boor (a rustic), hoo'r. 

"Boa," Latin hoa, from hos, s cow, which it was snpposed to snok. 
" Boar," O. Eng. Mr. " Bore," 0. Eng. h&r, % bore ; Mrfian], to bore. 
" Boot,** Ihiteh how, a farmer ; Old luglish ne-hir, s nutic. 

kMT, bd^MT, a male pig ; female BCfW, {See Boa.) 

kMxd, hdrd, a plank ; to famish with lodgings and meals. 

Bored, bordy perforated. Bawd, a procnress. 

"Board," Old Eng. hdrd, a plank ; alio "food and lodging." 
**Bored," Old Eng. bdr[ian], past bdrode, past part, bdrod, to bore. 
"Bawd," French haude (baudir, to incite.) 

Board-of-Trade, plural Boards-of-Trade, &c. 

{Phrases compounded with aprep.pluralise only the Ist word.) 

Boarder, one who boards. Border, an edging. (Both alike.) 

Borderer, one who lives on a frontier or border-land. 

Boarding, pree, part, ef board. Bordering, making a border. 

BoMt, botte ; boaster, boasting, boast'fol, boast'fully, &c. 

Welah host, a boast ; hostiad, a boasting ; hostiior, a boaster ; hostio, v. 
Boit, bote, a vessel urged by oars. Boot (for the foot). 

Boated, past tense of boat. Booted (wearing boots). 

Boating. Boatswain, a ship's officer in charge of the boats. 

Boatman, one whose trade is to manage a boat. 

Boatsman, an amateur manager of boats : as Lord Star is 

a good boatsman, not boatman. 
Old English hdt, a boat ; hdt-swdn, a boatswain. 

Bob, bobbed (1 syL), bobb-ing. To fish with a bob, <fcc. (B. i.) 
Bop. (Provincial.) To duck to avoid something. 

Bobbin. A spool on which cotton is wound. (Double b.) 

French bcibine (only one h). Bobbin, in French, means " bobbinet." 

)ode; boded, bo\ded; bod-ing, bonding. To portend. 
Bodied, bod\ed, is the past tense of body, bodying, &c. 
"Bode," Old English bodiian], past badode^ past part, bodod. 

lodioe, bod\is8, a corset. Bodies, bod'.iz^ plu. of body. 

Old Eng. hodig utu, a restraint or stay for the trunk. {See Body.) 

Odleian (library), Bod\le.an. A library at Oxford. So called 
in honour of Sir T. Bodley, its founder. 



60 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Body, plu. bodies, bod\iz ; bodied, bod\ed ; bod'i-ly, bod'i-less ; 
possessive singular hod^y'^y possessive plural bodies'; body- 
guard, body-lmen, body-politio (Rule x.) 
Old Eng. hodig, the trunk of a man, the whole body was called Uc 

Bog, boggy (full of bogs). Bogy, ho.gy, a hobgoblin. 

* Bog, Gaelic ; Irish hogcuik, ** Bogj," Welsh bwg, with -y diminntive. 

Boisterous, 'boice\te.rus ; boisterously, boisterOusness, not 
hoistrouSy hoistroushff boistrousness, 
Welsh hwystiis, savage, ferocious (Jbwyst, a savage, f eroci^X 
Bold, intrepid. Bowled, 6oM, past tense of " to bowL** 

" Bold," Old Eng. h6ld or hiUd. " Bowled," French hotUe, a bowL 
Bolder (more bold). Boulder, a large rounded stone. 

Bole (1 syl.), the truilk of a tree. Bowl, bole, a basin. 

" Bole," Welsh hoi, the belly. " Bowl," Old Eng. bolla, a basin. 

Bolero, plu, boleros^ bo,lai'/,ro, bodair^,oee, A Spanisb dance. 

Boletus, ho.leel'.tus (Latin). A species of fungus* 

Bolster, a long pillow. Bolsterer, one who bolsters-up another. 

Old English holfter, a pillow ; i.e., bol, a sleeping-room, -ster, some- 
thing habitual or common to a bedroom. (See -ster.) 

Bomb, bom, an explosive shell. Boom (of a ship). 

" Bomb," Latin bomhiis, a blast. *' Boom,*' Dutch boom, a spar. 

Bombardier (Fr.), bSm' -bar, deer". The soldier who fires bombs. 

Bombasine, b8m\ba.zeen. A cloth made of sUk and cotton. 
It ought to be bombycine, bom\by.tiin, 

Ladn btymbydCnva, made of silk (hombyx, silk or fine cotton jram ; 
Qreek bombux, the silk- worm). 

Bon mot (French), bohn mo, A witticism. 

Bon ton (French), boKn to'gn. Good in the opinion of fashion. 

Bon vivant (French), boh*n veeiVah'gn, One who loves to eat. 

Bonne bouche (French), bon bou^cK A dainty or " tit bit.*' 

Bona fide (Latin), bo\nafi\dS, In good faith, without deception. 

Bona fides, bo\nafi\deez. An equitable intention. 

-bond (postfix, Latin -bund[vs])k Added to gerundial nouns : 
as vagabond, a wandering person or vagrant. 

Bond-man, /<m< bond-woman, plu, bond-men, -women, a slave. 

Bonds-man, fern, bonds-woman, a surety. 

Bone (1 syl.), boned (1 syl.), bon-ing, bon-y. Bon (Fr.), good. 
'* Bone," Old Eng. Mit, a bone. " Bon," Latin bonlus], good. 

Bonito, plur, bonitoes (Spanish), boMee\toze, A species of 
tunny-fish. 



AND OF SPELLING. 



Boa'^net (for the head). Bonnette, him'et (in fortification). 

doQ^neted, bon'neting (with only one t). Role ii. 

Both French (eonnected witii hen, tiie head or top, as Ben-NeTU). 

Bonny, bon\ny (jolly) ; boni-ly. Bony, bd'.ny, full of bones. 

*' Bonny," Latin bomu, good, with -y diminutive. 
"Bony," Old English bdnen, adjectiye of bdn, bone. 

Booby, plu. boobies; pos. sing, booby's, pos.pla, boobies', hoo'.'bez, 

Spanish b^bo, a dolt. 

Book, booh not hooke, (Old English h6c.) Rule Ix. 

Boom (of a ship). Bomb, &^, an explosive shell. {See Bomb.) 
Dat<di hoom, a spar. Bonunon, to sound like %n emptj tub (B. IxL) 

Boon, a &YOur ; corruption of the Old Eng. &^, a petition. 
Boon (companion) ; Latin bonus, good (Rule Ixi.) 

Boor, a rustic. Bore, to perforate. Boar (pig). Boa, a serpent, q.v. 

Boot (for the foot). Boat, bote (for the water). {See Boat) 

French botte, a boot " Boot," profit. Old Eng. Me, profit (B. IxL / ) 

Bootes, Bo.d\teez, a constellation. (Greek bodtia, a herdsman.) 

Booth, boothe not boorh, a shed. Both, both, the two (R. Ixii. b). 

** Booth," Gaelic bdth : Law Latin botha, a tent 
"Both,** Old English bd-t%od, both two. 

Booty, spoiL Beauty, bu\ty, what is handsome, Botty, priggish. 

" Booty,** French bwtin, spoil " Beauty, French heaut4, 
"Botty," Welsh bostiwr, a boaster ; verb bostio, to brag. 

Borado, bo,ras',lky adjective of " borax." (French.) 

Borage, hS'.rSge not bur.ridge. A herb. 

Corruption of Garage, Latin eor-ago, to act on the heart : so called 
from its cordial virtues : Ego Bardgo gaudia semper ago : that is. 
" Burrage gives courage," or " Borage, X ween, drives away spleen." 

lorder, baw\der, an edging. Boarder, one who boards, q.v, 
tore, to perforate. Boor, &oo'r, a rustic. Boa, &d.a^, a serpent, g.v. 
oreoole, bdr.kdle (a vegetable). Welsh bore cawl, early cabbage. 

am (to life). Borne, bom, carried. Bourn, bo'um, a Hmit. 

" Bom " and '* Borne," Old English boren, verb birianl to bear. 
" Bourn," French borne, a limit or boundary. 

rough. Burrow, Borrow, Barrow. 

Borough, bur'rdh, a town " represented," but not episcopal 

Burrow, bur^ro, a rabbit's lodge. 

Borrow, bor^ro, to take on loan. 

Barrow, bar^ro, a hand-cart, a mound over the dead. 



''Borough," Old English buruh or burug, a city. Also bturh. 
"Burrow, Old English hurigen, a sepulchre, or bwruh, a dwelling. 



"Borrow," Old English horhor boro, a loan. 

mi " 



"Barrow," Old EngUsh bereiM, a wheelbarrow : htorga, a mound, 
tw, see above. (Double r.) 



62 ERRORS Oh SPEECH 

Bob (in Zo6logy)y the ox gena« of animaXs. Boss, a knob. 

" Bos," Latin &o«, ox, bull, cow, &e. ''Bou," French hoitt, % hump. 

Boeom, hooz\om not buzzum. Old Eng. b^m. (Rule Ix. <L) 

Botany, bot.a.ny, (Greek hotanS, herbage.) This word sboold 
be limited to fodder and herbage. The science of plants 
should be phytology, fi.toV.o.gy. (Greek phutSn ldg58, 
plants the subject.) 

Both, both not borth. Booth, boothe, A tent-shop. {See Booth.) 

Both of tlLem, " Both-of '' has an adverbial sense. It does 
not mean both out of them, but them both4y or both- 
together. {See All. All of them.) 

Bottle, botf.tl (for wine, &c,) Bottel, a bundle (bottel of hay). 

" Bottle," French bouteille; Low Lathi btsHeiUa or huUieuia, a littl* 

6u«aor *butt" 
" Bottel,*^ French boUU a little botte or bundle. 

Bottom (double t). The older form was botm. 
Boudoir (French), boo'.dwor, A lady's private room. 
Bough, bow (of a tree). Bow (of a boat), to bend the head. 

*' Bough," Old English boh, genitive boges (2 lyL) 

"Bow," to bend the head, Old English biig[<m] imperfect &if^ 

Boulder, bold\er, a large rounded stone. Bolder (more bold). 

"Boulder," corruption of Ixnolder, a [stone which has heen] bowled 

about. 
"Bolder," Old English hdldra, more b<dd fb(UdJ. 

Bounty, plu. bounties, boun.tiz ; bounti-ful, bonjitt4iiIly, 
bounti-fulness ; but bounte-ous, bounte-ously^ bonnte- 
ouBDess. [There is no sufficient reason for this change of 
the vowel. See Beauty.) 
French h<mt4, Latin bdnitas, goodness (bdnus good). 

Bouquet, plural bouquets (French), boo\kay\ boo.haze^. 

Bourgeois, bourjshwoiz (sing and plural). A citizen, a burgess. 
(Pronounced bour-zhwoi in French.) 

Bourn, bo'um not bom, ia limit, a country. Bom, brought fbrtli. 
Borne, carried. {See Bom.) 

Bow, biHw (to rhyme with now) : (1) a salutation with the heed, 
(2) the fore part of a boat or ship, (3) to bend. Bough 
(of a tree). See Bough. 

Bow, bow (to rhyme with grow): (1) the propeller of arrows, 
(2) a curve, (3) an instrument used with a violin, Ste, 

** Bttw •* (to bend) : tM. Eng. he^an\ h€6i^an\ or bUf^anl 
** Bow " (for shooting arrows) is from the same verb. 

%* Compounds in which " bow '* rhymes with v<m : — 

£5w-grace (sea term), bdwman (first oar), bdwpieee (of a 
ship), bdwline (in ships), the Spanish bolina. 



AXD OF BPELLING, 63 

%• Gompounds in which ** bow " rhymes with grow : — 

Bow-bearer, bow-bent, bow-dye (so called from Bow, near 
London), bow-hand, bow-instruments (as violins, &c.\ 
bdw-legged, bow-less, bow-man (an archer), bow-net, bow- 
saw, bow-shot, bow-sprit, b$w«string, bow- window, &c. 

Bows, bSwz (of a ship). Bows, bdwz (of a saddle). Bouse, 
to drink. French huveWy a drinker, boire ; L. Lat. buo. 

Bowed, bSwd (term in heraldry). Bowed, bowd, bent. 
Bode, to portend. Old English bod[ian'\, to tell. 

Bowing, bSW'ing, saluting. Bowing, bow-ingy curviDg. 

{Am " bSw '* and " bow " are from the same verb, the only 
excuse for the twofold pron/tmeiation is that of making 
the ttnse more clear,) 

Bowel, |)2tiraZ boweb, bSw.elj bSw.elz ("h6w" to rhyme with 
voir), bowell-ed, bowell-ing. (Bale iii. -el.) 
French hod, Latin boteUtu, the gut 
Bower, bdwer (in a garden), a boudoir. Old Eng. biir, a bower. 

Bower-anchor, bihvxr an.kor not bow.er an.kor. The 
second anchor, carried at the ship's bdws. 

Bowie Knife, bow\ee nife not bSw'.ee nife. Used in North 
America. So called from " Jim Bowie," one of the most 
daring characters of the United States. 

Bowl, bowl, a basin. Bole, a clayey earth. 

" Bowl," French houU, a bowL ** Bole," Greek bdlds, a elod. 

Bowler, bowLer not b8w,ler. One who bowls. 

Bowling'-green, bowl.ing green not bSw.Ung green, 

Bo^ed, bowld not bSwld, Bold, intrepid. {See Bold.) 

Boy, plu. boys, feminine Girl, plu. girls. Buoy, a float. 

"B07," Old English byre, a son (verb byriiari], to raise). 
" Buoy/' French houie; Butch boH, a float. 

Brace, a tie ; two head of game, <S;o. Brass, a mixt metal. 

Brace (verb), braced (1 syl.), brac-ing, brac-er ; but brace-let. 

"Brace," French brat, the arms, hence embosser, to hug. 
"Brass/* Old English brcu, hvass. 

Brachial, bray\ki,dL Pertaining to the arms. 

Latin brdehicUis (Jbrdehlwn, the arm) ; Greek brachidn. 

Brachiopod, plu. brachiopods or brachiopoda, brdk\td.pdd, 
ln'Sk'.i.5p'\S.day, Molluscs with feet like arms. 

Greek brachidn potts fpodotj, arms [for] feet. 

Brag, bragged (1 syl.), bragg-ing, bragg-ingly, bragg-er, braggart. 

Braggadocio, plu. braggadocios. (Bule xlii.) 

Old EngUah braglani to pretend to arrogate to oneself. 



64 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Brahman or Brahmin, plu. Brahmanf or Brahmins, never 

Brahmen, The termination -man is merely bj accident 

like our word ** man/' as Boiman, &c. It arises from the 

addition of -n to a noun ending in -mat as Brahma[n], 

Boma[n]. Brahmanlc, Brahminlcal, Brah'manism. 

** Brahman," from BrahmA : *' Brahmin," from Brahm, 
Brahma or Brahm, chief of the Hindti Trinity. 

Braid, brdde, trimming. Brayed, past tense of bray. (See Bray.) 
" Braid/' Old English hrede (verb hredian], to weave). 

Brain, brcme (of the head). Old English IrcBgen^ the brain. 
Brake. A female fern, a skid, a carriage for training horses, (fee 

Break, brakes to fracture 

" Brake " Cbl fem\ Danish hregns. Welsh bnog, bracken. 
''Brake " (a skid), Latin brodiiiifit, an arm, a lever. 
*' Brake " (a carriage), Old Eng. brecCt a [carriage for] breaking-in. 
*' Break " (to fractnre). Old English breeian], to rupture. 

Bramble, bram\b'l. The older spelling is brarnbel or brembeL 

Bran, brSn. The husk of ground com. Brann-y. (Bule i.) 
French bran : as bran de scU, sawdust. 

Bran-new. Quite new, with the sheen or brightness still there. 

Old Eng. breTie or bryne, shining ; verb bymian], brennlan], to bum. 
The word occurs with a difference in " Brown " bnin, tiie colour of 
things burnt : "brim-stone," burning stone ; "brand" fhran^J d 
being added to convert the participle into a noun ; "Bum-idi," 
to make the surface glow. Not a corruption of Brandrnno, 

Brandy, plural brandies, bran'.diz ; brandied, bran*. did, 
(German brannt-wdn, Dutch brandTvrijn, burnt-wine. 

Brass, brds (a mizt metal). Brasses, monumental slabs of brass. 
Brassy, brassi-ness ; brazen, brazier (a worker in brass). 
Old Eng. brcBSf brass ; brcesen, braien : bratian, to brase. 

BT2LYSud.o,plu,hiAYSud.oea,bra.vah'.do,bra.vah\doze. Brag, (xlii) 
Spanish bravdta, the brag of a bully ; braveadir, a bullj. 

Brave, braver or more brave (eomp.)y bravest or most brave (sup,), 
braved (1 syl.), brav-ing, brav-ery, brave-ly. (Fr. bnive.) 

Bravo, plu. bravos, brah\voze. Assassins for hire. (Rule xlii) 
Italian brdvo (noun and adj.) ; Spanish brdvo (adj.), ferocious. 

Bray, brays, brayed (1 syl.), bray-ing, bray-er. (Fr. braire.) R. xiii. 

Braze, to solder with brass. Braise, charcoal used in a brasier. 

Braize, a method of cooking over a slow fire. Bn^ya, Srd 
per. sing, of bray. Breeze, refuse coke, &q. 

" Braze," Old English brcuiianl, to cover with brass. 

" Braise," French, prepared charcoal for cooking purposes. 

" Braise." French hraiMT, to bake over braise. 

" Brays " (i>oubds in a mortar). Old Eng. &roe[an]. to bruise. 

' Breese," French bn«tf, broken ; Latin briso, something trodden on. 



tt 



AND OF SPELLING. 65 

Brazen, ought to be hasen^ adj. of hratt, not " soldered." 
Old Engliah brauen, made of brass [hrcu). 

Brazier, one who brazes or works in brass. Brasier, a pan 
to hold. " braise " or charcoal in ignition. 

Breach, breechy a gap. Breech, the thick end of a gun, &c. 

** Breach/' Old Eng. brice (c=ch), a fracture : French breche. 
** Breech " (the hinder part or bottom), Old Eng. briCf breeches. 

Bread, hrSdy food. Bred, past and past part, of breed. 

*' Bread.** Old Eng. bread or bread, bread, food generallf. 
" Bred/^ Old Eng. breed of the verb 6r^cQan], to nourish. 

Bi-eadth. "Length," "depth," "breadth;" "height" not heighth. 

Old Eng. brddy broad, with -tk. This suffix added to adjectives 
converts them into abstract nouns, as strong, gtrengih; &c. 

Break, brake not breeky to rupture. Brake, a female fern. 
Break, pa«t broke [brake], j7a«t part, broken [broke]. 

BreakfjEUStt, brek'.fdsU The morning meal (break [the] fast). 

Breaking, brdke.ing not breek.ing. (See Break.) 

Bream, a fish of the carp family. Brim, brim, a rim, a brink. 

" Bream," French britne {bramd]. ** Brim," Old Eng. brymme. 
Breast, brest (of the body). Old Eng. bredst, the breast. 
Breath, brith (noun) ; breathe, breethe (verb). Bule li. 

Breath (6r^tA), breath'-less, breath'-lessly,breath'-les8ness. 

Breathe (breethe) y breathed (1 syl.), breath' -ing, breathes 

(1 syl.), breath'-er, breath'-ing-time. 

Old Eng. brdthy breath, an odour, exhalation. 

Breccia, brech\e.&h, A rocky mass of angular fragments. A 

mass of rounded fragments is a Conglomerate. 

It ought to be bricia (Italian), a fragment. The Italian word breccia 
means a "breach." 

Breech, plural breeches, breech, britch\ez. In the singular it 
means the hinder part, as the " breech " of a gun. In 
the plural it means trousers terminating at the knees. 
The verb (breech) means to flog ; and also to change the 
petticoat-suit of young boys for jacket and trousers. 
Breach, breech, a gap, an opening. (See Breach.) 
Breed, bredey to hatch, to generate. Bread, bred, food, q.v. 
Breed, past bred, past participle bred. 
Old English br4d{an], past brdd, past part. brSden, to nourish. 
Breeze, refuse coke. A gentle wind. A gad-fly. 

** Breeze" (refuse coke), French bris^, broken ; Latin brisa. 

" Breeze" (a gentle wind), French brise, a breeze. 

** Breeze" (a gad-fly), also spelt Brlse, Old Eag. briose, a gad-fly. 

BresBommer. It ought to be Bretsumer, a beam over a shop 

window, <fec., to support the weight above it. 

German bret, a plank or beam, and tvrnier (Welsh) supporter. 

E 



66 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Brethren, plural of brother, chiefly need in Scripture language 

For all general purposes the plural of brother is bioUierB. 

" Brethren " is altogether a Unnder. The Old BagUah was tfr&thor, 
plural brdthra or brdthru^ later form tnithft. 

Breve (1 syl.), & note in Music. Brief, brefe (of a barrister). 

*' Breve." not Ital but French hrboeOn Mtuic). Ital. is noto iiUierm. 
''Brief/' Latin ItrevU, short. A short sumnuuy of a oaase. 

Brevet, brev\et [rank]. An honorary degree in the army, being 
one grade higher than that which takes the pay. 

French hrtwt, brevet rank, a commission. 
Brevier, brev,veet^. A small type, like that used in this line. 

Latin hr§vi$t small Said to have been tbe type of brwvUvrim. 

Bridal, bruddl, acljective of bride. Bridle, bri.d% for a horse. 

BHddl or Brydal was the marriage feast, the "bride ale." The 

adjective of bride in Old English is ftridUc or brydMc. 
*' Bridle," Old £ng. bridel ox brydd (verb brid\icm], to eurbX 

Bride, moiculine bridegroom, a corruption of bridegume. 

Old Eng. brid or bryd ; brid or bryd gvma 

N.B. — Gum- (prefix) denotes excellence. Oumrmann, the famous man. 

Oum-eyntif man-kind; Gttmo, man "iMur raroellence." 

Bridesmaid, attendant on the bride. Best man, attend- 
ant on the bridegroom, (JBrtdcmaid is incorrect. It 
does not mean the bridal maid, as " bridecake" means 
the bridal cake, but the maid of the bride* 

Brideca.ke, not bridescake. It means the bridal cake not 
the cake of the bride. 

Bridge (over a river). Brig, a ship with two masts. 

" Bridge," Old Eng. bricg. " Brig," a contraction of brxgantin€. 

Bridle, bri\d'l (for a horse). Bridal, br%\dal, adj. of l»ide, q.v. 

Bridled, br%\d'ld; bridling, brWd'ling; bridler, bri^A'Ur, 

Brief, brefe, the summary of a cause. Breve (in Music), q.v. 

Brier or briar (a plant). Briery (Old Eng. brter, a brier). 

Brigade Major, plwral brigade majors, bri.gdde', <fec. 

Brigade General, plural brigade generals, bri.gdde\ &c. 
Bright, brUe, shining, clear. (0. Eng. beorht corrupted to breoM^ 

Brighfen (verb), brightened (2 syL), brightening. 

Bright-ly, bnght-ness, bright-eyed, bright-shining, &c. 

Brilliant, briV.yanU (French brilUmt, verb briller, to shine.) 

Brim, a rim. Bream, a fish of the carp family. {See Bream.) 

Brimm-er, brimmed (1 syl.), brimm-ing. (Rule i.) 

Brim-lesB, brim-ful (fall to the brim). 

("Full," "fill," and "all," drop one I in the compounds.) 

Bzim3toii6| tnlphiir. (Old Eng. bryne-8t<me, the homing stone.) 



1 

1 



AND OF SPELLING. 67 



ftrinded, tabl^, streaked. Brindled (diminative of the aome)* 

Italian trfnofo, ^eokled, spotted. 
Brine, bdn-ish, brin.islmess, brin-y (t long). Rale xvii. 

Old Bug. Wync, lalt iiqvor. {jBrgnt, Iramia^, hat no aoeani.) 
Bring, fast liimiglLt, past part, biougtit. To carry to the place 
where wt art, to carry elsewhere is <* to take." 
Bring-er and bring-ing, not briti-ger and brin-ging like 
finger and fingering, where the n stands for.y f jigger). 
0. Eng. hrin{fiflm>\ past }yr4Me or bran^, part part. xft-hroM or bnMt(7«nw 
Bristle, bristles, bristled, brlttl-ing, bristl-y, bristli-ness, 
hri^.^1, hri^Ji'U, brU'yid, bristling, brU'.ly, brig'.li.nets. 
Old Eng: hfrrt, a bristle. Bj metatj^esia bry«i and dim. le. 
BSTFAIir, Briir:n; Briton, Brit Jin; British (one t). 

Britut'iiiA, Britan'nie. {Latin Britannia, Britannicus*) 
Briftany. (Doable t. The y is diminutive.) 

"Britain/' Old Eng. Brittan, Brytten, Bryten, Brtoten, Ac. 

"Britisli,'' Old Eng. BHttise, BryttUe. 

''Briton/' Old Bng. BrU or BritU, plu. Brittas (i or y). 

Brittle, 1nitf.t'l; brittler or more brittle, farittlest, or most 
brittle; not britteler, hrittelest. Easily broken. 
Old Eng. hrytlic, rerb hrv^anlf to break. 

Britzska, Mts'^kdh or briz.kah, Bussian britshka. An open 
carriage which can be closed at pleasore. 

Broach, to tap. Brooch, an ornament for the neck or breast. 

'^ Broach," Fr. broche, a qpigot. ** Brooch/' 8p. hroche, a clasp. 

Broad, hrawd, wide. Brod, a sharp-pointed instrument Brood. 

"Broad." Old Eng. hrdd or brdd, broad. 

" Brod, same as prod, an awl, a goad ; Danish broad, a goad. 

"Brood," Old Eng. brdd, a brood ; brddig, brooding. 

Broadwise, not broadways. In the direction of the broad part. 

Old Eng. suffix -iois, in the direction of ; wisa, a director. 
Brooooli, plural biocoolis, brok\ kd.li, brok'.ko.lxz not hroccolow. 

Frendi brocoH (one e), a spring eanliflover. (Not Italian.) 
Brogue, brog {g hard), a twang in speech, as the ''Irish brogue." 

Gaelic brog, a shoe made of rough hide. 
Bzomelia, bro.me\U.dh. A genus of plants. So named from 
Olans Bromel, a Swedish naturalist. The pine apple, &c. 
Bromeliacen, bro-m^-li.a*'-ae-e. The order containing the above. 

In Botany -acem denotes an order. 
Brome (I syl.), or BromiBe, bromln. A non-metaUic element. 
Brom-al, a fluid obtained flrom brome by alchohol. 
Brom-ide, a non-a/sid combination of brome and oxygen. 
Bxom-ic, an octd combination of brome and oxygen. 
Bcom-ate, a salt from the union of bromie acid and a base. 
Greek br&mMt txBUx. (So called from its fetid smell.) 



68 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bronchia, plural Bronchisa, hr^\k\.ah, hron* , kl.ee. The rami- 
fications of the tubes called bronchi, terminating in the 
vesicles of the lungs. Bron'chial, bron\kl.al (adj.) 

Bronchos, plural bronchi, br&n\ku8j bron\ki. Bronchns, 
either of the two branches of the windpipe (bronchus 
dexter or bronchus sinU^ter)^ the two are the bronchi. 
Greek brdgehds, the windpiiM. (Note " g " before g or ch=** n.**) 

Bronchitis, hron.ki\ti8. Inflammation of the bron'chns. 

In Medical phraseology the snffix -itis denotes " inflammation ; " as 
carditis, inflammation of the heart ; periton%<i«, inflammation of 
the peritoneum ; pneumonitis, inflammation of the longs. 

Bronze (1 syl.), bronzed (1 syl.), bronz-ing, bronzes (2 syl.), 
bronz-ite, bronz-y. (Italian bronzOy bronze.) Bule adx. 

Brooch, an ornament. Broach, to tap. {See Broach.) 

Brood, a progeny; (verb) to sit to hatch. Broad, hrawd^ wide (q.v,) 
Old English brdd, a brood ; hrddig, brooding. Brdd, broad. 

Brook, a stream. Broke, broke^ past tense of break, brake. 

*' Brook," Old Eng. brde, a rivulet. " Broke," broedian], brae, broeen. 

Broom, a brush. Brougham, broom {q.v.) Brome {q.v.) 
** Broom," Old English brdm, the broom shrub. 

Broth, brauth not broth. (Old Eng. brdth^ broth.) 

Brothel, broth\el. Corruption of the Fr. bordel. Ital. bordeUo. 

Brother, plu. brothers. In Scripture language, plu. brethren (q.v.) 
Brother, feminine sister, plural sisters. 

Brother-in-law, plural brothers-in-law, by marriage. 

Step-brother, plural step-brothers, sons of different fami. 
lies made brothers by the second marriage of their sur- 
viving parents. 
Old Eng. step[an], to bereave. Brothers bereaved of one parent, 

Foster-brother, plural foster-brothers, nursed together. 

Old Eng. fdsteTy to feed. Food-brothers, fed by the same parent. 
Old Eng. br6ihor, plural br6ihra or hrdthrUy later form br&ih/rt. 

Brougham, broom not broo\am. A light four-wheeled carriage. 
So named from Lord Brougham, whose name, says Lord 
Byron, "is pronounced Broom from Trent to Tay." 
Similarly Vaughan is Fatim, and Maughan is Mom. 

Brow, br5w to rhyme with " now, " not brow to rhyme with ** grow/ 
Old English brcBto, the eye-brow. 

Brown, brown to rhyme with " gown,** not with grown. 

Old Eng. hnin, the colour of burnt things, brunen or bumen, bumL 
Browse (1 syl.), to graze. Brows, eye^-brows. {See Brow.) 
'Browse," Greek [bijbr^skd, to eat ; brdHa, food. 



<f - 



AND OF SPELLING, 69 



Bmcine or Bmoiiia, hru',sin or hru' jii.nSh. An extract some- 
what like stryehnia {striW ,nS.dK), Named after Dr. 
Bruce, minertdogist and trareller, New York. 

Bmin, hrii'M, a bear. Brewing, brew.ing, making beer. 

Brain is so named from Sir Bruin, the bear, in the German beast- 
epic of Reynard the Fox. (The brun or hrown animal.) 
" Brewing/' Old Eng. brethoian], past bredw, past participle brotoen. 

Bruise, hruse, a contusion. Brews, 8rd person sing, of " Brew." 

** Braise/' Old Eng. bryt{an], to braise, past brysde, past part, brysed. 

Bruited, bru\ted, noised, rumoured. " It got bruited abroad." 

A verb made from the French bruit, a noise, report. 

** To bruit," in French, is Ripandre un bruit au loin. 

Brunette (French), broo.nef, A woman of dark hair and com- 
plexion. A fair woman is a blonde (French). 
Bms'qae (French), brush, abrupt, blunt in manners. 

Brate (1 syl.), a dumb anim&L Bruit (French), a rumour. 
Brut-al^ bruf-ally, bruf-ality, brut'-alise, brut'-alising, 
- bruf-alisa"tion, brut'-ish, brut'-ishness, brut'-ishly, brut'- 
ism, brut'-ifyi brut'-ifying, bmf -ifles (3 syl.), brut'-ified 
(3 syl.) Bole xviL 
Latin bruJta [animdXia\ brnte animala. 
Bratnm fulmen (Latin), brudum fuLmen, A harmless threat. 
Bryony, bn'Mjny, The wild vine, the lady's seal, &c. 

Oreek brutf, to sprout out ; no plant makes longer shoots. 
Babble, bubbles, bubbled, bubbl-ing, bubbl-y. 

buh',b% bub\b'lz, bub'.b'ld, bub\b'ling, bubWly. 
Dutch bobbelf a bubble. 
Bucaneer not buccaneer buk.a,neer, A sea-robber. 

Trench b&ucemier from boiicaner, to smoke flesh ; boucan^ a smoking- 
I>laee. Boucaneers originally hunted wild beasts for skins, and 
smoked the flesh for food. {Boucan, a Caribbean word.) 

Buck, lye in which clothes are soaked to bleach ; hence Buck, 
a fop, whose clothes are " buck,** or well bleached and 
got up, and Buck-basket, a basket for dirty linen. 
Cterman beiuihen, to steep clothes in lye. 
Buck, feminine doe. Fallow deer. (Old Eng. bue, a stag.) 

Buck (a gender-word) : as buck rabbit, doe rabbit ; buck 
hare, doe hare ; buck goat ; roebuck. 

Buck-bean, corruption of bog-bean. The marsh or bog vetch. 

Buck-wheat, corruption of &t^c^-wheat Beech-wheat. 
Gorman bvuhwe^sen, beech-mast or buck-wheat. 

Bucketful, plwral bucketfnls not bucketsful. Bucketful is a 
noun, and means the quantity which fills a bucket. Two 
bucketftils is twice that quantity, but two "buckets-full" 
means two buckets Med full, — quite a distinct idea. 



72 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Bush, booth not hiUh, This and Push are the only two words 
in -tuh with the ** u " like oo. AU the others have " u " 
short. They are "blush, brush, crush, flush, gush, hush, 
lush, plush, rush, thrush, aod tush." 

"Bush " la French houchon, a tayem bufh, a wisp. 

" Push ** is French pousser, to push. (The ** u " represents Fr. ou.) 

Business, biz'.nez. Vocation, employment. (See Busy.) 

Bus, a contraction of Omnibus (q.v,) Buss, a kiss. 
"Btjm" Spanish bva; Latin basium, a klst. 

Busy, busies, busied, biz'.y, biz'.iZt Mz'.idj busy-ing, busi-er 
(comp.), busi-est (super.), busi-ness, biz\nez, busi-ly, busy- 
body, &c. (Eules xi. and xiii.) 
Old £ng. bysgiian], to occupy ; bysguiig, buiiness. 

But (conj.) But [end], the big eod. Butt, a tun ; to toss. 

" But " (conj.)> Old Eng. b^tan or bdta, except, but, without. 

"But [end J," French bout, the end. 

" Butt " (a large tub), Old Eng. butt or byt, a tun. 

*'Butt " (to toss or thrust), Welsh pwtian, to poke or butt. 

Butcher, boofxher ("but-" to rhyme with foot, not with "Tit"). 
This is the only instance of but so sounded. Of the nine 
other words one has " u" long as in " unit," — ^viz., butif^ric ; 
and eight have " u'' short, — ^viz., but and butt^ butler, but- 
ment, butter, buttery, button, and buttress, 

** Butcher," French houcher. The "tf" in bush, push, and butcher 
owes its abnormal sound to its representing the French ou. 

Butt, a mark ; to toss. But [end]. But (conj.) See But. 

Butts, plural, A place where archers meet to shoot at butts. 

Butter, bUUter. (Old Eng. butere or butyre, butter.) 

lAtin bHiyrwm ; Greek bouiHron (Oen. xviii. 8), botts turos, qow curd. 

Buttery, plural butteries, butf.t^.ry, but'.t^.riz. In the Univer- 
sities the college buttery supplies all sorts of food to the 
students, from a penny roU to a banquet. 

Butyric [acid], bu.ty'.rik not buf,y.rik. Obtained from butter. 

Butyrine, bu.ty'.rin not butf.y.rine. An oily substance 
obtained from butter. (Latin biityrum, butter.) 

Buy, to purchase. By (prep.) B'ye, as Good b'ye. 

Buy, past and past part, bought. Buy-er, buy-ing, buys. 
*' Buy," Old Eng. byc^an], past biSht«, past part, geboht. 

Buzz. One of the monosyllables ending in a double consonant. 
(Rulevii.) The others are: Add, odd; burr, err; ebb^' 
egg; buzztfuzz; fizz, frizz; butt, bitt, mitt. 



AND OF SPELLING, 73 

ly (preposition). Spelt anciently &«, 6t, hig^ and by (be-cause). 
When both agent and instnunent are expressed, hy 
follows the agent, and with the instrumeiit : as *' The 
bird was killed hy a man with a gun." If only the in- 
Btmment is expressed, hy follows passive and neuter 
verbs: as "London was destroyed hy fire, in 1666." 
" Socrates died hy poison." " Burnt with fire/ " Killed 
with poison." " Slay him with the sword." 

By (gerundial) : as " It may be had hy applying at the 
ofl&ce." This is good EngHsh. The Gerund with the 
preposition hy or with being used, both in English and 
Latin, to express the mannery cause, or means, " It may 
be had (how ?) by paying sixpence.'* " It may be had 
(how?) merely by asking for it." 

By (past, near). " The train has gone hy," By-gones. 

By and by, not hy and hye (adverbial). Soon, presently. 
Near, in point of time, that is, soon. "By and by" 
means soon and nearly [now], almost immediately. 

By or Bye, a borough, house, place, way; [adj.) local, private. 

TOWN: By-word, town talk. 

By-lawB, town or local laws, not statute or national 
la^'B. (Latin leges privdta,) 
SBivATE : By-lane, by-path, by-play, by-road, by-way. 
sxcBET, underhand, sly : By-stroke. 
OUT or BUiiE : By-ball or Bye-balL {See helow Bye.) 

By the by, by the way {en passant, French ; in transitu, or 
ob'iter, Latin). (Old Eng. hy or hye, a way, a pluce.) 

B'ye as Good b'ye, Good hy, "God be wi* ye" {d-dieu, Fr.) 

Bye, plural byes (in Cricket). " A bye " is a bnll which 
passes the batsman and eludes the grasp of the wicket- 
keeper behind him. 

CSabtl, kaJ>aV, a junto. Cable, ka'.h'l, a rope. 

Oftbal, caballed' (2 syL), caball'-er, cabaU'-ing. (Rule i.) 

''CUmI,** French ecUxiU, a club. It is merely by strange coincidence 
that the initial letters of the British Cabinet in 1671 formed the 
woid " CABAi..'' . " Cable," French caibU, a rope. 

QablMigi0,ea6^.M49e, a vegetable. Gab'bage, to pilfer. (Double b.) 

Italian eappuceio, a cabbage lettnce ; Latin capiU, a head. 
"Cabbage** (to pUfer), Dutch kaboMtn, to pilfer. 

QririB, kdb\in, a hut. (Welsh cah and eahan, a booth.) 

iUie, iafJb*l, a lope. Cabal, ha,haV, a junto. {See Cabal.) 



76 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gall, to shout. Gaul (of a wig), a membrane. (Old Eng. cawL] 

Gall, Uawl, called (1 syL), oall-ing, caU-er. 

Catcall, recall, oallboy, &c. It retains the double "1" always. 

Latin cdlo, Greek leMed, to calL 

Galliopd, haV,U,6.'pS not kal.IV .o.p^y as it is generally called. 

Greek KallidpS, the muse of epic i>oetry {kalldSf beauty). 

GallouB, kaV.luSf insensible. CaUns, bone gluten. 

Latin calldsua, callonB. Callus, a glutinons substance growing about 
the fracture of bones, serving to solder them. 

Galm, harm; calmer, more calm ; calnieBt, most calm. {Fr.ealme.) 

Calomel, kal\o,mel, prepared mercury. Ghamomile, kam\omile 
(a flower). Calamine, kal\a,mXny a fossil (q.v.) 

Caloric, ka,W.rik not ka,l6r^,rik nor kal\6»rik. The principle 
of heat. (Latin cdlorj caXorUy heat ; caXeOt to be hot.) 

Caltrop, koV.trop, Ought to be coltrap. A kind of thistle. 

Old Eng. coltroeppe, a whin, thistle, or caltrop. 
Calumet, kaV.u.met, A pipe smoked by American Indians when 
they make a treaty or terms of peace. 

Calumny, plu. calumnies, kaV.um.niz, A slander. 

Calum'niate (4 syl.), calum'niated, calum'niat-ing, calum'. 
niat-or, calum^'nia'^tion, calum'niatory, calum'nious, ca- 
lum'niously. (Latin calumnia*) 

Cal'vary, the place of Christ's crucifixion. Cavalry, horse- 
soldiers. (Second "a" of "Calvary" is long in Latin, 
No such word in the Greek text of Luke stxiii, 3d.) 

*' Calvary," Latin calvdria, a cemetery (ealva, a skull). 
'* Cavalry," French cavalerie; Latin ectballuSf a horse. 

Calve, karvey to bring a calf into life. Carve, to serve meat 

Calves, plu, of calf. {See Calf.) 

** Calve," Old Eng. ce<ilf-ian, to bring a calf into the world (c=:k). 
"Carve," ceorf-aUy to cut, hew; or carve (c = k). 

Calvinism not Galvanism, The religious tenets of John Calvin. 
Galvinist. One who entertains the religious views of Calvin. 

Calx, plu. calxes or calces, kal\seez, lime, chalk. 

Old Eng. cealc or cdic; Latin ecUx, plu. ccUca, chalk. 

Cal'yz, plu. cal'yzes or cal'yces, kaV.y.seez. Galix, a cup (9. v.) 

Latin cAlyx^ plu. edlyoes; Greek kaiux, plu. kalUkifSy the empalemenl 
of a flower. 

Cambric, kame'.hrik. Fine linen made of flax. 

From Cambray, in Flanders, where it was first manufactured. 
Camelion, better Chamoeleon, ka.mee\le.on. 

Latin chamcUeon; Greek chamaile6n, the reptile lion. 

Camellia, generally called ka.mee'.li.ah, better ka.meV.UM, 

These beautiful plants are named after 0. J. KanUl (Latinised into 
Camelliu)t a Moravian Jesuit, and botanist 



AND OF SPELLING, TJ 

CSamelopard, generally called JcamfM.S.pard or kam'-eLlep'-ard. 

Latin edmilopivrddlU, the giraffe. The word is compounded of 
eamSlo-pardaXU, the parded camel, the camel spotted like the pard 
or panther, and shordd be pronounced ka.metf .lo.pard. 

Gameo, plu, cameoB, ham^S.o, kam\S.oze. Stones cut in reliel 
Intaglio, in,tal.yo, A stone .cut in hollow, like seals. 
Italian cammeo and vnt(iglio. 

Camomile, better Chamomile, kami^^o.mile, A plant. 
Calomel, kalf,o.mel, A preparation of mercury. 

'* Chamomile,** Greek chamai m/lds, an apple on the ground. So 

called from a resemblance in the smeU. 
" Calomel," Greek kdlds miUU, beautiful black (bleached hj heat). 

Campaign, kam.pain\ The time an army is in " the field." 
Champagne, 9ham.pa\n\ Wine made of Champagne grapes. 
"CamxMkign," French campoipiet a field or open country. 
Gampaagner, kamjpai'nf.er. One who has served in campaigns. 

Campana, kam,pay\nah (Latin). The pasque-flower. 
Campanile not eampanely kam'.pa.nile. A. bell-tower. 
Latin eampdnlle, a bell-tower. (The *' i " is long.) 

Oampannla, kam.pan'.ii.lah. Hair-bell, blue-bell, Canterbury-bell. 
Latin eampdm&lat the blue-bell, also the woodbine {-pd- long). 

GampannlacesB, kam-pan-uXay^'-scee. The " campanula " order. 
The sufGbE -[dlceast (i? Bqtany) means aji " order" of plants. 

Campannlaria, plu, campanularisa, kam.pan\u,lait"ri.ah^ &c. 
Corals with beU-shaped cells. 
Latin cam/pdnOXat a little bell. 

Camphine, better camphene, kam'.feen^ cont. of camfphogen. 
A mineral oil, identical with rectified oil of turpentine. 
Latin ccvrnphOra, Greek g^nd, I produce camphor. (Its protoxide). 

Camphor, kamf.for. A gum from the camphor laurel. 
Latin eamph&ra. Br. Ure gires ** Kamphv/r, Arabic." 

Campion, kam\pi.on. Both catch-fly and cuckoo-flower. 

"Corn-campion," the common catch-jly; "white and red 
campions," lychnis or cwckoo-Jlower ; " rose campion," 
bachelor's button. 

Can, past tense could. This is never an auxiliary verb, but it 

stands in regimen with other verbs without to between 

them : as " I can write," " I could write." Here lorite is 

infinitive mood, being the latter of two verbs in regimen. 

(I ken, to write.) 

Old Eng. eunnan, pres. tense can, past cdthe, past part. c6,th, 
(The **l" U interpolated, amd the " tA" changed to "d.**J 

Oaoaille (French), ka.nah,*e. The rabble. (Lat. canes, hounds.) , 



78 BnnORS OF SPEECH 

■ ■ 

Canal, Ghannel, Keimel, ka,naVt char^.nel, hen'.nel, 

"Canal'* (French), an artificial river ; Latin candUs. 
^Channel" (a watercourse), Old Freadi ehenal, a gutter. 
"Kennel," Italian earUle, a place for dogs. (Latin canU, • <log.) 

Ganoel, kan'sely to obliterate. Ganoelled, karfseld; ean'cell-ing, 
can^cell^ate^ (In Botamy) lattice-like. {Rule in. -ki^) 

Canceller, one who cancels. Ohanoellor, a dignitary, q.v, 

Latin <MnioiU», to make like a lattice (eaneetti, lattioea). 

When a document is cancelled a pen crosses the writing into lattices. 

Canoer, kan^ser, " the cbab " of the Zodiac Canker, a worm. 

Latin eancir, the crab, sign of the summer soUttce. 
" Canker, " Old £ng. tancer or waiters <e = k). 

Oandelabnim, pin, eandelabra, kan\de,lay'\hfumf kan'jd^da^'^ 
brdh. (The *'e'^ of this word is long in Latin.) 
Latin ^a/ndilaibrum; candUa^ a candle ; tandeo, to glow like fire. 
Candid, frank. Candied, kan\did (with sugar). See Candy. 

"Candid." Latin candidus, white, sincere. 
" Candied," Italitia candito, eandire, to candy. 

Candidate, kan'.dudate. One who offers himself for a vacant poet. 

Latin caruUd&lnu, clothed in white; bacauie Soman iwvlldattT 
dressed in white when they solicited the people's Yotea. 

Candle, karCd'U (The older spelling is the better,) 
Old Eng. en/ndel; Latin eandMa; eandeo, to glow. 

Candlemas, kan.d'Lmas. Feb. 2, when " Catholics '* consecrate 
all the candles to be used in churches during the year. 
(-mas [post^tl da-ops one **s'*: Ohristnuu, Miohaelmaf.^ 

Candy, kan\dy; candied, kan\did; candy-ing, kan'-dyji-ng, 

Ital. eandtre, to oandj. 
Cane, kain^ a reed. Cain, brother of Abel. 

" Cane,** Latin eanna; Greek kamna, a reed, a cane. 
Canicula, ka,nik\u.lah, the Dog-star. Canicular (sdj,) 
(The " i '* is long in the original Latin words,) 

Latin ecvnUy&la, tbe dog-star ; aanio&ldris, adj. (oanieMrss dies). 
Canine, ka.nine* not ka,neen\ a^j. of canis^ a dog. (Lat. ^onimtf.) 
Canister, kan',iss,ter, A eonall box for tea, Ac. 

Latin canistrum, Greek k<VMutron, a wicker basket. 
Canker, to corrode; a worm. Cancer, a disease; "the crab." 

" Canker," Old Eng. cancer or oancn (c = k), a canker. 
"Cancer," Latin ctMcer, the crab; Old Eng. eanetr, the diaeaae. 

Cannabis (Lat.), kan\nd,lns. Hemp. (Greek kannSbit, hemp.) 

Cannel-ooal, kcm'.nel cole. Corruption of Oandle-coal. So 

called because it bums with a brilliant flame. 

Cannibal, kan\nLbal. A human being who eats man. (Double «.) 
Columbus says: " The natives Hve in great fear of Uie 
caanibalB (that is, Caribals, or people of Cariba).*' 



AN1> OF SPELLINO, 70 



CSmb'hob, ordnanee. Oan'on, a church dignitarj. It is difficult 

to i^eoXiect which of these two words has the double n, 

A "ouman^ la a rted for holding gunpowder; Greek kanna; 
Latin and Italian muma; Treneh ecume (all with donble n). 

Can^noB^ade, oan'ndn-ft'^ded, oan^non-a'ding, can'non-eer'. 

** C^OM " is the Onek ioM&n; Latin canon, a rod for measaring, a 
" role/' kence a etandiMrd or model of exeellenoe, and hence the 
hooks admitted as oar Scriptures, and a church dignitarj-. 

CmioiiMc&I, canon'^-ically, canon'-icals ; can'onist, can'on- 
ide, can'on-ry, can'on-lsa'lion {not A Greek word, B. xxxi.) 

Oaimot, kan\not, familiarly contracted into can't, kamt not 
kanU It is in reatil^y " cd*n*t (ca = kah). 

Gaimy, kan\ny, cautious, knowing. CSany, kain'.y, adj. of cane. 

** Cann;^ ,** Old Xng. c^ne, from cwnJMun to know or ken. 
"Qaaj," Latin cannons, adj. of eanna, a oane. 

Oanoe, pht, eanoes, kcunoo^ ka,nooz\ (Rule xlii.) This word, 
meaning a boat made of skins or bark, is said by Spanish 
historians to be of Indian origin : "Ilia in terram suU lin- 
tribusy quas * c(uio<u' vaccmtf edfuxerunt.** (Hist, of Amer.) 

Ganon, a church dignitary. Gannon, ordnance. {Sm Gannon.) 

Canopy, plu. canopies, kan\8,pyt kan*.o.piz, (Rule xiii.) 

GanopiBd, kan\a.pidj can^'opy-ing. To cover with a canopy. 

Ifow Lat. cancjfeum/ Oieek h&n6peidn^ a pavilion to keep off goAta 
Qe&n6pSi a gnat). The -n6- is long both in the Gk. and Lat. words. 

Gant, hypocritical whining complaints. Gan*t, for " cannot," q.v. 
Latin tan69, to repeat the same thing often, to sing. 

Cantata (Italian), kan.tar^.tah not kan,tay',tah, A poem set to 
music (Latin cantdre, to sing). 

Canteen. A soldier's tin vessel for holding drink. 
ItaUaa, ^aiatiata, a wine-cellar. 

Canter, one who cants. Canter, a Canterbury gaUop. The 
Canterbury gallop refers to the easy pace of pilgrims. 

Oaatharig, plu» cantharides, kan'.thd.ris, kan.tha'/riJUez, 
Ladn canthdvUt the Spanish fly ; Greek kaiUMurot, a beetle. 

Gan t hna, the comer of the eye. Acanthus, a thorny plant. 

Greek kanthos, the comer of the eye ; Latin i^nth^i8, a wheel-tire. 
'** Aeantkus,** Latin, from Greek akemthos (aikantha, a thorn). 

Oantide, plu. canticles, kan\ ti. k% <fec. A religious song. 

•♦Solomon's Song" in the Bible is called "The Canticles." 
Italian teuUica; Latin oanhu, a tune, and -c2«, diminutive. 
Gmlo, pltL cantos (Italian), kan'.toze. Divisions of a poem. 
Onton, kan\ton, a temtorial division. Oantle, a fragment. 



Canton,** French, from the Greek kanthoSy a corner. 
Cantle," French SchcmtiUon, a sample, our ''scantling." 



80 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gan'yas (one «), plu, canvases, cloth. Gan'yass, to solioit votes. 

Gan^'vass, can'vasses, canVassed (2 syL), can'vass-er, <fec. 

''Canvas," French caneveu; lAtin cannabis ; Greek ]bann<!H>w, hemp 
" Canvass," Old Fr. carmdboMer, to sift thro' hemp, hence to sift rotes. 

Cany, kay\ny, adj. of cane. Ganny, knowing (q.v,) 

Caoutchonc, koo.tchook' not ka.oufxhouk (Indian). India- 
rubber prepared for waterproof cloths. 
Cap, capped (1 syl.), capp.ing, capful plu. capfuls. (Kule L) 
Cap-a-pie, kap' ah pay'. From head to foot. 

Spanish [de\cdb&ta a piu. Not French. Fr. would be de pied en eop. 
Capable, kay\pa.b% ca'pableness, capability. 

French capable; Latin eapax, eapdcis (verb capio). 
Capacity, J) 2u. capacities, ka.pa8\ttiz; capacious, ka.pay'.8hug^ 
capa'ciously, capa'ciousness. (Latin capdcitat, capacity.) 
Caparison, kd,pa'/ry .zon. To decorate a horse. (This word is 
corruptly spelt ** caparison"* for " caparason,") 
Spanish caparaxon (with a and z) ; French caparapon. 
Capillary, plu. capillaries, ka,piV.la.riZt the extremities of 
arteries, fine as hairs. Capillary, adj., fine as a hair. 
Latin cdpilldriSy like a hair {eapilltu, a hair). 

Capital (of a column), chief city. Capitol, a temple in Kome. 

Cap'ital-ly, cap'ital-ist, cap'ital-ise, capitalised (4 syL), 

cap'italis-ing (« not «), cap'ital-isa"tion. (Eule xxxi.) 

" Capital" (chief city ; excellent), French capital ; Latin eapitdlis, 
"Capital" (of a column), ought to be capltell; Latin capiUMuM, 

The termination is the dimin. -ellua (-el), and not the adj. -<d. 
** Capitol," Latin capitolium, the temple of Jupiter, erected on the 

Cap'itoline Hill of Home. 

Capitoline, kap'.tto.line not ka.pit\o.line. (Latin capitolmus,\ 

Capitular, ka.pif.u.lar. Member of an ecclesiastical chapter. 

Capitulary, plu. capitularies, ka.pit\u.la.riz. The laws 

of an ecclesiastical chapter. 
Latin capituldris fcapUulum, a chapter a summary). 

Capitulate, ka.pit\u.late not ka.piif .chu.late ; capitulated, 
capit'ulat-ing, capitula'tion, capit'ulator. -^ 

French capitulation, verb capituler, to surrender on terms ; LatiB 
capitula, chapters : hence articles of a^eement. 

Capivi, ka.pee'.vi or ka.piv\i, corruption of copaifer. A 
balsam of the copaifera officinalis of South America. 

Capriccio, phi. capriccios (Italian), ka.prit'.shot ka.pritf .shoze 
(3 not 4 syl.) In Music, a caprice. Kule -gin . 

Capriccioso (Italian), ka.prit.sho\zo. In Miuic, " ad libitum^" 

Caprice (French) ka.preece\ whim. Capricious, ka,prish'AU 

capric'ious-ly, capric'ious-ness. 
Latin capra, a goat, our "caper." 



AND OF SPELLING, 81 

, plu. capsicimiB, kap^Mkumy &c. The cayenne-pepper 
plant. {This word ought to be capeacum instead of 
" capsicum") 

JjMn eapta, % coffer, referring to the pod which contains the seed. 
Capstan (of a ship). Gapstone, a fossil sea-urchin. 

"Capstan/* Fr. eabestan ; Old Eng. ccBbwUr ; Lat. eapittrumy a halter. 
"Capstone," so called from its resemblance to a cap. 

Capenle, kap'sule (2 rwi 3 syl.) The seed-vessel of a plant. 

Latin eapgiUa (capa and -vXa dim.), a little chest (or pod). 
Captain, kap\t'n. (French capitaine; Latin caputs the head.) 
Captaincy, plu. captaincies, kap\tan.8iz. Rank of captain. 
Suffix -cy denotes "rank," "office,'* "condition" f-cy, not -tyj. 
Caption, kap'^shun. The act of taking hj judicial process. 
^ Captions, kap'^skusj disposed to find fault ; cap'tionsness. 
Latin captio, eaptiSstu (verb eapio, eapto, to en^p). 
Gaptiyate, kap\tl.vate ; cap'tivated, cap'tivat-ing, cap'tivat-or, 
cap'tiva"tion. {-oTj after t or s, is more usual tian -er.) 
Latin captiv&re, to make captive [by charms or otherwise]. 

Captivity, plu. captivities, kap.tii/.%.tiz, (Rule xliv.) 

Captor, he that captures. Capture, kap\t8hur, to take prisoner. 

Captured, kap'.tshurd ; capturing, kap'.tshur.ing. 

{'tor and -sor for agents, rarely -ter and -ser.) 
Viench capture, vorb oop^urer; Latin captHra, a capture. 

Oapoodo, plu. capuccioB (Ital.), ha.pute\8h0y ha.pute\shoze. 
(The plural of this word is Anglicised.) 

Gapnchin, hap\u.shin. A monk of the order of St. Francis. 
So called from the " capuchin " or hood worn by them. 

In French capucin, the monk : but caprichon, the hood. 
Li Italian capuccino, the monk ; and cappucdo, the hood. 

Cap^'nt mor^tnum (Latin). What remains in a still, &e., when 
all the volatile matters have been driven off. 

Car, a small one-horse vehicle. Char, to carbonise by fire. 

**Car," Latin carrum, a cart or car : carrun, a wagon or wain. 
"Char," French eharr^e, cinders ; Latin carbo, coal. 

Carafe (French), car^raf, A water decanter ; not craff nor craft. 

Carat, caret, carrot ; kar'rat, haif.et, kar'rot. 

Carat (French), 4 grains Troy. 24 carats, standard purity. 

Caret (Latin), term in Gram. " wanting," as " Vocative caret." 

Carrot, a vegetable root. (French carotte.) 

Gir'avan'' ("ne r). It is not derived from " carry," but from the 
Armenian word karawan ; verb karau, to journey. 

Pwsian karvan, a merchant ; French caravane, a company of mer- 
chants travelling across deserts, &c. 

F 



82 ERRORS OF SPEECB 



Garavaiiflaiy, hvfvok.van" jiOnxy, A station for caravaDS. 
Perslaii "kflirwM aarai, a lan^ pIao9 tot traTelUog merchjoit*. 
Carbine, kar^Mne, a gan. Carbon, pure oha|:t:oaJi. 

GarHxm, car'bonise, oar'bonised (8 syL), <Murl>oniBa"tion. 
Latin earbo, coal, tiharooaL <Biil« zxsd.) 
Carbonado^ plu. carbonadoes, kar^-bo.na'/'-doze, (Bole zlii) 
Spanish ecurbtmada, a steak or chop broiled on oarbon or diarcoal. 
Carbonate, kaT^Jxknate^ A " salt " formed by tbe onion of car- 
bonic acid and a base: as ** Carbonate of lim«," Sse. 

Car^nated, car^nating (carbon and suffix -ate, q.y.) 

Carbnnde, kar^^hunJt^U A gem of a deep red colour ; a red ulcer. 
Latin oaArbo, and l^e diminutive ^^ulwn, a little [live] ooal. 

€arburet, har^.fm.ret. Carbon in union with some other sub- 
stance, tbe compound not being an acid. 
(•uret, in ChemiUry, denotes a " base.") 
Car'burett-ed,*carT)urett-ing, car'burett-er. (R. iii., t.) 
The " t " (mght not to be ^Umbled in these words, (R. iii.) 

Carcass, kahkds, a dead body. Carcasse, a projectile. 

French eweasse, a dead body, a sort of shell, && 
Cardamine, Cardamom, Cardamum. (N,B. — da not -di.) 

Cardamine. A plant called lady's smock, cuckoo-flower, &g. 

Ccurdamom. - An Indian spice plant — ^tbe seeds are useful. 

Cardamum. Garden cress, nasturtium. 

" GardamiDe,** dim. of Lat. carddmtmi; Gk. JeardAmifn, a cress. 
'^Oardamom," Lat. earddmomvan.; Gk. karddmOmum, an Ind. plant. 
" Cardamum," Latin carddmum ; Greek karddmdn, a garden cress. 

Greek kdra dartuid, to afiUct the head [with its acrimony]. 

Xf apdt "-di-" U vxmld be the Greek " Jkordia," tfu heaH, 

Cardiac, kar^,di,ac. Ac|j. of the Greek kardia, the heart. 

Carditis, kar.di\tis. {-itit denotes " inflammation.") 

Greek kardAa -itw, inflammation of the heart. 

Cardinal, kar'.di.nal. An ecclesiastical prince ; principal* 

Latin candindUa fcardo, a hinge) ; the election of the pope "hinges'* 
on the cardinals. " Cardinal yirtues," on which minor ones .hinge. 

Care, cared (1 syl.), car-log ; care-ful, care-less, care-folness. 

Old English cea/r, care (verb cdrian, past ocfrode, past part, ecfrsd). 
Careen, ka,reen\ To lay a ship on its beam-ends for repairs. 

French cor^ns (verb cariner) ; Latin carina^ a kedi. 

Career, ka.reet'. A course of action. (French carri^e, a career.) 
(This word ought to have a double *• r.''j 

Latin carrum, a oar ; oorrus, a wagon (from cum to run). 
Caress, ka.ress'. To hug, to " dear" one; an act of endearment 

French earesser, to caress : Latin oortM, dear. 
Caret, kair^ret, wanting. Carat, Carrot (See Carat) 



AND OF SPELLIXO, 83 



Cargo, plu, caxgoes, hn^.goze, (Spanish eargo^ a ship's load.) 

Garicatnie, hv/riJeaAuref, This word has no eonnectioii with 
Charcteter. It is the Italian eairieatura, from caricare, to 
load; and means to overcharge blemiihea and faults. 

Oar^icatiiTed' (4 syl.), car'ioatur".ing, car'ioatuz"-ist 

Cariea, plu, caries, kair^ri.eez^ mortification of the bone during 
me, Oarries, kar^.rezy drd pen. sing, of the verb carry, 

Oariotu, kcnv^fi,'ut, a^j. of caries. Gariosity (abst noun). 

LsCfai edrieMt sfaig. and pin., decaj of bone or wood. 
Garlovingian, kar^ -levin" -jl-an. Adj. of Karl (G^erman). 

Carftloi (Latin). The dynasty of Charles (HartelX 
Carminatiye, kar.min\a,tiv. A medicine to cure flatulence. 

French carminatif: Latin ^vrmindre, to card or elean. 
Garmiiie, kar.mi7ie\ A brilliant crimson colour. 

French earmin, from the Arabic Juirmet (2 lyL), an insect which gives 
a brilUant sciuctet dye. 

Garaal, bar^.nal, sensuaL Ohamel, tchar^.nelj animal refuse of 
a churchyard. (French chamiery a churchyard.) 

Oar^nal, oar'nage, camalMty ; cama'tion, flesh colour. 

"Carnal,** Latin ocxmAUs, carnal (caro, eainU$, flesh). 

Gamelian not cornelian. A carnation or flesh-coloured stone. 

Latin cami%», and liaa a word used by miners for a allicioas or cal- 
caxioos stone. " A flesh [coloured] silicious stone. ** 

Ganilval not camevalt ha/.nt.val. The Saturnalia preceding 
the abstinence of meat in the season of Lent. 
Latin eami vale, farewell to meat 

CSamivora (Latin), Hear. mv\6, rah not har^ .ni.vo" .rah, flesh-eating 
animals. Gamivorous, flesh-eating. 
Latin eaum/Mims (caro^ covrnM, voro, to devour flesh). 

Carol,' ixi/roZ; car'olled (2 syl.), car'oU-ing, car'oU-er. (R. iii. -ol.) 

Gar'ol-lit'ic (in Architecture), a garlanded pillar. 
Welsh carol, a love-song ; Italian carolOy a dance or caroL 

Carotid, ka,rot\%d not kar^ro.tid [artery]. An artery of the 
neck (there are two) to convey blood to the head. 

Latin eardttde*, the arteries of the neck, from cdrdticus, producing 
sleep. The ancients supposed these arteries controlled sleep. 

Carouse, ka,rowz^ not ka.rooze, caroused (2 syl.), carous'-er, 

earouft'-ing, oarous'-aL To revel, &c. 

French eommss, catroustl. ▲ "carrousel*' consisted of four quad- 
rilles of mounted knights, two quadrilles against two, in a tournay. 

Oar'penter, car'peatry not car'pentery. A worker in wood. 

Latin earpeaUdriui, a coach-buUder (carpentum, a chariot). 
Oar'pet, car^pet-ed, car'pet-ing (with one t. Rule iii.) 



I 



«4 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Carriage, kar^ridge. A coach. {See Carry.) 

Carrier, kd//ri.ert one who carries. Career', a conrse (q.v,) 

Carrion, kar^ri.on. Corrupting flesh. (Ought to have onlj 
one"r.") (Latin caro, flesh.) 

Carronade, kar^ro.nade, A short cannon; so called from the 
Carron Foundry (Scotland), where they were first made. 

Carrot, Carat, Caret, kar^rot, karrdt, kair^.et. (See Carat.) 

Gar'rot-y, red like a carrot. ( N.B. — Double r, one t, R iii.) 

Car^ry, carries, kar^riz; carried, kai^rid; car'ry-ing, car'rier, 
carriage, kar'ridge, (Bule xliv.) 
Welsh cario, to carry ; eariwr, a carrier ; Latin oorriM, a cari 

Carte blanche (French), kart blamsh. A piece of paper to be 
filled up at discretion, tiie giver being responsible. 

Carte de visite, plu. cartes de visitie (Fr.), kwrf deo^-zeeif^ <fec. 

Cartload, ylu. cartloads not carUload^ as " two cartloads." 

Carthagin'ian not Carthagenian. Adj. of " Carthage." 

Itatin Carthago, Carthaglnis, Carifiaginientia (adj). Our "e" in 
"Carthage" Is merely to soften the ^'g," 

Cartilage, kar^.ttlage, gristle, Cartilag'inons (ac^j.) (g= j.) 

French cartilage, carHUigineux ; Lat. ea/rtildgo, eartildgindsus. 

Cartouch, kar.tooshf. A cartridge-box. (French cartoiuihe^ 

Cartridge. The charge of a gun in an envelope of paper ; the 
charge of a cannon is put into a serge envelope. When 
the charge contains hall, as well as powder, it is called 
Bidl-cartridge ; when it contains oi^y powder, and no 
balls, it is c^ed Blank->cartridge. 

Cartridge-box. A small leather case to hold cartridges. 

Cartridge-paper. The paper used far cartridges. 

"Cartridge," a corruption of cartoudie; Italian cartoecio. 

Carve, to cut meat at meals. Calve, karve, to bring forth a calfl 

Carves, third person singular of carve. Calves, karvea, the 
plural of calf, (Rule xxxviii.) 

Old Eng. ceof[an\ to carve or cut ; cealf[ian\, to bring forth a calf ; 
cea^, a calf ; plural cea^fru, calves. We have lost these distinotiona. 

Caryated, plu. caryatides, ka.ri.af .id, ka.ri.af.X.deez. (Ln ArcK) 
Female figures employed as pillars or supporters. So 
called from Carfa (Peloponnesus), conquered by the 
Athenians. To celebrate their victory they made the 
supporters of the trophies represent women of Carjse in 
their national costume. 

Caryophyllacesa, ka^-ri.of-U.lay'^'Ce.ee. Clove- carnations, &c. 

Latin caryophyllum, the clove gilly-flower, with the suffix -aoea, 
denoting an "order" of plants ; Greek haruophiMifn. 



J 



AND OF SPELUNO. 85 

Caryophyllia, ka'-H-S.JiV'-U-ah, A section of flowery corals. 

Latin earf^phylkun, the dove gUly-flower, with the suffix -ia, de- 
noting an "order" or section ; Greek karuophuWfn. 

Caryopsis, kar^ry,op'\8i8. Technical name of a corn-grain. 

Greek kdriUfn lifpsis, a nnt in appearance. 
Gasaya, better Oassava, ka8^ah\vah. Starch of the cassava.plant. 

Spanish ecoMbe; French ausdU. 
Caacaiilla, hu'Jka.r%V\lah, A tonic bark. (Span, eascdra, bark^) 
Oaae, cased (1 syl.), cashing. To put into a case. (Fr. caisse.) 

Gaeeine, kay'jsSJin, the curd of milk. CaseonB, kay'jiS.ut, cheesy. 
Latin cSMha, cheese ; French coM/ine. 

Caahier, haxh'.eer (cash-clerk) ; ka^heer^ (to dismiss in disgrace)^ 

French caissier, cash'-keeper (cai»$e, a till); 

" Gariiier" (to digmlssX French ixuser, to break off. (Lai caatus.) 

Caano^pluicaanoeafka^ee'.noze. A dancing saloon. (R.zlii.) 
Italian caHno or eanna, a small house (ctua^ a house). 

Gaak, a tab* Gasque (French)^ kask, a helmet. 

" CaBk," Spanish caseo, a wine-tub. Casket, dim. of " eask." 

Gassava^ k<u^ahf,vah. Starch of the cassava plant.- 

GasMXsk, kas'^ok, A clergyman's robe worn under the gown^ 

French edsaque, the " par-clessus ** of a clergyman'* official dress. 

Gast, past and past part, cast, to throw. Gaste, tribe. 

Old Ebg. cedst, strive, verb ced^an], to fight [or throw darts]. 
** Caste/' PorfuguAe eastd, hereditiiry class distinction. 

Castellan, kas\tel.lan. Warden of a castle. 

Low Lat. casteUantu, Spanish castellan, warden of a castle. 

Castellate, kas'.telXate^ cas'tellated, cas'tellat-ing. 

Low Lat. castelidtio, the building of forts (caatellunif a fort). 

Caster, a cruet, plu, casters, a set of cruets in a stand. 

Gastor. A beaver ; a small wheel for furniture. 

" Castefs " (i set Of cruets), Latin casUHa, a placti for the stowage of 

small utides. "Casters " hold in a frame small condiments. 
** Castor " (a beaverX Latin castor, the beaver. 

CSastigate, kas'.ttgate, cas'tigated, cas'tig&t-ing, cas'tigat-or. 
cas'tiga'^tion. (Latin castigdre, to chastise). 

Castle, kars^'l not kSs^s'l; castled, kars^j'id; castling, kar^. sling. 
(The older spelling of thie word is preferable.) 
Old Eng. casUUf Latin castdlum, a castle. 

Castor, a beaver, a little wheel for furniture. Gaster {see Caster). 

Castar-€il, a corruption of Castus-oil. It is not an animal oil, 
extracted from the castor or beaver, but oil expressed 
from the Palma Christi, and used in religious rites. 
Latin eastus, a rOigioas rite ; Castiis olfttm, oil for sacied xVloa. 



86 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

II I II ~ 

Casualty, plu. cftsnaltieB, 'ktui^u.al-Hz, An aeciddnt. 

French camuiliUf casualty ; Latin eomtf, accident. 
Gat, Tom-cat (male), Tabby, plu. Tabbies (femaU), 

Latin eattta, a cat (from eaitts, wOy, sly, cunidng). 
Cata- (prefix), Greek kata, "down," "against," "according to," &c. 

Cataclysm not cataclasm, haf^dMizm. Cataplasm, a poultice. 

Lat.catoc^«imw,adeli]{[e ; Gk. katakltumoafkata JUtfoo, to wash down). 
Catacomb, kaf.d.korfte, A cave for the burial of the dead. 

French eata,combe, from the Greek kata kumboB, a caye undergronnd. 
Catalepsy, kafM.lep.8y. A trance, a fainting-fit 

Greek katalSpais (from kata lan^bdno, to hold down, to teiae on). 
Catalogue, katf.a.log; catalogued, haf.a.logd; Cfttaloe^ning, 
kaf.a,log,ing; cataloguer, kaf,a.log.er. 

lAtcatdldgua; G^.katdl6go8fkata 2d0o«,[anranged]aecordingto words). 
Cataplasm, kaf.a.plazm. A plaster, a poultice. (See Catadysm.) 

Latin eatdpUuma; Greek katdplasma (ka^OrpUuw, to plaster over). 

Cataract, katf,a.ract not ka1f,a.rak, A waterfall; a disease of 
the eye. 
Latin oaMrooto, from tiie Greek kaia aroMo, to dash down. 
Catarrh, ka,tay. A cold affecting the secretions of the eyes, <fee. 
Catarrh'-al, adj. of catarrh. (Latin catarrhm, rheum.) 
Greek katarrdda (ftom kata rhed, to flow down). The " r " is repeated 
to compensate for the lost aspirate in P^ot. In "caturh," either 
the "h" or one "r" should have been omitted. 

Catastrophe, plu. catastrophes, ka,ta»\tro.fet ka.tas\troJiz, 

Latin catastrdphi; Greek kata^trdpht (katii xt/riphb^ to overturn). 

Catcall not catcal. Only " fill, fWl, still, thrall " (postfixt) drop 
an"l." (Ruleviii.) 

Catdi, past and pott part, caught not eatchedt catch^g, not 
ketehj ketcKing. 

Low Lat. caiofSmu, a hunter ; eatafSuro^ to go hunting f take in hunting). 
*' Caught,** a contraction of catznuratus fcaUmrat, cauHJ. 

Catchpoll, kateh.pole^ a parish constable. (Poll, the head.) 

Catchup, Ketchup,, or Catsup. Extract of mushrooms. 

East Lidian ketjab, soy sauce. 
Catechism, katf.e.kizm; catechist, katf.e.Hst; catechizer, 

kalf.e.ki'ze.er; cat^hize, kaif.e.kize; cat'eohized (9 syL), 

cat'echiz-ing (Rule xxxii.), catechetical, kat.e.kef.i,kal; 

catechetically, kat.e.ket\i.kal.ly. {In the Oreek word* 

the " e " of all these words is long ij not e.) 

Greek kaUthiamoa, katSchiat^Sf katichizd (from kata iehed, to din into 
one, to teach the elements of religion orally). 

Catechumen, kat.e.ku'.men. One being prepared for confirmation. 

Latin catichuminua : Greek katSchoum^noa, one learning the cate- 
chism or rudiments of religion. The plural is catOChUmens. 



AND OF SPELLING. 87 

Category, jpto. oatdgoiies, kaf.e,g9r.t^y Jfaf,e,g$r.riz; more 
correctly ka,tee\go.1ry, bat rarely ao prondimoed. 

Categorical, kaif,e.gef^'fi.kdlj a^j. of eateg^olry. 

(In Latin and Qreek the^e" &f aU ihete w&rdt U long, ) 

, LatiA mtlffMA, eatigdrimA; Oraek katSgOHa, haUgdr^iM (ftrdm katet 
dffdremd, to apeak in public agaixut a penoA, to prove). 

Cater, kaa/,ter. To provide food. (Norm.-Frenoli acater, to buy.) 

Olttere^, f^, oatetMa, hay*,tgjrer, ka^»Uf,res8, One who 
caters. Chaucer uses the word achator for caterer. 

Cathartie not catharetiCt ka.rhar^.tik, A purgative medioine, 
Lat. cafkartXcui ; Gk. kaUiarWtos (kata hoArM, to oarrjr downwards). 

Cathedral, fta.rhee' .drSU A chttrch oontaining a bishop's seat 
(This word shows the perversity of the English language^ 
We outrage quantity to throw the accent back fxom the 
penultimate, and si^ " CRs'^lTate " for eastigatey " bias'- 
phemy"for blasphemy, "bal'jony" for halcdnyj <*meta- 
mor'ph58is" for metamorphuaiSy "apothe'5Bis" for apothi- 
0818, and hundreds more; but here, where accent and 
quantity favour our favourite system, we actually change 
short e (e) into long e (ij), and say '* cathedral" instead 
of cath\i.dral, or kt any rate eath.ed\ral,) 

Latin edOvecBta, Greek kiUMdra (Kt^diSpa) kaia hSdra, a eeai 
Cathode, kath.ode. Where electricity makes its way out. 
Anode, is where it makes its way in. 
Greek kcUa Mdo$, the way down or oat. Ana kddos, the wsjr np or in. 

Catholic, kath\S.lik, universal. Catholics, or *'Eoman Catho. 
lies," are those who adhere to the Church of Rome. 

Catholicism, ka.thoV.Lsizm, The creed of Catholics. 

Catholicity, kath^o.W.tty, Universalily. 

liat. eathdUcui: Gk. kathdlikda fkatd hSlikoSi according to the whole). 

Catholicon, ka,rhoV.l.kon. A panace'a, or universal medicine. 

Latin eatMlicum Irtmifdluml Greek kaihdHkon [idma], a universal 
remedy. 

Cato, plu. CatOB not Catoes, ka\toze, (Rule xlii.) 

Proper names in o add *« (not -es) to form the pluraL 

Catoptrics, ka.top'.trikf. The science of reflexion and refraction. 

Greek hatdptrikos fkaidptron, a mirror). 
Caucasian, kaw.k&8\%.an not kaw.kay^st an. (Gk. kaukusios,) 

In Latin tlie word is spelt both GaucasScm and Cau$aHan. 

Candal, pertaining to the taiL Caudle, kaw.d'l, a sort of food. 

" Caudal,*' Lat. cauda, a taiL " Caudle," Lat. ixUidus, warm [food]. 
Capl, a membrane. Call, kawl, to speak with a loud voice. 

" Caul," Old Bng . caul or cawli a basket. *'CaU," Lat. edlo, to call. 



88 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cauliflower, koV.Lflow.er (" flow-" to rhyme with now), 

Latin cavXisfiOrexu, flowering eole-wort. 
Gause, caused (1 syl.), caas'-ing, caus'-er, caus'-ative. 
Cause-less, cause-lessly, cause-lessness. 

Gaiisation, kaw.za^shun. Gansality, kawjsaVJtty, B. xxxii. 
Latin eaus<i, eausdlis, causdtio. The reason or canse of an effect 
Ganseway, a corruption of the French chausSe, A raised way. 

Ganstic, kaws^tik, nitrate of silver. Gansticlty. kaws.tias'Xty, 
Latin cavsticus; Greek kaustikos fkaiina, burning heat). 

Cauterize, kaw\tS.rize, oau'terized (3 syl.), cau'teriz-ing, cau'- 
terization, cauteriz-er, but cauterism. (Rule xxxii.) 
{In the Greek and Latin words the middle " e*' is long.) 
Lat. oauterizo: 6k. k<mUridzy, kavUr-ism (from kaiOf to bom). 

Caution, kaw\ihun; cau'tioned (2 syl.) To warn, a warning. 

Cautionary, kaw\8hun.d.ry ; cau'tional, cantious, kaw',- 

shus ; courteous, kor/te.us^ polite, q.v, 
Latin cautiOf eautionaliSt cauttts (from edveo, to beware). 

Cavalcade, kam\al.kade, A procession of horsemen. 

Latin eahcUlus, a horse. 
Cavalier, kav.a^leer^, a knight Cav'iller, one who cavils. 

Cavaliers (plu.) Eoyalists or partisans of Charles I. 

Cavalierly, kav.a.leer^.ly. Haughtily, arrogantly. 

*' Cavalier/* French, a horseman ; Lai eal>alldri%u fcabdUus, a horseX 
" CavUler," Itatin cavillor (deponent verb), to cavil. 

Cavalry, kav\dl.ry. Horse-soldiers. (French cavalerie.) 

Latin cabcUhu, a horse ; caboUldritts, a horseman. 
Cave, caved (1 syl.), cav-ing, kay'.ving ; cav-ity, kav'.tty, 

Latin edv^a, a cave ; cdtjltas, a cavity {caoare, to hollowX 
Cavern, kav\em, cav'emed (2 syL), cav'emous. (Lat. eavema.) 
Cavil, kav'.il, cav'illed (2 syl.), cav'ill-ing. (Rule iii, -il.) 
Caviller, kav\il.ler, one who cavils. Cavalier (q.v.) 

Lat. eaviUor, to cavil ; eavilldtor, a caviller ; cavilldtianf a cavilling. 
Cavity, plu. cavities, kav'.i.tiz. A hollow. (Latin eavlta^.) 
Cayenne, kay.enn\ Red pepper, from Cayenne (South America), 
-ce (suffix) Latin -(;e[a], -cila'], -ti[a'], added to abstract nouns. 
Cease, sece ; ceased (1 syl.), ceas'-ing, cease^less, cease'-lessly. 
Cessation, 8es.sa\8hun. A pause or leaving off. 

Latin cessatio; French ceuer, Itatin ceaadre, to leave off. 
Cedar, se\dar, a tree. Cedry, adj. of " cedar," not cedary. 

Old BngliBh eeder; Greek hidr6$: Latin cildru$t adj. cedratus. 
Cede, seed ; ceded, seef,ded ; ced-ing, seedling. Seed (of plants), 

" Cede/' Latin eed^, to yield. " Seed," Old £ng. seed (Lat aJlum\ 



AND OF SPELLING, 80 

GedilUt, 8€e.dil\lah, A mark under e (9) to indicate that it is 
to be pronounced like s (hard). 

Spudsh eediUa. It occurs only in 9a. qo, and qa, 
Cefl^Seal, SeeL 

GeiL To cover-in the ceiling of a room with plaster. 

SeaL A sea-calf; a stamp ; to fasten with sealing-wax. 

Seel. To close the eyes of hawks, to hoodwink. 

"GeU," Latin ecelttm, heaven ; French del ; Ital. and Span. eido. 
"Seal,'' French acelle ftceauj; Latin aigillum, contracted to aigl. 
''Seel," French ciUer fcU, an eye-lash : Latin eiliumj. 

Gefled, seeld, past and p.p. of cell. Sealed (1 syl.), with wax. 
Ceiling (of a room), ceilinged (2 syl.) Sealing (with wax;. 

Gebuidine, 8el\an.dine, Swallow-wort A blander for chelidine. 

Latin eheUdHnia; Greek ehel\d6ni6n (from cheliddn, a swallow). 
80 called because swallows cure their young ones of blindness with 
this herb, according to an ancient fancy. fPlin. 25, 60 J 

Celebrate, teV.S.hrate ; ceFebrat-ed, cerebrat-ing, cerebra'^tion. 
Gerebiator {-or, the Latin termination for an agent). 
Gel^'ebrant. An officiating priest at a religious rite. 

Celebrity, plu. celebrities, se.leV .i%.Hz, One known to fame. 

Latin ceMyrSre^ uUbrator, cdebrant^ celebHtas, &c. 
Cdeiity, te.le/ry.te. Swiftness, (-ty added to abstract nouns.) 

Latin eelifrUaif swiftness (verb ciflirdre, to hastenX 

Celery, 8eV.S,ry not 8aV,e.ry, a vegetable. Sal'ary, wages. 

"Celery," French c£Uri; German aelleri; Greek tifllndn, parsley. 

A. species of jwrsley ^opium gravidlenaj. 

" Salary, "Lat. solarium, money for salt, i.«., condiments; (pin-money). 

Celestial, te.let^M'al not se-Us'.tchaL Heavenly. 

GelestialB, plu. The heavenly deities of heathen mythology. 

Celestially, »e.les',t€al.lyy adv. In a heavenly manner. 

Celestialise, seMs'.ti^al.ize. Gelestialised (4 syl.) B. xxxi. 

Latin ocsJestis, celestial, from ccelum, heaven. 

Celestine,s6l'.«s.t^n«not«e.2««^t^7l«,amineral. Gerestin (amonk). 

"Celestine," Latin calestis, so called from its sky-blue colour. 
"Celestins," an order of monks named from Pope Cel'estin V. 

Celibacy, 8eV.tha,8y, an unmarried state. Celibate, seVXhate. 

Latin easMu, a bachelor; celi^dttu, single life (from the Greek 
hoUip$f Le., koiU leipd, I avoid the bridal-couch). 

Cell (of honeycomb), a small room. Sell (for money). 

CeUular, iel\l%.lar. Gellnlated, formed with cells. 

OeUnle, seV.lule. A little cell. 

GeUnlose, seV.lu.loze. The cell-matter of plants. 

"CeU," Old Eng. eeiUas, cells ; Latin eella (Greek hnlS, a hollow). 
"Sell," Old Eng. «yll[an], past atalde, past part, aeald, to sell. 



I 



90 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Cellar, a room for stores underground. Seller^ one .wha Bells. 

Old Eng. eOlas, cells ; Latin tOMiriMm, % o«liar {ekXHa, % cell), 
-celli, -cello (Ital. diminatiyeB), -cullus] Latin dittiinntiTe. 

Gelt, Kelt. "Celt," a bronze cutting instrument found in 
tumuli. The people, called CelU, shotild be called 
" Kelts," for distinction sake. Siknilarly Keltic, adj. of 
kelt; and Oeltic, acy. of celt. 

*' Celt,** lAtin eeU%8, a chiael (verb eceZo, to carve or etubdn). 
''Kelt," Greek KtUai or QiU&iai; Latin Gdldtce; Old Sng. CeU. 

Cement, scmenf not 8em\ent (noun), but verb and noun alike. 
French cement : Latin camentv^ {ecBmenta, mortar). 

Cem'etery, plu. cem'eteries (for burials), dyithmetry, harmony. 
Cemetery not cemetry. Symmetry not symetery (double m). 

(In Greek and Latin the " e " of " cemetery^ i» l&i^,) 
Latin eoemetirium ; Greek koimitMon (verb iboifluXo, to sleep). 
" Symmetrj," Greek eummetria, nm tne^ron, [measured] witii [one 
and the same] measure. 

Cenotaph, sen'.o.taf. A monument without the dead body. 

French c&notapht; Latin eihidlcmhivm; Grefek hlfnlltnpkUm (hiMi 
tojphdsj, an emptj tomb. (N.B. — ceno- not ceito-,) 

Censer, Censor, Censure, ten^sevy sen^^or, 8en\8her, 

Censer. A vase for incense. 

Censor. A Boman officer to enforce decorum. 

Oenso'rioua, censo'riously, censo'riousness, censorBhlp. 

Censure, censured (2 syl.), cen'snr-ing, cen'sur-er, cen'sur- 
able, cen'sur-ably, cen'sur-ableness. To blame, &c. 

''Censer," French eneensoir; Latin incemtum, incense. 
"Censor," Latin censor ^ censorius (verb ceruire, to think and Judged 
"Censure," Latin cenetura, the office of censor ; and henee the jiMlf> 
ment or blame of censors (verb oeneers). 

Census, Censers, Censors, Censures, sen'just sen^serzt sen^^orz, 
sen^ihers. 

Census (Latin). Begistering the number of the inhalatanti^ 
( The other three words are the plural* of words given ahove.^ 

Cent, Scent, Sent, all pronounced alike, sent (See Cetitum.) 

Cent, hundred : as 5 per cent, written thus 5 7o 

Scent, perfume. Sent, past and past part, of send. 

" Cent,*' Latin centum, a hundred ; French cent. 

"Scent," Fr. senteur, scent. (Lat eentire, to observe by the lensf 

" Sent," Old Eng. sendlan], past sende, past part sended, to send. 

Centaur. A fabulous being half man and half horse, 

Latin centawnu; Greek kentauros. The centaurs Were Greek boji 
neers, or horsemen who hutited wild bulls. Grade keitted ton 
to prick or spear bulls. 



AND OF SPELUNG. 91 

Ooitiiiiy, am\tau.fy, not emtory, a herb. Oen'tury, 100 years. 

"Oentetiry," Lattn MntattfAi, the oentavr, Buned from the centaur 
(Gbiron), who cored with it a wound m hia foot from one of the 
strowB of HerctUfis. 

Omtam. (1.) written cent, before yowelB. 

Genienaiian, $en\U.nair^'ri,an, One who is 100 years old. 

Centenary, plu, centenaries, 8en\tSMerriz. The return of 
a period af ler the lapse of 100 years. 

Csnteimial, 8en.ien'MijaL Once a century. 

« Annua]'* Bufftxt becomes -enntal, as bimmal, tnennial,&c, 

Gentesinial, sen.tM'.i.mol, adj. Gentes'imally, adv. 
Latta mUmtOriuMt cmtisimiu feentwn, a hundred). 
Centum. (2.) -i- after " cent-" (next letter -c, -/, -^, -m, or -pe.) 
OentifsepB, sen'Ul^eps. Hariog 100 heads. {Capita, heads.) 
Oentifolia, -fo'M,ah, Having 100 leaves. {FoUa, leaves.) 

CSentigrade. Having 100 degrees between the freezing and 
boiling point of water. {Qradus, a degree.) 

GentigraiiL The 100th part of a gram. (French measure.) 

Oentime, tcMndeem. The 100th part of a franc. (Fr. coin.) 

Gentianetre. The 100th part of a metre. (Fr. measure.) 

Centipede, pla. centipedes, sen'M.peeds. Insects with 100 
feet. (Latin pea, pidU, plu. pidest feet.) 

Osrtmn. (8.) -«- after " cent-" (next letter -m, -p, or -r.) 

Centumviri, 8en.tum\vtH. Government lodged in the 
hands of 100 men. (Latin eentwn viri, 100 men.) 

Gentmnvirate, 8en.tum'.vi.rate. The office of the above. 
Centuple, sen'.tu.p'l. A hundred fold. {Plico, to fold.) 
Centuplicate, ien.tu\pli.kate. To make centuple. 
Centurion, 8en.tu\H,on, Captain of 100 men. 
Century, plu, centuries, 8en\tu,riz. Period of 100 years. 
Letin emUnmvirif centuplex, eentuplicdttu, eentvHon, centiiria. 
From centtun -wn mnat be effaced 
Whene'er before a vowel placed. 
CenM appean with e, /, g. 
Or when preceding motpe; 
Cent-u ia reckoned better far 
When Joined to m, or p, or r. 
^« o **memoria technica ' the voorn • hnu ' (ns) will denote when k is 
•as€± arid tha vxyrd *' Umpire" (mfr) when u ia used. All other 
vordi htUmg to the »BCOnd category.) 

Cento, plu. centos. A patchwork poem, each line being from a 
different author, and used in & perverted sense. 

SpeaUh om*<m/ Latin cenio, a patch or poem of patches. Greek 
XMitrdM, a patch, a cento. 



92 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

^ • 

Centre, ten'.ter, the middle; centred, sen'.tefd, placed in tl 
middle ; centrings, tending to the centre. 

Gen'tric, cen'trical, cen'trically, 

Gen'tral, cen'trally, oentral'ity, cen'trftUsin. 

Gen'traliBe,cen'traii8ed (3 s7l.),centrali8'-in^,6en%aiito"tioi 

t^nch centre; Greek JUfntrifn, a point ; Lfttin centrum. 
(It wUl be seen that the word center ie quite indefensible. J 

Centrifugal, ten.trif'.u.gal. A force directed from the eentre 1 
the circumference, a tendency to fly from the centre. 
Latin eenirumfugio, to fly from the celitre. 

Cehtripetal, 8en.trip\e.taL Tending towards the centre^ 
Itatin centrum pito, to seek the centre. 

Centuple, oentnrioii^ century, <fec., see above. Centum^ 

CephaliOj te.faV.ih, Pertaining to th^ head. 

Lat cSphallcum, egphaltcue, adj. ; Gk. kgphaifkos (hiphdU, ttes hea^ 

Cephalopod, plu. cephalopods or cephalopida, ief'M.lo,pod 
sef^'a.iop^'-i-dah, MoUuscs, like cuttle-fi^ 

Greek kiphdU pddfti, feet [placed round] the head. 
Cephens, 8e\fuce. A constellation containing thirty-five stai 

GepheuB, husband of Cassiepeia, both made conatellationa. 
Cerastium, 9e.ra8\tlum. Mouse-ear chickweed. 

Greek keraation (from keras, a hom). " The homed plant," retaadb 
to the shape of the capsule (2 syl). 

Cerasug, 8ei^ra.8U8, A genus of plants containing the cheny. 

Latin oSrdteue; Greek leirdsos, the cherry-tree. So called from OMUt 
(now Kerdsun), whence it Was bfought by LucaUas. 

Cerate, Serrate, Serried, seef.ret, tefrate, ser^rid. 

Cerate. A thick ointment containing -v^ax. 

Cerated, see'.ra.ted. Covered with #ax. 

Serrate (in Boidhy). Leaves with saw-like edges. 

Serried. Compact, set in close array. 

"Cerate,** Latin cSrdtum; "cerated*," Latin eirdtv4. 
"Serrate," Latin serrdtus, like a saw (»erra, a saw). 
"Serried/* French serri, closely packed^ crowded together. 

Cere, seer, to cover with wax. Seer, a prophet. Sear, dry. 

Cerement, seer^.ment, A waxed wrap for dead bodies. 

" Cere," Latin eera, wax. " Seer," Old Eng. aedn, to Me. 

" Sear," Old Eng. Mar[tan], to dry. , 

Cereal, pertaining to grain. Serial, a periodical. 

Cereals, plu., all grains used for food. Serials, periodical 

' Cereal,** Lat. eeredlia (Cerie, goddcM of com). " Sexial,** ftom mHi 



**i 



AND OF SPELLING, 98 

CfiEebnim, ^lu, cerebra, %e7're,}irumy se/reMdK The brain. 

CerebeUum, plu, ceiebella, 8er^re.beV'-lumt ser^re.hel'ldh. 
The hinder part of the brain, where the animal spirits 
are sapposed to be generated. 

Latin cerebrum, the brain proper ; cfirebeUwn, the little brain, the 
animal npt the intellectual part. 

Cenmony, plu. ceremoniee, 8er're.mun,y, ser^re.mun.iz , 

Geremonial, »«rVe.mc>".ni.aZ; xier'*»mo"niall7, cer'emo". 

nious, cer'emo"nioii8ly, cer'enio"niousness. Outward 

forms of courtesy. 
Latin eSrimdnia; French e^^monie, cdrSmonicU, &c. 

GereoiiB, waxen (Latin cer^). Serious, grave (Latin sSrius). 

Cerei, See^seez, goddess of com. Series, se'.rLeez, sequence. 
"Series,*' Latin, tMu, aix>nnected succession. 

Certificate, ser.tif^i.kate, certificated, certif icat-ing, certif 'ica"- 
tion. A written testimony ; to testify in writing. 
French certificat; Low Latin eertifiMtorium. (See CerUtyJ 

Oertifjr, ter^.tify; cer'tifies (3 syl.), cer'tified (3 syl.), cer'tifi-er, 
cer^tiiy-mg. To attest in writing ; to assure. R. xlir. 
Frendi certifier; Latin eerti6rem/<icihre, to make certain. 

OoHation, ses^sa'^shurif a pause. Cassation (French), appeaL 
Latin eeesOfio, cessation (from eesso, to leave off). 

Ghijoii, ses'^shuUt a yielding. Session, an assize, &c, 

"Cession," Latin cessio, a^ving up (verb cesso, to leave off). 
"Session/* Latin eesHo, an assijse (verb sedeo, to sit). 

OeMpool, sei'.pool not cispool, Eeceptacle for liquid filth. 
Old Eng. 8e»»e-p6l, a pool settle (verb ees^ian], to settle). 

Cetaoea or cetaceans, sing, cetaceaii, se.tay\8^.ah, seday'^scanz, 
sing, seday* '8£.an. Whales and other marine mammals. 

Geta'ceouB, adjective. 

Latin cHe; Greek lUU or leitoe; adj. petdceue, kiteioe (8 syl). 
Cetiosanms, 8^-ti-8.saw'\ru8. The fossil whale-saurian. 
Greek kiteie-eauroet the whale-like lizard. 

Ostotolites, 8e.to1f.8.Ute8, Fossil ear-bones of whales. 

Greek hiiM^ta Hthoe, whales'-ear stones. 
Ch- represents three distinct sounds, and three distinct charac- 
ters. The sounds are sh, tch, and k. The characters 
are e (before a, e, i and eo), ch, and the Greek x* 
(N.B. — In this dictionary "ch^' is sounded "tch,*' unless 

otherwise expressed.) 
An words (except two) beginning with " ch-" = A, are of 
Greek origin. The exceptions are chem'istry (Arabic), 
and chiaWo-oscu'ro (Italian). 



94 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

" Ch " in EnglUh toord$ sounded <u " tch," vnks$ othenoue expressed. 

All Dative words, and two-thirds of those borrowed from 
the French beginning with *• eh-** hare the sound of tch. 

There are eighteen words beginmng with ** ch-" b sK siH 
of whieh are from the French, to which langnage iadeed 
most of our irregularities are due. The eighteen words 
are chad, ehaff'riny ehoMe^ eham'oiBt ehaw^paffne, eham' 
paign, ehampigjum, ehandelief^, 'ekapeau'^ ehap'tron, 
charadef, ehaf'latan, ekas^seur, chateau, ehemiU*', cheva- 
lier', chiea'nery, and ehiffonie'/. 

-ch (Old £ng. sufiGlx of adjectives), " pertaining to " : fioh, Scotch. 

Chafe, chafe, to rub. Ohaff, e^/not chaf, husks of grain. 

Chafe, chafed (1 syL), char-ing, ehaf'-er, chaf'-ery. 

Chafing, chay'-fing, rubbing. Chaffing, ehdj-jing, quizzing 

*' Chafe,*' French 4diattff^r, to warm, to chafe. 
" Chaff," Old Eng. cea/, chaff ("c"=cfeX 

Chafer, chay\fer, a beetle. Chaffer, chdf.fer, to haggle. 

"Chafer," Old Eng. cea/or, a chafer, a beetle ("c "=<*). 

" Chaffer/' Ger. 8^a4Jierei, chaffering (verb smachem, to bargalBi). 

Cbaff, chaffed (1 syL), chaffing, to quiz. Chafe. (See above.) 

Chaffer, cMf'.fer (noun) j chaf.fer (verb). Rule 1. 

Chagrin (Fr.) shag^rin (n.), sha.grin' (v.). Shagreen, sTia.greeti^, 

Chag'rin, vexation : chagrin', to vex. (Bulel.) Shagreen'', 
a sort of leather prepared from the shagree whale. 

Chagrin^ chagrined, $ha.gr%nd^, chagrin'-ing (only one fi> 
( One of the few exceptions to a very general rule. Rule %.} 
Chair, cheer, share, shear, sheer. 

" Chair" (a seat), French cftatr«, a pulpit; Lat. cathedrti. 
*' Cheer'* (to console), French dih^t cheer, welcome. 
** Share " (a portion). Old Eng. «<r. a part cut off. 
^ Shear" (to cut). Old Eng. scir[an], to cut off, to divide. 
*' Sheer " (entire, pure), Old Eng. scir, pure, clear, ftc . 

Chaise, shdze, a one-horse carriage with two wheels. Chaae, honi 

" Chaise," French chaise. ** C^iase," French chasser, to hunt. 

Chalcedony, kal.see'.do.ny not kaL8ed'.8.ny. A precious stone. 

(The " e " and the " o " are both long in the Greefc word,) 

Greek ehatkSd&n: Latin ehdloSddnMU. So named ftrom "GhaloMoOk" 
a Greek city of Bithinia, where the first was found. , 

Chaldee, koLdee' not chal.dee*; Chaldean, kal,de4^.an, 
Chaldaio, kal.day\ik; Ohaldaigm, hal.day\ixm. 
Latin ChcUdeei, Chaldeana ; Chaidaieus; Gk. Chaldaia, Chaldaios. 

Chaldron, chauV.dron not chaV.dron. Thirty-six bushels [of coke] 
Caldron, kawV.dr%n not kaV.drihi, A large boiler. 

"C!haldron." French ehcUdron, an old dry measure of 1906*516 Utns 
"' Caldron,' French <haudron; Latin ealddriwn, m luge kettle. 



AND OF SPELUXG. f>5 

"Ch** iift MmtHUk fwrdf munded as ** toh," wnleit ot/i«nfiM eaggpretfed. 

GhaUoe, eA9r.bt, a oop. GhaUced, e?MV.ut, full of onps. 
TT;^ word ought not to have an " h " after the * c"; 
QU Sng. taUCg • goblet; French ealie$: Latin ecUiat; Qtuk kulix. 
Chilk, dkawik. GaUc, AoirJb, to fill the seams of a ship. Cork. 
GhalksF, eAoifiiE'.y, ao(j. of dhalk. OoriEy, like cork. 

"CSialk," (Md Bnc. MiI«or «fle, UnM : Latin oato; Qraek ehalix. 
**C§¥tt** Latin eoMo, to tread down (from cdkt, tlie heel). 
"Coric," ^paniah eoreko; Latin coricae, bark. 

Cbilleiige (2 syL), challenged (2 sjL), challenger, challenging. 

GhalleiigeAble, ehaV.le!f^.&.VL (Only verbs in -C6 and -ge 
retain the " e " before -able,) 
Low Latin oalangivm, a diaUenge ; Greek kaXeo^ to nimmon. 

Chalybeate, l6&.lW,S.aU Femiginous water. 

French cAa2y5^; Latin chdlybUfiu, adj. of e?UI2y&«, steel; Greek 
dUO/iOa, steel, from *' ChUnps/' one of the nations of the ChdlyUs, 
in Fontns, f amona for working in iron and steeL 

Chamber, ehdm\ber, ch&ral>efed (2 syL), chaml)er-ing. 

French thambrt; Latin oAmfru; Greek kdmdra, a Tanlted room. 

Qwaneleini, ka.mee\U.on. A lizard, able to change its hue. 
Latin chanwdeim; Greek chamai ledn, the reptile Hon. 

(Suttnoifl, 87um,'.tDor(nGnn\8ham\my (adj.): as " chamois-leather." 
Fteocih thamoUf Spanish gamuzat a species of antelope or goat. 

Chamcimfle, kam\S.milet a plant. CSal'Qmel, prepared meroory. 

Calamine, kal\a.mfn. Carbonate of 2inc. 

"Chamomile,'* Latin ehamcemHon: Greek kamaimSldn, the ground 

apple, so called ab odore maU Man'oni. (Plin. 22, 21.) 
(Onr word is qnite misspelt, and as usual we have taken the error 
' from the Frwich, camomille for chamSmel.) 

Champaign, 8ham\pain\ a wine. Gamiiaign, kam.pain^ (q-v.) 

Champioa, eham'.ptont a defender. Campion, kam'.pl.on (q.v.) 

'* Champion," French ehampumt Low Latin iximpio f champ pionj. 
"Campion/' both the Silene (catch fly) and the Lychnis. 

Chmoe (1 syL), chanced (1 syl.), ohano'-ing. To happen. 

FroDch ehofics; Latin cadeHs, cadmHa^ things that occur. 
^hui c o l, ehSn\»el (of a chnrch). Cancel, to obliterate. 

Ghaneellor, ehdn'^ellor^ a dignitary. Cancellet, one who 
cancels. Chancery, chdn^se.ry, a court of equity. 

Latin eaneelUi a chancel; eaneeUoHuSf can^xllaria (from canceUi, 
lattioea, whieh divided the clergy and lawyers from the laity). 

Ckiideiler, 8h&n.diS.leei^, A hanging candelabrum. 

Chandler, chSnt^,ler not ehdnd'.ler, A dealer in candles. 

i ehmuMitu^, ebandeliaraiid chandler ; Latin eandHa, a candle. 



96 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

" Gh " in English foords sounded as ** tch,** unless othenoise expressed. 

Change, change ; changed (1 syL), chang^-ing, chang^-er. 

Change'-ahle (verbs in -ce and -ge retain the "e" before 
-able)y change'-ableness, change'-ably, change^fnl.change^- 
fully, change-less, change-ling. To alter, an alteration. 

French t^nger; Latin cambidre, to change, cambiumf dumge. 
Channel, c^n^ne{; channeled, ehanf.neld; chan^nel-ing. (B.iii.) 

Canar, an artificial river. Ken'nel (for dogs), a gutter. 

'* Channel** and "canal," Latm candlis; French canal. 

** Kennel " (a gutter), Fr. ehenal. ( A dog's house) thenil (eMeUt % dog). 

Chanter, fern, chantress, chan'.ter^ chan' .tress. One who chants. 

Chanticleer, chan'.ti.cleer, A corruption of cantie^uiar. 

Chantry, chan'.try (should be ehantery), A chantry-chapeL 

"Cbant«r," Old Eng. cantere; Fr. chanter, v.; Lat. eaaitare, coMtdter, 
*' Chanticleer,** Latin canticUldrius, a Uttle singer, the cock. 
"Chantry,*' Fr. ehantererie; Low Lat. cantaria {chanteTf to shig). 

Chaos, kay\58. The materials of the world before " creation." 

Chaotip, hay. off. ik. Adj. of chaos. (Greek and Latin.) 

Chap (the cheek), not chop. Chap (to crack from cold), not chop. 
chap, chapped, chapt; chapp'-ing, chapp'-y. (B. i) 
" Chap " and *' chop '* are the samfi words, hut **chop ** if 

now used to signify a cut, as a "mutton chop,** or 

to cut, as to " chop wood.'* 

** Chap ** (the cheek). Old Eng. eeaplas, the jaws ; eeafelf the snout. 
" Chap " (as chapped hands). Low Latin colpo, to cut ; Fijanch eoup. 

Chapel, chdp\el, chap'el-ry. Chapel was originally the canopy 
placed over the altar when mass was performed. 

Low Lat. capelluSy a cap or hood, capettdria, a chapelry; Yx. dMptXU, 

COiapel Boyal, plu. chapels royal. (" Royal," a4j. no pin.) 

Chaperon shap\S.rdne (noun), chaperone, shap'Xrone (yerfo). 

Chaperone, chap'eroned (3 syl.), chap'eron-ing. 

French cTutperon, a hood worn by an attendant, hence an attendaat 
on young ladies, a guide or protector. 

Chapiter, chup'.tter, the capital of a column. Chap'ter (of a book). 

*' Chapiter, " Latin cajAtellum or fxip/CtiUum (caput, a head, and -€liiMi 

or -ulum, dim. : French chapiteau, a chapiter. 
"Chapter," Old Eng. capital; Latin cdpitHlum; French ehapUre. 

Chaplain, chup\lan. A clergyman to a private family, ship, &o. 

Chaplaincy, chaplainship. (It would be better chapelain,) 

French chapelain; Latin capelldnus (one who wears a hood, oopettiMX 

Chaplet, chup'.letj a wreath (Fr. chcpelet; Low Latin capeUut). 

Chapter, chap\ter (of a book). Chapiter, chap'X.ter (of apillar), q,Vi 



AND OF SPELLING. 97 

"Gb" <» JffngKaPk V)ord$ toundtd eta "tch," wnieu olherwiw exprtMed. 

Char, to bom to carbon. Ohiir, chair, to work by the day at 
house-work (applied to women). Gharr, a lake fish. 

Ohar (to bum). Charred, ehard. (Rnle i.) 

Gharring, burning. Charing (one r), doing char-work. 

"Cbkr** (to bom), a contraction of the French eharbcnner fcharcocUJ. 
** Char," Old £og. cirre, a turn of business (verb e&rran). 
f**Chdring** is one of the few exceptions to a very general nUe. £. i ) 
"Cbanr" ^the fish}, Gaelic oear, one of the salmon famllj. 

Character, kar^,rak.ter. Caricature, ka7^H.kd,ture (q.v.) 

Charactered, kar^rahJerd ; ohar'actering, char'acterlees. 

Ghar'acterize, ohar'acterized (4 syl.), char'acteriz-ing. 

OharacteriBtic, kar^rak,ter.'U" .tik ; char'acteris^'tical, char'- 
acttriB^'tically, char'acterisni. Bule xxxii. 

Oreek eharaUiTy charaettrizo (from eharassOy to impress coin); Latin 
ehaauUiTy characUrismtu, the distinguishing of characters. 

Charade (French) iha/rard\ A riddle. {See Enigma.) 

(%arge (1 syl.), charged (1 syL), charg'-ing, charg'-er. 

Charge-able (Verbs in -ee and -ge retain the "e" before 

-able), charge'-ably, charge'-ableness, charge-less. 
French charger, to load, ftc : Low Latin carco, to load (our cargo). 

Chazgg d^afbiree, plu. charges d'affaires (French), shar'.zja 
dafjair. One entrusted with diplomatic business. 

(Aariot (French) cha'/ry.ot, A coach with only a front seat 
Charioteer, chaf^ry.S.teer^. The driver of a chariot. 

Charity, |72i^. charities, char'itable, chai'itably, char'itableness. 
French chariti; Latin ch&ritas, not caritas (Greek (iharitis, favours). 
Charlatan (French), shar^.ld.tan, a quack. Charlatanism. 
Chair, a fish of the salmon family. Char, to burn. (See Char,) 
Oiart, chart, a map. Cart, a two- wheeled vehicle for stores. 

Charter, a royal grant in writing. Carter, one who has 
charge of a team. 

"Chart," Lat. charta; Gr. charUs, papers. "Cart," Old Eng. orcet. 

Oiasahle, chase!'. a.b% that may be chased. Chas'uble (q.v.) 

Oiaae, chase, chased (1 syl.), chas'-ing, chas'-er, chas'-able. 
(Only verbs in -ce and -ge retain the " e" before -able.) 
French chtusex, to chase ; Low Lat. chacea or (^uuea (verb chaceo). 

Gbaam, kSzm, a gulf. (Greek chasma, a yawning ; Lat. chasma.) 

Chaste, cJutst, chaste^-ly, chaste'-ness, but chas'Uty. 

French chaste, chasteU; Latin castus, castttas. 

Q 



98 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

''Gh** in BngUsh vwrdi founded m "toh," imlest oiherwiu «xprt$md. 



Chaeten, ehSseJn not eheute'n ; chastened, chase'Jnd, 

Ohastening, ehasefMAng ; chastener, ehase','ner» 

GhastiBe, ehca.tize' ; chastised' (3 8jl.),chSstis'ing,chSstis'-e 
chastls'-able. (Not in -ee or -ge. Bale xx.) 

Chastisement, cha/Mz.menL Correction, ponishment 
Old Fr. chattier, now chdtier; lAtln tastigdre, to correct, puiiiBh. 

Ohastity, chas^tLty, Purity of body and mind. {See CHiaste 

Chasnble, 8haz\u.h% a priest's robe. Ghasable, chatif.a.Vl (q.\ 

" Chasuble, " French : Low Lat. «uvMla,, dim. of eatHiek, a rarplic 
It is worn over the alb when the priest performs mass. 

Ghat, chatt'-ed, chatt'-ing, chatt'-er, chatf-y. (Rule L) 

Chatter, chatt'ered (2 syl.), chatt'ering, chatt'erer. To prattl 
French ^cuer, cormpted first to chdtam' then to fSuMer. 

Chatean, jplti. chateaux (Fr.), 8haf.0y 8h3f.oze. A country sea 
Chattels, cAat'.t'b. Goods in general. (LowLat.cato2{a,chatteh 
Chaumontelle, 8hau\m(m,teV not shar^.mon.teV. A pear. 
So called from Chaumont, in France. 

• 

Cheap, cheep; cheapen, eheep'M; cheapened, eheep\*nd; chea] 
ening, cheep^'ning. Low in price, to lessen in value. 
Old Eog. eedp, a bargain, oedp[ian], to bargain, cedpan, to boy. 

Cheat, cheet. Contraction of "escheat." Esoheators we] 
ofiScers appointed to look after the king's escheats. Th 
gave many opportunities of overcharging and of fraud. 

Cheafer, one who cheats. Cheetar, the hunting leopard. 
Old Eng. oeatta, cheats. ''Chetar,** nr cheeta, is a Mahratta word. 

Check, a restraint, to restrain. Check or cheque (for money). 

Checker or chequer. To form into checks or squares. 

Old Eng. eeae, a fetter; French ichee, a repulse, hinderance. 
"Cheque or check" (for money), exchequer, a treasury. 

Cheek. Side of the face. (Old Eng. cedca, the cheek or jaw.] 

Cheer, Chair, Char, Sheer, Shear, Share. 

Cheer. To gladden. (French ch^e, cheer, welcome.) 

Chair. A seat. (French chaire, a pulpit; Latin cathedra 

Char, chair. To do domestic work by the day, (Old Euj 
cirran, to do a turn of business ; cSrre, a turn of buBiness 

Sheer. Entire, pure. (Old English scir, pure, dean.) 

Shear. To cut (Old Eng. scirlan], to cut off, to divide.' 

Share. A portion. (Old English sdr, a part cut off.) 

Chee'tah, the hunting leopard. Cheaper, one who cheats (q.v. 



AND OF SPELLING. 1)9 

"Cb" iM BnqliUh wcrdi founded at " Uh," wUett 0th»ryri$e e3Bprta$td, 

Owf d*OBfiine, plu, ehefii d'oBnTie, $hay cTurv. (In art) the 
best prodaotion of an artist in his particular line. 

Chair- (Qreek), hire or ki'.r... The hand. Except in Zoologi- 
cal nomenclature, wpeit ehir- {q.v.) 

GhdzacanfhuB, ki\ra.kan".thu8. A fish armed with spines. 

Oheixolepls, ki.roT.^.pit. A fossil fish. (Gk. UpiSy a scale.) 

Quiiaptextk, ki,rop\te,rah. Bats. (Greek |>f^on, a wing.) 

Oheimms, hLru\nu. A trll5bite. (Greek cheir oura, hand- 
tail; i.e., having a tail with five finger-like spines.) 

Chels, hee'dee. A daw (of a crustacean). (Gk. chSlS, a talon.) 

^^'^^^A^'ft, ki-UfMuah. The tortoise family. Ghelo'nian (n. or 
a4f*) (Gk. chSldni^ a tortoise.) 

Gbenuse (French), sM^meez'. An undergarment of women. 

Ghemiaette, shim^ejiet', A sort of female waistcoat 

Oienustry, chemist (e not y), hemWsdry^ kem'.ut. Chem'io, 

chemical, chemically. 

The same root m al-chemy, withont the article tU. Arabic kimia, 
the occult art. Even if taken from the Greek, the first vowel 
wonld be i not y {eM6, to melt ; not ehv/d). 

Cheque or check. An order for money. {See Check.) 
Oierish, eher^ruh ; cher'ished (2 syL ) Fr. ehirir ; cJieVy dear. 

Cherry, che/ry (ought to have only one r). A fruit. 

Old Eng. eirse; Fr. cSrise; Lat. efriUus; Gk. kHrdsfis (from Cerasus, 
on the Pontine coast, whence Lucullus imported the cherry). 

Cher'abypZu. cher^ubs {Heh. plu. cher'nbim. Chaldaie chembin). 
[The Bible word " cherubimt " [Gen. Hi. 24] is indefemibU.) 

Chervil, cher^.vil, a herb. (Old Eng. cerfille ; Lat. cJiarephyllum.) 
Greek eftairo, to rejoice, and pfwUon, a leaf, an exhUarating plant. 

Chesfnnt not Ohes'nnt (Latin cattSn^ce nux. Virg. Ecc. ii. 62.) 
Old Eng. eixier^niii, a diestnnt. (From CastdnSa, in Thes8al7.) 

Oievauz de frise (French), she-vo' d^-freeze'. A military fence. 

Cheoaux defrise, the horse [bar] nsed at the siege of Frite. 
Chevalier (French), 8hev\d.leer, A cavalier. 

Chew, ehoo, chewed (1 syl.), chewing. To masticate. 
Old Bng. ee&v^an], past eedw, past part, cotoen, to chew. 

Odaio-oecoro (Ital.), ke.ah'ro os.ku'.ro. Light and shade. 

OUhoDk or Chibougue (Turk.), cM.booke\ A Turkish pipe. 

GUcane, shS.kain' ; chicanery, sM.kain'.^.ry, Trickery. 
French thioane, chicanerie, pettifogging trickery. 



100 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



"Gh" in Engliah vwrds founded at "teh," unless otherwise expressed. 

Chick or chicken, plu. chicks or chidkens. (Chicken is not plural.) 
Old Eng. eicen, pin. ctcenu. " Chick'* is a contraction of cidien]. 

Ghide, past chode, past part, chidden [chid]. To reprove. 
Chid'-er, chid'-ing, chid'-ingly. 
Old Eng. cid[an], past odd, past part, eiden, to chide. 

Chief, plu. chie& (Eule xxxix). Chieftain (French chef). 

Chiffonier, shif'.fo.nee/t not cheffoneer, A piece of furniture. 

French ehiffpnnieTt a rag-picker (from chiffon, a rag). 
Chilblain, chiV.hlain. A blain or sore from chill or cold. 

Old Eng. cele-hlegen or hloegan, a chill blister or sore. 

Child, plu. children, chUd^ chiV.dren. Childe, a youns: nobleman. 

"child," Old Eng. did, plu. cUdra, later form cildre /'n interpolatedX 

Childhood, the child period. (0. Eng. -hdd, state, condition.) 

Childish, like a child. (0. Eng. -isc [added to nouns] means 
" like," but added to acUectives is dimiTtutivet as " blackish.** 

Chiliad (Greek) kiV.l.ad, 1,000. Kilo-, used in French weights 
to express a multiple ; niille- (Latin 1,000) to express a 
fraction. Thus kilo-gramme = 1,000 grammes ; milU' 
gramme, y^^u part of a gramme. 

Chill, chilled (1 syl.), chill'-ing, chill'-er (eomp.), chill'-est (sup.), 
chiU'ingly, chiU'ness, chiiry, chill'i-ness. (Rule viii.) 

Chilli [vinegar] ; chillies (plu.), chiV.liz, pods of Guinea pepper. 

Chime, chimed (1 syl.), chim'-ing. To make bell-music. 

Danish Hme, to chime ; Hmen, chiming. 
Chimera, plu. chimeras, kl.mee'.rah, kl.mee\rdz. A monster. 
Chimerical, ki.mer'ry.kal (imaginary) ; chimer^ically. 

Lat. chinuBra; Gk. chimaira, a lion, dragon, and goat united. 

Chimney, plu. chimneys, not chimnies. Chimney-piece. 

(The word " chimhley " is a common error with children,) 
French cheminde; Latin cdminus; Gk. kdmlnds, a chimney. 

Chimpanzee, chim\pan.zee\ African name for the orang. 

Chin (of the face). Chine, the back bone, a "joint " cut from it 
' * Chin," Old Eng. cin. '* Chine," French ichine, the spine. 

Chinese. Sing, a Chinese ot a Chinaman, plu. Chinese (indefi. 
nite), Chinamen (definite), as 1, 2, 3, &c.. Chinamen. 

Chintz, plu. chintzes. Cotton prints with more than two colours. 
Hinddstan'ee, chint; Persian ehinz, spotted cotton cloth. 

Chip, chipped (1 syl.), chipp'-ing, chipp'-er. (Rule i.) 

German kippen, as kippen und wippen, kipper und toipper, appHad 
to money-clipping and money-clippers. 



AND OF SPEIJJXG. ^n 

''Gb " M Bnglith vjords sounded cu ** tch," unfe»9 othenoiw expressed. 

Gfajr- (Greek cheiVt the hand), kV.r,„ ( prefix), hand. {See Cheir-.) 
CSiirography, ki.rog'.rd.fy. Art of writing. 
Chirograph, kV.rS.graph. An official written document. 

CShirographic, ki\ro,graf*'.iky a^j. Ohirog'rapher. 
Greek ehmr grapho, to write with the band. b«nd-writing. 
Ghizamancy, ki\ro.man^, Diyining by looking at the hand. 

CShiramancer, ki\ro.manjer. One skilled iu the above. 

Greek cheir marUeia, hand-diviiuttion, &c 

Chiropodist, ki,rop\o,di8t, A com and wart doctor. 

Gredc eheir podes^ hand and feet (-ist^ an agent). 
Ghifl'el, chis'eled (2 syl.), chis'el-ing, ohis'el-er. (Rule iii. -et..^ 

French eiseler, to chisel {ciseau, sdsson) ; Lat. casum {eatdo, to eat). 
GSdfBlzy, shif/Ml.ry ; chivalric, 8hiv\aLrik ; chiv'alroiia. 

French ehewxltris (S syLX from duval, a horse ; Lat. cabcdUu. 
Qdoriiie, Icto'.ffn. In Chemistry -ine denotes a gas. 

Chloride, klo\rid. In Chemistry -ide denotes a base. If 
'* lime " is the base, the compound is chloride of Ume. 

Chlorate, klo\rate. In ChemUtry -ate denotes a salt, the 
acid of which ends in -ic. The salt of chloric acid with 
a base. 
Greek thl&ros, pale green. CMorine is a greenish yellow gas. 
Gbloroform, kU/.ro.form. A compound of chloiine, carbon, and 
hydrogen, -form in CliemUttry denotes the '* ter-oxide of 
a hydrocarbon," which resembles ** formic acid." 

Chlorophyll, kU/.ro.Jil, The green colouring matter of plaTits. 

Greek cfUdro* phuUcn, the green of leayes. 
Chocolate, choW.o.let, (French chocolate Spanish chocolate.) 
Choice, choic'-er (camp.), choic'-est (sup.) Worthy to be chosen. 

Old Eng. eedsian], to choose ; cedsung, a choice. 
Choir, quire. A band of singers ; the place where they sing. 

Old Eng. dufr; Latin ch&rus; Greek chOrds. 
Chidce, choked (I syl.), chok'-ing, chok'-er. To block up. 

Welsh cegio, to choke, (from eeg, a moothX 
Choler, kot.er, aoger. Collar (for the neck). 

Choleric, koV.e-rik, Irritable, passionate. 

Greek and Latin ehdUfra. (Greek choU rheo. flow of bOe.) 
"Collar," Old Eng. eeolr, a collar ; Latin collum, the neck. 

Gholexa, koV.e.rah. A flow of bile, bile-flux. (See above.) 

Choote, past chose, past part, chosen, chooz, chGze, chvzen ; 
cboos^-ing, choos'-er. Choice, choic'-er, choic'-est. 
Old Eng. ce6^an\ past eeds, past part, e&rtn. 



102 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Ch*' ^ BniM^wvrdM mnmiad M ** U^" wdtn ttkenoim 



Chop, to cut, to exchange. Chap, the jaw-part of the cheek, &c 

Chop, chopped (1 sjL), ehopp'-ing, ehopp'-^. (Bole L) 

" Chop" (to eat, &«.), Hmw Lat. eolfw, to eat ; Frendi eimper, to cut. 
" Chop ** (to exciumgeX Old Eng. oeap, a bari^dii ; Terb ee^on]. 
" Chap ** (the jaw), Old Eng. eeapUu, the jaws. 
" Chap ** (to crack with cold). Low Latin colj^^ to eat. 

Choral, ko'sal, a^j. of choir (quire). Coral, kat^ral (q.v.) 

Chord, kord (in Music). Cord, kord, rope. Cawed, p. of eaw. 

** Chord," Greek chordS, the string of a late, kc; Latin chorda. 
'^Oord,** French eorde, string: Greek tkordS; Latin efcorda. 
** Cawed,** hvrd, past tense of " eaw/' an imitation-word ; Old Eng. 
ear, a erow ; Latin eor«[iM] ; Greek coraz. 

ChoruB, ho'. rut. Cho'ral, adj. (Latin ehoras, Greek ehSr^iB.) 

Chough, chuff y a jackdaw, a crow. Cidl^ itu/, a blow. ** Chongh " 
was originally pronoanced chow, like *' though " tho\ 

Old Eng. eeo—th'ow; Fr. thcmeat; Lat. cormu (**caw.'* the 07). 
" Caff," French coup, to blow ; Latin cOAphuB (Greek hdlaptd). 

Chiism, krizm, consecrated oiL Chrisom, kris^om, a child that 
dies within a month of its birth. 

"Chrism," Greek and Latin ehrisma, ointment (Gk. d^HA, to anoint). 
"Chrisom," so called from the "chrism doth,** anointed with 
" chrism," or consecrated oil, and plac«d orer the child. 

Christ, krist ; Christ-IesSi krisfless. Short in the compounds : 
Christmas, krxsf.nuu, F^om Dec. 35 to Jan. 6. (Rule Tiii.) 
Christen, kris'.'n not fcr{g'.t«ii; christened, kr%8\*n€L 
Christening, krit''n.ing; chrintener, kris'^n-cr. 
Christendom, kri8''n,dom. All (]!hristian countries. 
Christian, kris'.tl.an; Christianity, kru^'ttMn"'Lty. 
Christianize, kris\ti.an.ize ; christianized, kiitCPLanAzed. 
Christianizing, Christianism, kris'.ttan.izm. (R. xxzii.) 

Greek Christos, ehristidnds, dirisHanizA, ehristianismot. 
Latin Chr^st^^8, chriatidnuB, duritUanittMU, ^rutidniUu. 

Chromate, kr^.mate. In Chemistry -ate denotes a salt, from 
the union of a most highly oxidized acid with a base. 
Thus chromic acid and potash is the chromate of potash* 

Chromite, krd'.mite. In Chemistry -ite denotes a salt, from 
the union of a less oxidized acid with a base. Thus 
chromite of iron is an oxide of chromium (inferior to 
cbromic acid) in union with iron. 

Chromium, kri/,m\,umy a metal; also called chrome (1 sjL) 

Greek dirtfma, ooloor. The metal "chrOmiom" is so called beeaosa 
it is a powerful eolooring substance. 



AND OF SPELLLVa. 103 



"Cai" i» Enfi^iA Vfordt Mounded at "toh," ut^tts othervi$e txprtMttd. 

GhnmmtioB (plu.), kro,maf.ik8t soienoe of colours. 

Ghromatic Scale (Mtisic), so called from the intermediAte 
notes being printed in colours. 

Ghromatrope, kro\ma.trdpe. An apparatus for showing a 

stream of colours. (Greek tr6pad, to turn round.) 

Ctoeek dvr&ma, colour. All sciences in -^ art plural except logic, 
mnsic, and phytdc (French wordsX Gk. ehHhnatikot; Lat. ckrc- 
m&UiOua, chromatic music. 

Chianic, kran\ik or chion'ical. Continuing a long time. 

Chronicle, kron\tk'l. History arranged in order of time. 

Ghnmialed, kr6n\tk'ld; ohronid-ing, kr8n'.i,kUng. 

Ghzoniel-er, hr8n'.l.kler. One who chronicles, an historian. 
Ofeek dvHMkfy; Latin 6lvHMLou9 (Greek tiiHindn, time). 
Chronology, plu, chronologies, krS.n5V,6.jiz. Science of dates. 

Ghronol'^oger or chionorogiBt. One who arranges dates. 

Ghnmological, kr5n'.5.lodg".%.k&l, chronolog'ically. 

Greek ^rdndUfg^, ehr(hidldg(fB (from ehr&nds, time). 
Chionometer, hrb.nSmf .S,ter, A watch or time instrument. 

GhranoBn'etry. The art of making chronometers. 
Greek durdnAt metrcn, time metre. 
QiryBaHfli, plu, chrysalieeB not chrysales, kris*.a,ll8, kris^ui. lit.ez, 

Chiysalid, plu. chryBalidB, are better and more modem 

forms ; " chrysalid " is also used as an Hdjective. 

Gfeek chnuaUU, gen. ehru8allid[os], with double I (chrtuot, goM) ; 
Ladn ehryadlUy gen. chry9dlld{i8\, one I. {Su Aurella.) 

GhiyBanthemuin, kriMn'.Thi.mum not chrysanthenum^ plu. 

cfaryBonthemums not chrysanthema, A genus of flowers. 

Gfeek ehnuantMmOn fehnuds antMmdn, gold flower) ; Latin chry- 
$anth€muni, the jeUow crow-foot, ox-eye, moon-daiqr, &c. 

Chrysolite, kris'.o.lite. The topaz of the ancients, now im- 
properly applied to a green crystaL 
Latin ekry»6Uth%t: Greek chruto$ lUhdt, the gold stone. 
ChrjH^raee, kriti'.o.praz not chrysophrase. A green stone. 

Latin e&rys^yrdnu; Greek ehnuifprdgifs fehrwtd prdson, gold leek). 
"Qnod rit wrioris porraeei; Le. yiridis, anreis intervenientOms 
gottis Uid.' (See also FUn. 37, 20.) 

niiM»Mj> ckuiTl; diuckled, chuWJld; chuckl-ing, ehuJ^ding. 

C o p upU on d the Latin eddiinno ; Greek kagchaza, to laugh. 
Cteich. Old £ng. circ€ = chirxhe ; Scotch kirk ; Greek 
kur{t09} the Lord, with the suffix -ch, " belonging to." 

Cfaid, a surly fellow. Gnil, kurl, a ringlet 

"CSmrl,*' Old Eng. eeorf =efc*or(, a freeman of the lowest rank. 

" Gul,'* (»d E^. eircMl, a drele ; Welsh eivr, with dim., a little drele. 



104 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

** Ch ** in English words sounded as " tch," unXess oihenoise ea^pressed. 

Chum, to make butter. (Old Eng. eerenet a churn, verb cem[an]. 

Chyle, kile, A milky fluid separated from food by digestion. 
Greek ehiUos; Latin ehylus (Greek ehifo, to pour out). 

Chyme, kime. Digested food before it is converted into chyle. 
Greek ehumos; Latin ehym/its (Greek chu&f same as eMo, to poor out). 

Cicada, plu. cicadsB (L&t,)y stkai/ .dah^ stkay'.dee. Tree-hoppers. 

Cicatrix, plu. cicatrices (Lat.), 8ik'.d.triXj sik' .a.ti^jsez. A scar. 

(jic8i.tna&,8ik\a.trize; cicatrised (3 syl.),cic'atris-ing.(Il.xxxi. ) 
In Latin the " a '' of these words is long : cicatrix, &c. 

Cicerone (Ital.), 8i8\e,rd'\ne or che'.ch^.ro'\ne. A guide. 
The •' orator " or Cicero who shows over a show-place. 

Ciceronian, 8i8.e.ro'nl.an, A manner of writing or speak- 
ing in imitation of the style of the great Roman orator. 

Cider, 8i\der, Wine made from apples. (Old Eng. cider.) 

Latin sMfra; Greek sikifra, any fermented drink except grape wine. 

Ci-devant, see d.vah'n (French). An ex.[official], former. 

Cigar, sS.gdy (Spanish cigarro, French cigare). 

Cigarette, 8%g,a.retf (French). Tobacco in a paper envelope. 

Cilia, 8iV.%.ah, hair-like organs. Sillier, more silly. 

Latin dUium.y plu. ifllia, the eye-lash Tfrom eilleOt to twinkle). 
"Silly," Old £ng. saelig. German selig, innocent. Idiots are termed 

"innocents." and Jesus Christ is called "the hiurmleas silly 

babe." "Silly sheep,'* i.e., innotent. 

Cinchona, sin.ko'.nah. Peruvian bark. So called from the 
Countess del Ciuchon, wife of the Viceroy of Peru. 

Cincture, «infc'.fc?itfr. A girdle. (Latin cinc^Mra; ctn^o, to gird.) 

CmdeXj sin'.der. Burnt coal. (OldlRng, sinder; Lat.cin^e«,ashep.) 

Cindery, sinf.de.ry, not cindry. Full of cinders. 

Cineraria, sin\e.rair''ri.a. Eag-wort; some are " ash " coloured. 

Cinerary, sin'.e.rd.ry. Applied to sepulchral ams. It 
ought to he cin'ery. (Lat. cinSreus), Cinerdriua means 
a tiring-man, or maker of wash-bulls. 

Cinnamon, sin'.nd.mon. The inner bark of a kind of laurel. 

Greek kinndmon; Latin ciwnamum or cinnamOmum. 
Cinque- (French), sink. Used as a prefix to denote 6. 

Cinque-cento. Degraded or 15th century style of art. 

Cinque-foil, sink-foil. Five-leafed (French -feuillt, a leaf). 

Cinque-ports. Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, Sandwich.. 
Cipher, si'.Jety the figure 0; to do sums. Ci'phering, doing sums. 
Arab, s^r, lero : Low Lat. dphra; French chiffre; Italian dfra. 



AND OF SPELLING. 105 



(Stomh, Birjie^jam not S^.t^,an. Adj. of Circ^ (Lat. Circatu). 

Gilde, ter^.kl; dided, ser^.h^ld; circling, set'.k'ling ; circlet. 

Lfttin eSreSUut (eireiM, around) ; Greek kirkot ; French eereU, 
Qiiciiit (French) ser^.kit. The route of a judge. 

Gircoitons, ser.ku'.i.ttUf round-about. Circnitotis-ly. 
CSicnlar, 8er^.ku.lar, aelj. of circle. Circnlar-ly (Lat. eirculdriif.) 

GSieiilate, 8e/,ku.late; cir'culat-ed, cir'ciilat-iDg, cir^cula^'tion, 
dr'culator not circulater, {-ed sounded after d or tu 
lAtin eireCUare, cireulator ; French eirctder, eircuJation. 
CSnmm- (Latin preposition), " nround." Used as a prefix. 

(Hicamainbient, 8er.-kum.am"-bi-ent ; circmnambiency. 

lAtin eireum crnibio, to encompass or go all round. 
Giicimi-ambnlate, -am\bu.late : -am'1>nlated, -am'bnlat-ing, 
-am'bnlat-or (Rule xxxvii), -am'bula'tion. 

Latin drcum ambtUdre, to walk all round. 
CSienm-dse, circnm-cised (3 syL), -ci'ser, cir'cam-cis'ion. 

Latin eireum eado feouumj, to cut all round. 
Oixcmnference, 8er,cum'.fS.rence. Tbe line that bounds a circle. 

Latin drcum fero, to carry all round. 
(Sz^cumflex, dr^cnmflexed (3 syL ) A mark ( ^) orer a letter. 

Latin eireum jUdo fflexumj, to bend round. 
(Sicam'-flaent, drcnm'-fluence, circmn'-fluous, flowing round. 

Latin drewmjhiens, circumjluus, flowing all round. 
(Hieimifiue, 8er'Cum.fuze\ -fused', -fussing, -fu'sion. 

Latin eireum /undo, supine /umm, to pour all round. 
Cizcnmjacent, 8ei^ -cum.ja'* ^ent. Lying round on all sides. 

Latin eireum jaeens, lying all round. 
Otzcmn-locn'tion, circnmlocntory, 8er^'Cum.loV-u-t6 ry. 

Latin eireum lociUio, a round-about manner of speaking. 
Giicam-nay^igate, -nav'igat-ed^ -nav'igat-ing, -nav'i.ga".tion, 
-nav'igat-or (R. xxxvii.), circunmavigable, -nav'.i.ga.h l. 

Latin drcum navigdre, to sail all round {navis, a ship). 

Oinmrn-flcribe, nscribed', Hwjrib'-ing, -scrib'-er, -scrip'tion. 

Latin dreum seribo, to write or draw a line all round [a place, 
beyond wliich combatants must not pass], hence to limit. 

OboomHfiipeot. Cautious. (Lat. eireum 8pectOf to look round.) 

Circom-spection, -8'pec^-8hun. Caution. {See Rule xxxiii.) 
lAtin drcum spieio, supine spectum, to look round. 

CKxcam-stance, -etanced, '8t€m8t; Hstantial, -8tan'.8hal. 
Oironm-Btan'tials (plu.), incidents ; drcuniHstan'tially. 
Oircma-fltantiate, -« ton^«/ttf .a^«,H3tan^tiat-ed, -stan'tiat-ing. 

Latin drcvmstantiaf drcum stans, standing all round. 
" Gireumstances " are the details of time, number, names, incidents, 
Infloeiiees, qualities, &c., &c, which contiibute to an eUect. 



lor, ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Circum-vallation, 'Val.W.shun, A military trench all round. 
Latin cMXfu.m vallSre, to m«ke a vaOwm (trraoh) all loiind. 

Gircnm-vent, -vention, -ven\8}mn. {See Rule xxxiii.) 

Latin cvrcumventio, circwm vewio, rapine ventmn, to oome all vexud, 
and hence to impede, to out-trick. 

Cironm-volve, -volved, -volvd; -volv'-lng, oirciim-voln'tion. 

Latin eircum volvo, to roll all round, drcumvolHtus, 
Circus, plu, circuses not drci, A circalar place for equestrians. 

Latin eir&u8, plu. eirei ; Greek Hrkos, plu. kirkoi. 

Cirrus, plu. cirri Curled filaments [for locomotion]. " CiiTUS 
clouds " curly clouds. Scirrhus, tkir^.ruSf a tumour. 

Cirrous, adj. of cimis. Scirrhous, skir^.rus, tumourous. 

*' Cirrus," Latin dmu, a lock of hair ; Greek keraa, a crumpled horn. 
'* Scirrhus," Latin adrrhus, a hard swelling ; Greek skirrhoa. 
(" Cirrhi" 80 often written in soientijie books to denote **ewrl-elou4»*' 
is a miatake. The Greek ' ' kvrrhoe '* means yeUovo or flesh-ccUmredJ) 

Gis- (Latin preposition), prefix to acyectives, " on this side." 
Gis-Alpine, this side the Alps ; t.«., the south or Boman side. 
Cis-Padane, this side the " Padus " or Po; i,e., the Rom. side. 

Cistern, sis'.tem. A box for water. (Latin cUtema.) 

Citadel, 8i1f.d.del. A fortress in or near a city. 

French dtadelle ; Italian cUtadeUa fdtta -deUa, a little cityX 

Cite, site, sight ; all pronounced alike. 

Cite, cit'-ed, clt^ing, cit'-er, cit-able, cita'tion. (Rule xix.) 

Sight, sight-ed, sight-ing. To come in view of. 

"Cite," Latin eitdre, to quote, to call, to summon. 

" Site " (a building plot), Latin situs, a situation. 

" Sight, '^ Old £ng. gesiht, vision {g of "sight" is interpolated). 

Citizen, 8lt'.i.z^n. There is no such word as citizeness. 

Citizenship. State of having the privileges of a citizen. 
-eUf " one belonging to " ; citi-z-en, one belonging to a city. 
(As there is no '*z'* to Latin wordSt it ought to be ^^citUen,") 
Latin civitati (dative case) contracted to Htfit'i, eVti, to a oitj. 

Citrate, sit'.rat. In Chemistry -ate denotes a salt formed from. 
the union of an acid ending in -ic and a base : Thu0 
« citrate of magnesia " is citric acid united with magneeiA. 

Citric. In Chemistry -ic denotes an acid most highly ozidiied- 
Citron, sitf.ron. Fruit of the citron tree. 
French citron; Latin oitrus (eitrvm, citron wood). 

City. A corporate and cathedral town. (0. Eng. eite, Lat cttHEtOf.) 
Civet. A substance taken from the civet-cat. 
Civic, 8iv\ik. Pertaining to a city. {Ci- long in Latin.) 
Latin clvlow, adj. of tlvis, a dtixen ; aivitcur, a dty. 



AND OF SPELLING. 107 

ChU, fw'.iZ, d^firet (eomp.), dv'il-ett («fp,); civil-ly; 

chdlifle, sH/.iLize; dy^ilised (3 syl.), otvilis-ing, dvil- 

ifler, nt'Alize.er; otviliBation, nv'.iLi,za''jhun (B. xxzi.) ; 

dyilitj, $i.viV,i.ty ; dviliaii, ttviV.yan, 

Latin tiiMii, courteous like a oitixen : ^vil/Uat, drilitx. 
Vrench oiml, ewilisaUur (ciTiliser), HvUUation, elviliser, civiliU. 

(3ack, dacked, klakd. To chatter. (French claquery to dark.) 
daim, AiftimiMi (1 syL), daim-ont, claim-able (Ist Latin conj.) 
Meant originally to demand with noisy clamour. 

Old £ng. hUmmian], to make a noise ; Latin damdre, to ezelaim. 
CSair-Yoyant (Fr.), one who sees without eyes. Glair-Yoyanoe. 
Glam, clammed (1 syl.), damm-ing, danmi-y, olammi-neas. 

OM Eng. elam, sticky mud, Ac ; verb eUBmiian], to smear. (K. i.) 

(3aiiioiiri kl&m*.er, outcry. Glamour, glam'.er^ a charm whinh 

acts on vision. C^jrmore, a Highland broad-sword. 

''Clamonr,'* (one m). Old Eng. Memm[a?i], to make a noise ; French 

tlamewr; Latin eULmor (verb olam&rtt to clamour). 
** GlMnonr,** Scotch, same as glimmer. 
"Caaymore," GaeL claid mor, great-sword. 

Oamp, damped (1 syL), damp-ing. (The p not doubled. R. ii.) 

Old Eng. elam, a bandage. To " clamp " is to fasten with clamps. 

(San, dann'-iflh, dann'-iahly, dann'-ishnesB. (R. i.) 

Glan-Bhip, dans-man not clanmcm. One of the same clan. 

Gaelic JUannf children ; Latin aliens, a client, a tenant, &c. 
(Sandestine, kl&n,dei',finf dandestine-ly. In an underhand way. 

Latin elandestlriuSf secret, private, &o. {elam, secretly). 
dang, danged (1 syl.), dangor, klang'ger not klang'.er. 

"Clangor" not elangovr, it is not through the French, but direct 
from the Latin clangor, verb dango, to cry like a trumpet, &c. 

GUp, dapped (1 syl.), dapp'-ing, clapp'-er. (Rule i.) 
Old Eng. e2app[anl to clap, to strike the hands together. 
Cluet (French), kULr^ret. A red wine, the colour of the wine. 

Latin vinum elaretum, darifled wine. 
dadfy, klar^n.fy; dar'ifieB (3 syl.), dar'ified (3 syl.). clar'ify- 
ing, dar^lfica^'tion. To make &ee from impurities. 
French cUtrifier; lAtin eldrifieio (eUxrus facio, to make clear). 
Clarion, a trumpet. Clarinet, klar^ri.nety not clarionet, 

C** Clarionet " meana a small clarion, which it is not.) 

** Clarion,'' Ital. t^rino ; Iksw Lat. clarigarius, a herald. 
** Clarinet, ** Spanish elarineU; French cUurinette. 

diM, daased (1 syL), daes-ing, to arrange in a class. 

Clafls'io or dasB'ical (adj.), dasslcal-ly, dasslcal-ness. 

Clasmcs, the best authors. (Latin classXcuSy highest of the 
six divisions of Roman citizens made by Servius ; hence 
eUusiei auctores, the highest class of authors.) 



108 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Claas'ify, class'ifies (3 syl.), classified (3 syl.), claaslfi-e] 
class'ify-ing, class'lfLca^'tion (Lat. cUssis-Jicio [/octoj). 
Latin classiSt one of the six divisions of Roman citizens. 
Clat'ter, clattered, klaf.terd; olafter-er, olafter-ing, clafte] 
ingly. (The r not doubled. Rjile ii.) 
Old Eng. clatnmg, a clatter, a drum ; Welsh eletotianf to datter. 
Clay, plu. clays, clay-ey (not clay-y), day-ish. 

{There are three words which take the postfix -ey inttea 
of -y, — vw., clayey^ sky-ey, and whey-ey.) 
Old En?, eldg, clay ; Danish kUeg^ loam, clay. 
Claymore, a Highlander'a broa<l -sword ; Glamonr, glam'.er 
Glamour, clam'.er. (See GXamour.) 
" Claymore," Gaelic claid^mor, great sword ; "Welsh cledd^mo. 
-cle (sufl&x), diminutive, as parti-cle, a little piece ; also writte: 
-cuUf ns animal-cuUf a little animal ; -ule^ as gloh-ule^ 
little globe or ball ; -el, as satch-el, a little sack ; -cle o 
'kUy as sic-kle Isik'.k^lj, a little scythe. (Latin -cuZ[tM] 
Clean, kleen; cleaned (1 syl.), dean'-er, one who cleans ; dean' 
ness; clean-ly, in a clean manner; clean-er, clean-esi 
clean-ly (ac^.), klen'-ly ; deanli-ness, kIen\Vl.ne88, 
Old Eng. ddn, verb eldn[an], cUhilice and elirUice, cleanly. 
Cleanse, klenz ; cleansed, klenzd; deans-ing, klen^zmg 
cleans-er, klen'.zer. To purify, to make clean. (R. xix. 
Old Eng. cU6n^ian\ past eldnsede, past part, ddnsed. 
Clear, clear-er (comp,), dear-est (swp.),deared (1 syl.) dearer (n] 

Welsh doer; French, elair; Latin ddrus; verb cldro, to clear. 
Cleat not elate. A piece of iron for the heels of shoes and boot; 

Old English cleot or eliit, a clout ; Welsh clwtj a patch. 
Cleave (to stick), past deaved (1 syl.) [el&ve], past part, deaved 
cleav-ing. " Clave " occurs in the Bible (Acts xviL 84). 
Old EngUsh clif[an], past eldf, past part, di/en, to adhere. 
Cleave (to split), past deaved (1 syl.), or cleft (obsolete formi 
" clave " and " clove "), past part, deaved or deft (oba 
"cloven"). "Clave" (split) occurs often in the Bibu 
(See Gen. xxii. 3). "Cloven" is used as an a^j.: ai 
"cloven foot," ** cloven tongues." 

Cleaver, one who cleaves, a butcher's chopper, dev'er (q,v, 

Cleav-age, klee'.vage not cleaver-age. The act of splitting 

cleavable structure. Cleav'-able. (Rule xix.) 

Old English eliif[an], past cledf, jMst part, elofen, to split 
(Ttu two verbs were originally quite distinct in all their parU, am 
it is to be regretted that the distinctions are not preserved.) 

Clef, plu. clefs (of Music). Cliff, a precipice. Cleft, a crack. 

( Monosyllahles ending in "/"preceded by one vowel^dovbl 

the f. The exceptions are " i/," " of" and " cUf:' R. v. 

' Clef/' French ; Latin cUivis, a key. " CUff, " Old Eogliah ci<r. 



tt. 



c* 



«• 



AXD OF SPELIJXa, 10!) 

Clfift. A crack. (Old Eng. eUofa, verb c{6/[afi], to cleave.) 

CSeia'atis, plu, dem'atises not kl^.mdy'.tis. " Traveller's Juy," 
»*Vi.-gin's Bower," "Old Man's Beard," "White Vine." 
(The " e '* M long in the Latin and Greek wordi.) 

Latin ffrndtia; Greek hlimSLtit (from klitML^ a vine twit;). 
"TravellHr's Joy," beeause it decks the hedges in antumn. 
"YiTgin's Bower," beeause it clinnbs and overhangs, bower-like. 
"Old Man's Beard." because it looks like grey hair. 
"White Vine," becaose it is a " vine" and bears a whitish flower. 

dsmency, pZu. clemencies, kJ^'.enj^'iz, Gentleness, mercy, 
^, snffix to abstract nouns. ( Lat. dementia^ elemens, mild.) 

Clench, clinch. " Clench " (to grasp), as " he clenche'l my 
hand "; (to 8ettl<*), as to " clench an argument." Clencher, 
a settler, a finishing stroke, as " that was a clencher." 
" Clinch," to turn a nail, to rivet. We use both words. 
Ihitch Jb'inJben, to rivet ; Danish kUnkey to clinch. 

daw rt ory, kler^ris.tS.ry, Corruption of the French cUrist^re^ 
and generally csdied clear-storey. 

Clezgy (no plu.). A noun of multitude. (French clergi,) 

Cler'gy-man, plu. clergy-men. One of the clergy. (R. xi.) 

Clerical, kler^ri.kaL Pertaining to the clergy. 

Old Fng. elerie or elere, a priest ; Latin elirtu, cUricus ; Greek klirds, 
a lot or heritage. The " church " is Ood*t heritage (1 Peter v. S), 
and the priestly tribe was *' God's lot.*' 

(Me, klurky a clergyman ; klark, a church servant, Ssc. 
Old Eng. elere, a priest ; Latin elinis ; Greek kUrde. 

Clever, klev'.er, clev'er-er {comp.\ dev'er-est {tuper.) See Cleaver. 

Old Eng. gUdu), talented, changed to gU.wd, corrupted to clever. 
Clew. A hint. (Old Eng. cleoweUt clieioe, cHwe or cldwe.) 

Latin globus, a ball of thread, by which strangers were guided 
through labyrinths. Incorrectly spelt clue. 

CUfl; clef, deft, clift. 

OlifL A hill by the sea. 

Clef (of Mvsic), q.v. Cleft or Clift, a fissure, a crack. 
In the Bil.le " cliff," " clift," and "cleft," a fissure, are 
used indifferently. " I will put thee into a clift of a 
rock" (Exod. xxxiii 22); "To dwell in the cliffs of 
the vaDeys " (Job xxx. 6) ; « Thou art in the clefts of 
the rork " (Cant. ii. 14). 






The distinction should be preserved thus : 



Clifft cliffs {of the sea) ; clef, clefs {of Music), 
CUftf clifts (fissure) ; cleft {cut), as •' cleft wood.'* 

" Cliff, " Old Eng. elif, a rock, a cliff of the sea. " Qef," Fr., q.v. 
"CUft" or "deft** (a fissure), Old Eng. eUofa, a cleft, elyfth, spUts. 



112 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Coalesce, ko'M.less' (to assimilate), coalesoed, ko\a.les1f; ooalea- 
cing, ko\a,le8'' Mng ; coalescent, ho\aM8*' ^ent ; oo^ales'- 
cence; coalition, ko\aM8h\on; coalition-ist. 

Lat. CO [con] alesco, to grow closer and closer together (oZo, to cherish^ 

Coarse, horse not co.orse (gross). Corse (a corpse). Course (g.v.) 

Coars-er (comp.), coars-est (super. ), coarse-ly, coarse-ness. 

Old Eng. gorst (roughX as in goose-berry. CM-Iettnee ; vrrinion, or 

euridnion, a coarse onion (corrupted to Latin allium urainum). 
*' Curse," a poetical form of Corpse. ** Course" (a process, a chaaeX 
French course; Latin cursus, a course. 

Coast, kost, land lying next the sea. Coastwise not coastways, 

French coste now cdte ; Low Lat. eosWra, Lat. eosta, a rib or side. 
Coat, kote, coat-ed, coat-ing; coatee, ko.tee^ a half-coat. 

French cotte; Germ, kutte; ItaL cottCL (Our word is ill-spelt.) 
Coat-of-arms, plu, coats-of-arms, not court-of-arms, 
Coat-of-mail, plu. coats-of-mail, not coat-of-male. 
Coax, kdxe; ooaxed, kOxd; coax-ing, coaxing -ly, coax-er. 
Welsh eocr, to coax ; cocru, to fondle : French coeasse, fonnj.- 

Cobble, koh\h'l (to botch); cobbled, kohWld; cobbler, kob'.ler; 
cobbling, kohWing; cobbling-ly (double &, root cob, B.i.) 
Welsh cdh, a tbnmp ; cdhio, to thump ; eoblyn^ a thumper. 

Cobra da Cax)ello,pZtt. Cobras or Cobra da Capellos. Hooded snake. 
Portuguese, " the hooded snake ; " eapeUOy a hood. 

Cob'web; cobwebbed, kob'.webd; cob'webb-ing, oob'webby. 

(The double "b" would be contrary to Rule tii., hut ihe 
word was originally joined with a hyphen, ) 

Cob or cop, a spider ; as Old £ng. atter-cop the poison-spider ; Dutch 
ipinne-kop ; Chitldee kopi, a cobweb. 

Coca, ko^'kah (a narcotic). Cocoa, ko/ko (a nut), or substance 
prepared from the Cacao (ku.kay\o) plant 

**Coca," the dried leaf of the,Erythrox'ylon Coca, of Pern. 
"Cocoa," the fruit of the Theobrdma Cacao (West Indies). 

Cochineal, koch\i.neel not kok\i.neel. Crimson dye-stufEl 
8i>anish cochinilla, the wood louse ; French eochenille, cochineaL 

Cochlea, kok\le.ah (part of the ear) ; Cochlear, kdk'.W.ar (In Bot) 

Cochleary, kok'.lS.d.ry. Spiral, like a sbelL 

Cochleate, kdk'.le.ate ; cochleat-ed, k5k\le.ate^.ed. (R. xix.) 

Latin cochUa; Greek kochlias, a snail's shell. 

Cock, fern, hen ; cock'erel, fem. puUet. Barn-door fowls. 
Cock and hen are also gender- words : as 

Cock -bird, fem. hen -bird; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow^ 
cock -pheasant, hen -pheasant; moor- cock, moor -hen; 



AXD OF SPELLING. 113 

peacock, pea-hen ; tarkey-cock, fern, turkey ; cock-lobster, 
hen-lobster. Woodcock is b<)th mas. and fern. 

Old Eng. eoe or eocc. And hen or henn ; French eoq, pouU. 

("JPuM<<," like "bw/," "mutt(yn," ''veal,'* tt-e., shotos that (he Nor- 
wuMn lords retained their names for the ** meats," while the Saaoon 
serfs retained their' s for the Utdng animals which they tended.) 

Ooekide (2 syL) A livery worn on the hat (French cocarde,) 

Coekatrice, hSJ^.S.tri8 (French cocatnx), 

Coekehofer, k61^.chafe,er. The May-bug. (Old Enjj. ceafor.) 

CocUe, hSy.k^L The com-rose. (Old Eng. coccel, the darnel.) 

Cockle, kSy.k'l. SheU-fish. (T^tin cochUfa, Greek kocms.) 

Cookie, k61^,1cl; cockled, kSk^.eld; cockling. To pucker. 
French re-coquiUeTf to cnrl up, dog*s-ear, or cockle. 

Ooekroaoh, kW.rotch. A black beetle. (Old Eng. hreoce.) 

CookBOomb (a plant). Coxcomb, a fop. Both kojf,ko7ne. 

The licensed jesters were called coxcombs^ because they 
wore a *• cock's comb " in their caps. Spelling incorrect. 

Coddle, kod'.d^l. To parboil, to pamper; one pampered. 

Coddled, kod\d'ld; coddling, kod\ling ; coddler, kod'.d'ler. 
Codling. A young cod. 
Old English -Ung, ** offspring of,** "young of." 

Codlin. An apple fit for coddling or cooking {-in not -ing), 

Latin eoHillis'], fit for roasting or baking. Old Eng. cod-asppel, the 
cooking appde. " Cod " (the fish), is a corruption of Oadius]. Lat. 
the codfish : " had(i[ock] " is another form of the same word. 

Code (of laws), codex, kd'.dex (Latin). An ancient manuscript. 

Codicil, kod\i.cil, a supplement to a will (Lat. codlcillxu, a 
little book) ; codicillary, kod\ixiV\ld.ry (adj. of codicil). 

Codify, kd\dl.fy ; codifies, ko.dX.flze ; codified, kd\dtfide ; 

eo'difi-er; codify-ing; codifl-cation, ko\duji,ka'\shun ; 

codist, ku.disU one who reduces laws to a " code." R. xi. 

lAtin cddpx, a volume (from caudex, the stock of a tree), books 
being at one time made of boards (from ccedo, to fell). 

Coehom, ko'hom. A military projectile. {See Cohom.) 

Coequal, ko.^.qual, coequal-ly; coequality, ko\e.quoV\i.ty. 
Latin co [con] aqudlis, lall] alike equal. 

Coeree, ko-erse' ; coerced, ko.er8f ; coerc-ing, ko.e'/.sing; 
ooero-er, ko.er'.8er ; coerc-ion, ko,er\8hun; coerc-ive, 
ko.er^Mv; coercive-ly; coerc-ihle, ko.eT^,8l.h'l. R. xix. 

Latin eoere^o, eo [con] ard^o, to drive or press together. The word 
'* compel" t^eom-pelloj means the same thing. 

CoeaaentiAl, ko\es.8en''.8hal, same in essence; coessential-ly ; 
coeasentiality, ko'.es-sen'-sM.aV'-i-ty, coessential state. 

Latin 00 [con] essentidlis, partaking of the same essence. 

H 



114 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

■■ ■ I ■■■■■■■»■■ I pi I I 11 P ^.M !■■ . ■ ■ I ■ ^— ^— ^M^^^^^,^^^^— ,^ 

Ooetemal, W .e.ter^nal, coetemal-Iy; eoetemliy, ho' .e.tii^\ni.ty, 

Latin CO Ccon] cetemus, eo [con] «<em{to«, equally eternal, iSEc. 
Coeval, ko.e\va:ly coe'^-ly. (Latin co[conJ€BVum, equal ages.) 
Ooezecntor, fern, coexecntriz, ko\ex.ek'\ii.tory ho\ex.ek"u.tnx. 

Latin CO [con] e^bedUor, ftc.. Joint executor witb [another]. 
Coexist, ko^x.iitf ; eoexiBf-«d, ooeifiBf-ing, tQe^sAf-^iia^ eo- 
ezist'-ence not coexUt-antt coexUt-ance. 
Latin eo [con] eteifMre, to exist at tiie same time (followed \]j vfifh.) 
Coextend, ko\ex.tend*' (to extend equally) ; coextend'-ed, coex- 
tend'-ing, coextent, k(/.ex.tenf ; coez^ension, ko'.ex.- 
ten"^hun (Kale xxxiii.), eoextemdve, ho\^x.ten''jiiv ; 
coextensiYe-ly, eoextengive-liels. 
Latin co [con] extwndOt supine -ieiuum, «o-e«e<en«fv««, eo-txkunlo. 
Coffee, kof*fe. The berry of the Caff'ea, ardb'tea, from Caffii 
or Kaffa, a province of Abyssinia. 
French cd/i: Spanish cafe; Italian caffc^; Danish kaffe. 
Coffer, kof.fer (a chest), coffer-ing; coffered, kof.ferd. 

Coffin, kof,fln; coffin-ing, coffined, kof.finnd, 

{The douhU "/" is French^ our chief source of error.) 

Old Eng. cofa, a box : Low Lat. oofihra or cofra ; ItaL eofanoj Latin 
cdphintu; Greek kdpMnda, a basket 

Cog- (prefix). The Latin con- before the derivations of naseor, 

nosoOj and nomen : as connate, oopnition, copnomen. 

Gog (of a wheel), to trick ; cogged ( 1 syl.\ cogging. Cog^ a boat 

"Cog'* (of a wheel!, Welsh eoeos, cogs of a wheel. 

" Cog " ao trick), Welsh coegio, to trick ; eoeg, a trickster. 

" Cog," Low Latin, coggo, a sort of small boat 

Cogent, fco'.jVnt, cogent-ly; cogen-cy. Urgent, urgently, urgency. 

Latin cogens, cogentis, co [con] ago, to uxge together. 
Cogitate, kofXtate (to think), cog'itat-ed, cog'itat-ing, cog'itat- 
ive (Rule xix.), cogitative-ly, cog'i taction, cogitabliB'. 
Latin cdgitdrct supine -tdttvm, (to think) ; eogitatio, cogUabilit. 
Cognac, kon\yaky not cogniac. The best French brandy. 

So called ^om CognaCy in Charente. (French cogruic^ 
Cognate, related on the mother s side ; Agnate, on the &tk~erU 
Cogna'tion, relationship on the mother's side. 
Agna'tion, relationship on the father's side. 

An uncle on the father's side is an agnate, because ht 
bears the same surname ; an uncle on the mother's sidt 
is a cognate only, he is related by birth, but does nol 
bear the same surname, or belong to the same " gens." 
Cognisable, kSg\rA.z&.h'l (B. xxiii.); oognifwnt, kdff'.fi^afUi 
cognisance, k5g\ntzance ; cognisee, kog'.nljiee. 

Latin cog [con] noseifre, to know for the first time. 

"To recognise," is to know not for the first time, to recall. 

(These w&rHs ought not to be speU tnth a " s. " Bidd xj!xi.) 



AXD or SPELLIXa, 115 

CfognoBoenie, fin. eognoflcenti, ko^.n68^en,te, kog\n69'Sen*'.ti. 
One learned in art (Italian, from the Latin cognoscSre.) 

Cognomen, j>lu. oognomenB) h5g.nlf.men not hog" .n^.men, 

Latin tog [eon] iimimm, a name wtfh [joor penonal name]. 
Cdiabiti ko.haV.it. To live together not in a married Rtate. 
Cohablt-ed.oohablt-ing; cohftbitatioii, TcoJijai/jLta'\thun. 
(" ed,*" after **d" or**t " makes a separate tyUdbU.) 
Latin eo [con] hdWto, to dwell together ; eo-ZtobiidMe. 
Ooheir, fern. coheireaB, ko.air, ko.air^.e*8. Cohere, ko.hear^ (q<T-) 

"Coheir" (joint heir), Latin oo [con] hcens, heir with (others]. 
{Only Jive iffords hate the initial "A" mvte: they are heir, hoar, 
honert, honour, and humour.) 

Cohere, ko.hee/ (to stick together), cohered' (2 8yl.), coher'-ing ; 
ooher'-ence; eoher'ency; coher'ent,colier'ent-ly. (R.xix.) 

Cohedoii, ko.h^.zkun; ooheaive, ko.he'Mv, cohe'sive-ly, cohe'- 
Bive-ness; eohe'aihle; cohesibility, ko.he^M.hiV\i.ty. 
lAtin 90 [oon] AcerAv, sup. eohaeum, to stick together ; eo-han-entia. 

Oohom, ko.hxynu This is the French spelling, and is better than 
eoehom. A mortar invented by Baron de Colwm (Coe- 
hoom) of Holland, called the Dutch Vauban (1641-1704). 

Cidu^ 1u/'hort not ko\ort. A body of soldiers. (Lat. cohors.) 

Coif; koyf (Ft. coiffe). Ooififtire, hoyf.fure (Fr.), a headdros. 

Ooil, koyl; coiled, hoyld. To gather a rope together in rings. 

French eueilUr, to coil ; Latin eoUigifre, to colleot. 
Coin, koyn ; coined, koynd; coin-er, coin-ing, coin-age. "' 

French coin, a wedge ; Latin euniiu, a die for stamping money. 

Coineide, ko\in.8ide'* (to agree), coincId"-ed, coincid"-)np:; 
coincidence, ko.in'.8i.den8e not ko.in.8V .dense ; coin- 
cident, ko.in\8i.dent; coincident-ly (simultaneously). 
Latin eo [con] ineld&re, to fadge in together (coders, to fall). 
Coke. Goal deprived of its volatile matters by heat. 
Old English eolk, refuse, the core of an apple, Ac. 

CoU (Latin prefix). Con before "1" is so written. {See Ck>n-) 

Colander, kul\an.der. A strainer. (Latin eolanSf straining.) 

•• Cdldtorlium]f* not " colander[iumy is the Latin word. 

Colehienin, kSV.chl.kum. ]tf eadow-saffiroo, Naked lady. 

From ColchiSt on the Euxine sea, where it flourishes. 
" Naked Lady,** because the flowers are without leaves. 

Cold, cold er {comp.)t coldest {superl.) ; coldish, ratber cold. 

Old £ng. eild or eeald, cold. (-t«h added to adj. is diminutive.) 
Ooleepter, plu. coleoptera, kol\^.op'*.ter, k5l'.Kop".te.rah, also 
Coleoptexan, kol\e.op'\te.ran, beetles,«fec. Coleop'terous (adj.) 

Ok. UflMs fMr^, sheath-wing. laeeots with sheaths to their wings. 



116 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Goric not Gholic, a bnwel attack. Gholeric, koV.€.rik, passionate. 

Latin cdlieus, the colic (from Greek kdUfn^ the intestine). 
"Choleric," Latin chdUrictM (from Greek (MU, bUe). 

CSoIisenm, hdl.i.see' .um. The largest amphitheatre in Borne. 
The same spelling is kept in '* Rue de ColUie" Paris. 

CSoloflseum is the more usual spelling in English. 

The BonL *' Colfsenm " was so called from the " Colossus " or gigantic 
statue of Nero which stood near it, as well as from its great siM. 

Collapse, koLlaps' yjioi'ko.laps' ; collapsed, kSLlapsf; coUaps'-ing. 

Latin col [con] IShor, lapstts, to sink, or tumble all together. 

Collar (for the neck). Choler, k6V.ery anger. 

" Collar," Old Eng. ceolr, from ceoU, the throat ; Lat. collwm, the ne<^ 
"Choker,** Latin chdUra; Greek cMlS, bile, anger. 

.Collate, ki^lMte' not ko.laU^; collated, collat-ing. (Bale xix.) 

GollatioQ, kdl.la'.8hun not "Co-lation" (a very common 
error); collai'-or (R. xxxvii.); Collaf^-able (an error in 
spelling); the Latin colldtdre means "to make wide."* 
Collat-ible is the proper derivative of conferre, coUatum, 

Latin con-ferroy supine eol-latum, to bring together, to compare. 

Collateral, kdLlaf .e.ral not ko.laf.e.ral ; coUaferal-ly. 

Latin col fcon] Jaterdlis, indirect {col Idttu, HtUrU, the side), nomiaf 
on the side, proceeding from one side. 

Colleague, kM.leeg (noun), kol.leeg' (verb); colleag^ed, koL- 
leegd'; colleagu-ing, kol.leeg\ing. To league together. 
French colligue : Latin collega (from eon lego, to gather t<^therX 

Collect, koV.lect (noun), kol.lecf (verb), collect'-ed, colleof-ing, 
Collect'-ive, c(»llpct'ive-ly, collective ness ; colleot-itale, 
Collection, kdl.lec\8hun not ko.lec\shbn (Rule xxxiii.) 
%9X..col [conj legSrey -Uctum, to gather together ; collectio, eolUeHvui, 

College not colledge ; collegian, kSllee^ji'an ; collegiate, ft52.- 
lee'.ji'ate. A society, a superior school institution. 
Latin collegium (from col [con] legOt to gather together). 

Colley or collie, a cur. Cooley or eoli^, a porter (East Indies). 

Collier, isidhyer; collier-y, koLyS/ryj, (See CoaL) 

Colliflion, kbl.lizK.un not kodizh'.un. A striking together. 

Latin coUisio (from collldo, col [con] Icedo, to hurt mutually hf 
"strilcing together"; so elisio (e kedoj, to strikeout). 

Collocate, kbV.l5.kate; coHocat-ed, collocS-t-ing ; collGcatioBff 
koV ,lo.kay'\8hun, A setting side by side. (Rule xxxiii.} 
Latin coUocdtio from col [con] locdre, to place together. 

Collodion, koUo.dton not ko.lo\di.on nor ko,lo'.di.um, A solo* 
tion of gun.cotton in ether, used in photography, Ac 

Greek holla eidos, glue-like. It was first used in surgery, because ll i 
diying it left a gluey tilm over wounds. (An ill-formed word.) 



AND Of SPELLING, 117 

CoUoqinal, iSl.W.qutdl not ko-W^quLal; eoUo'qiiial-ly; 
Oollo^qiiial-ism, form of expressioii in common use. 
Oolloqny, plu. coUoqnies, kdV.lSJtwij kol.l3.kwU. 

Oolloqiiist, kdV.WJtwUt. A speaker in a dialogne. 
Lat. col [con] loquor, to speak tc^ther : French coUoque, conference. 
Cdlliide, to conspire in a fraud ; collusion, koLlu'ahun (B. xxxiii.) 
GoUnsi^e, koLlu'^iv, coUu'^sive-ly, collu'hive-ness ; 
Ocdlnsory, koLlu\z5,ry, Of the nature of a fraud. 

Latin col [con] ludo, rapine Ulgum; collado, to play into each other'i 
handa, with the view of deceiving a third partf . 

Cdocynth, kol\dJlnth (only one I). The bitter-apple. 

' JaMn dUdeynthia ; Qrtek kdWmnthU, bitter-gourd. 

Cdkm, kd.Wn, The largest intestine. A stop made thus (:). 

Latin colon; Greek kdUfn, a limb or member of anything. 

Colonel, ker^.nel; colonel-cy, ker^.neLsy (-cy denotes "rank"); 

colonelHship, kf/ .nel.»hip {-ship denotes "tenure of 

office.") In " Hudibras " we have " coloneUing " (4 syl.) 

(Our pronunciation ie a vulgar contraction, ** Oo'n-eL") 

l^nch eoUm^ (from eolonru a column), a commander of a column 
or r^[iment of loldiers ; till the reign of Fran^oia I. called oapi- 
taine-colonel. Low Latin colorttllus. 

Cdiaimade, kdV.8n*nade, A covered walk with columns. 

French colonnade (from colonne, a column). Latin columndt'iu. 

Oolony, plu* colonies, koVJ6*niz ;, coronlst ; ool'onise, col'onis-ed, 
coronis-ing, coronis-er (R. xix.), coronisa"tion (R. xxxi.) 

Golonial, ko.l5.ni.al (Dot collo'nial), belonging to a colony. 
Latin coldnia, a colony. (In Latin the -16- is long ) 
Ooilophoii, plu. odlophons, kdV.o.fon. The printer's impress at 
tbe end of a book. (Greek kolophdn, a finishing-stroke.) 
C51dphon, a city of I5nia, the inhabitants of which wei-e 
such good horsemen that they could turn the issue of a 
battle; hence the phrase colophdnem addere (Ko\o(pwva 
hriTiSivai), to put a finishing stroke to a matter. 

Cdlo0B6iim, k6l.68^ee'\um or Coliseum. The great Eomnn 
amphitheatre was called " Colisfieum," but as the word is 
from " Colossus." Colosseum is the l)etter spelling. 

ColoBsal, ko.lo8\8al (not colossial) ; colossean, ko.l6s.see' .an. 

Lat. edlosaius; Greek kdlossds, kdlossnids. The " Colossos of Rhodes " 
was a gigantic statue of Apollo, near the harbour. 

Colour, kul\er; coloured, kuV.erd; corour-able, corour-ably. 

French wuleur; Latin cSlor. (Our word is neither Fr. nor Lat.) 
Golportear, kdV.pftr.teu/, a book hawker. Gorportage (French.) 

Latin eollwn portdre, to carry round the neck. 
Goit, fern, filly, both called foal, fdle. A young horse or ass. 

(Md Eng. colt ; Lat. fttia, a daughter; Old Eng. fola, a foal. 



lia ERRORS OF SPEECU 

Golnber, k^\uJber (Latin). A genus of serpents. 

Golnmbine, k^humMm, k plant, so called &om the Latin 
columba, a dove. The flower resembles a dove's claw. 

Golnmella, k5V.u.meV\la. The column in the capsule of mosses ; 
the axis of fruits. (Latin columella, a little column.) 

Colmnellia, kSVM,meV\liuih. A genus of Peruvian shrubs. 

Column, koV.um, a pillar. Columnar, ko.lum\nar (a<Jlj.) 

Latin columna. Tbe adjective columnar is ill-chosen, as the Latin 
word columnarium means a "tax on columns." The adjective of 
" columna" is eolumndttM (eolumnate). 

Golure, plu. colnres, ko.leur8\ Two great circles cutting at 

right angles the four cardinal points of au artificial globe. 

Greek kdUytvrds (kdloa oura, a mutilated tailX these eirolea are " eur- 
tailed " or cut by the artificial horixon. 

Colza, koVjsak. A variety of cabbage which afiTords an oil. 

French colza; Old English cawl, cole-wort ; Flemish hohuuid. 
Com- (prefix), for con- before b, m, and p. Also in the English 
words comfit and ccm/ort, in Lat. " con-ficio,'* " con-fortps]." 
Coma, ko'jnah, lethargy. Camber, ho\mert one who combs. 
Comatose, ko\7nS,toze, lethargic ; comatous, ko'.ma.tik. 

" Coma," Lat. cdma, lethargy ; Gk. k&ma (koimdo, to put to sleepX 
''Comber," Old Eng. camb, a comb ; Germ, hammer; Lat. covm. 

Comate, ko\mate, a companion. This word should be commate. 

"Comate" (from the Latin comdtua), should mean "hairy." If 
from &> and maie^ it ought to be joined with a hyphen. {SU GO-.) 

Comb (b mute), combed, komd; comb-ing, kdme'Ang ; oomb-er. 
Old Eng. eamh, a comb ; Latin cGmo, to dress the hair (odmo, hairX 
Combat, kom'.bdt ; com'bat-ed, com'bat-ing, oom'bat-ant, 
oombat-ive, kom\bdtJiv ; ccnn'batiYe-nesB.. (Bule iii) 
French combattre ; Latin com baiHOf to fight together. 
Combine^ combined' (3 syl.), combin'-ing, coml»n-er (B. xix.), 
combin-able ; combinalion, kom\bi.na'\8hun. To unite, A'c. 
Lat. combinare, to combine (from com binus, two and two together). 
Combustion, kom.bu8\tchun, a burningr ; combus^ble, not -able; 
combus'tibil"ity, combus'tible-ness, connbus'tive (B.xxii.) 
Latin combiistio: eomhurSre, sup. eon^uitum, to consume with flre. 
Come, past came, past part, come, kum^ kdme; com'-ing, 
com'-er (Rule xix.) To arrive at liie place where tc« 
are; hence A. says to B. "I am coming to pay you a visit." 
" I am going to pay you a visit," would mean J intend, 
I am about to... 

To come about, to happen : " How did that come about? " 
„ come at, to get-to, or obtain : " I cannot eome-at it." 
„ come of, to arise from ; *» What came-of it ? ** 
„ come-oft, to escape : " We came-off with flying colours.** 



AND OF SPELUXQ. 119 



To oovDe on, to pjrpce«d : " Tl^e train came-.on quickly." 
„ come out, to publisli : " Tbe book c^me-oat l^t month." 
„ oome over, to get the better of: ^ You cannot come- 
over me." 






oome xoiind, to recover : " The man will oome-roogid." 
come np to, to amount to : *' It oon^es-up-to 9Q0." 
„ come upon, to attack : ** He came-upon me anawaces." 
Old Eng. €umian\ past eon^ past part, tumen; cuma, a oomer. 

Comedy, plu. comedies, k5m\e,diz ; Oomedian, ko.7nee\dll.<m, 
(In Latin and Greek the first two vowels cere long; 
^'c&midtu'' [short] means "one who eats with you") 

IjLtlJX eOrncedici, cUnuxdtu.' Oi^ek h&mddia. k&m6do8f te., kdmS 6di, 
a Tillage song, an ode sung at a viUage iniz]. 

Comely, kum'.ly. Nice-looking (applied to peasant girla, &c.) ; 
comeli-ly, kum\U.ly ; oomeU-neiB, kum\U.ness (B. xvii.) 
From come. So in Lat. conrviniens, suitable, ftc, is from utmio, to come. 

Comeetible, kdm.ess'M.b'l (adj.), edible. Comestibles (plu.) 

French comestible; Latin eomessor, to revel ; Greek kdrrMzo, to revel 
The proper meaning of " comestibles" (eatables) is extra fobds^ foods 
ill addition to those which form the " meals." 

Comet, kom'-et, a <' hairy ^tar"; cometazinm, phi. oometaria, 
kdm\e.tair^'r^.um, a machine to show how comets move. 

Cometary, kom\^td.ry (a4).); Com'mentary, a comment. 

Cometography, konif-e._tog'\ra,fyf treatise on comet9. 

Latin eSmSta (from ednui, hair) ; Greek kdmSUs (kdrpA, hair). 
Most comets have some sort of " hairy" light about them ; sometimes 
it forms a " tail," sometimes a " beard," sometimes a "nebula," &c. 

Comilt, Comfort ; Comfiture, Comforture ; Dis- (negative). 

Comfit, a seed coated with sugar. Comfort, consolation. 

Comfiture, k^rnf .fideur, preserved fruit (French c(mfi(ture), 

ComfQrture, kSmyor.tchurf what gives comfort. 

Big-KX>mfit, to rout. Bis-comfort, inquietude. 

ms-comfiture, defeat. Dis-comforture, want of comfort. 

Com^fort (to console), oom'forted, com'forting, com'forture ; 
ccpnforter, fern, comfortress or comforter ; com'fort-able, 
com'fort-ably, com''fortable-ness ; com'fbrt-less, com'fort- 
les»-ly, comfortless-ness, absence of cofufort. 

"Oomftt," French oonfit; Latin eorkfeotua (pur ''confection"). 

" JWs-comflt," " dis-comflture," French dSconfire, dSeonJituri ; Latin 

<Hs configo, to unfasten. Both French and English are ill-formed. 
** Dia-comfort," French d^confort; Latin dis con ffortiSy strong). 
** Comfort," French oon,fiorter; Latin " con/or^ri," to be strong. 
(There is no teason why "con" should he (Ringed to "com" before fit 

wnd fort, and it violates aU analogy. At aU «ven4«, "eomftt** 

should be conflt, a " confection." J 



120 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Comic, kom'.ik, drolL Com leal, com'ical-ly, com'ical-neBs 
comicality, koTnf.i.haVW.ty, drollery. 
Latin eSmXcua (the o long) ; Oredc hOmikda. (See Comiedy.) 
Coming, kum'.ing, approaching. {See Come.) 

Comma, plu, commas, kom'.mdz. A stop made thus (,). Co'ma, q.v 

Latin comma; Greek komma, a part cut off fkoptd, to lop;. 
Command, kom.mdnd' ; command'-able, command'-ant, com 
mand'-atoiy, command'-er, oommand'-ment. To order. 

Comman'der-in-chief, plu. comman'ders-in-chief. 

French commande, eommandcmt. commander, commandement ; Latii 
co7i-m>anddre ; to give orders vdth [others]. 

Commemorate, kom.mem'-o.rate, (Double m followed by one m. 
Gommem'orat-ed, commem'orat-ing, commem'ora'^tion. 

Commem^orative, kom.mem'.o.ra,tiv ; commem'orable. 

Latin com [con] m^mdrdret commimdrdbilis, eomm^mdrdtiOf com 
m^mdrdrCy to call to mind with [souue special act]. 

Commence, kbm.mense'^ to begin ; commenced, kom.menst'i 
commenc'-ing (Rule xix. ), commence'-ment (Rule xviii.) 

("" Comince " would have been tetter, hut as usual we havt 

followed the French, and copied their error.) 

French commtncer, commencement. Corruption of the ItaL eomin- 
dare; Lat. cum initio, with the beginning. 

Commend^ commend'ed, commend' -able, commend'-ably, com- 

mend'able-nesB ; commendation, kom' .men.day" .shun, 

Commend'er, one who praises. Commendator, k6m.men\' 

da.tor, one who holds a living in trust (in commendam). 

Commendatory, kom.men\dd.t5.ry, Inudatory. Commen'da- 

tary, one who holds a living in trust (in commendam). 

(" Commendatary" is often apelt commendatory, hut the 

distinction should he observed.) 

French commender to recommend : Latin com [con] menddre, to 
entrust one with [a commlssioo], (manddre, to give to one's ctuag^). 

Commensurate, k6m.men\su.rate not kdm.men'shu.rate ; oom- 

men'surate-ly, commen'surate-ness ; commen'snrable, 

commen'surably, commen'^urabir'ity, commen'sura'^tiou. 

French commensurable, eommensurdbilit^ ; Latin com [con] mouw- 
rdre, to measure a thing proportionate with [something else]. 

Comment, kom\m,ent (noun), kom.menf (verb). Rule L 

Commenf-ed (R.xxxvi.); commenf-ing (followed by on). 

Comment, kom'Tnent ; com'ment-ary. A book of comments. 

Commentate, kom\men.tate, to m>ike comments; com'- 

mentat-ed, com'men tat-in g (R. xix.) ; com'mentator (not 

'ter\ R. xxxvii.; com'mentator"ial, com'menta^tor-ship. 

French comment; Lat. commentdri, to write comments, eommentdtns. 
commentdri%,m, commentator (from comminiscor commentus, to call 
to mind many things together, menitcor, Le.. memtni, to remember. 



AND OF SPELLING. 121 



Oominerce, hom^jnersettnAe; commercial, kom.mer^.8hal (adj.\ 
commer'cial-ly. (French commerce^ commercial.) 
Lttin oom [con] meteor, to trade with [others], commereium. 

Commingle, k&m.min'.g^l; commingled (3 syl.), oommingling. 

Old Eng. menegian\ or mtn4[ian\, to mingle, with the Lat. prefix eom-. 
It would hare been better with the English prefix ge- ("gemingle '*). 

Oomminute, kihn'.mtnute. To reduce to small pieces, to pul- 
verize. Gom'minut-ed (Rule xxxvi.), com'minut-ing 
(Rule xix.); comminution, k5m\ml.nu*\8hun. 
ft. eomminutian; Lat. eom [con] minuo, to break into minnta parts. 

. Commiserate, kSm.miz'.^.r ate, to -pity; commis'erat.ed(R.xxxyi.); 
commis'erat-ing (R xix.); commis'erat-or (R. xxxvii.i; 
commiseration, k^m\miz.S.rdy" .shun^ pity. (Double m.) 

GommiseratiYe, k8m.miz'.i.raMv ; commis'erative-ly. 

GommiBerable, kom.miz\Kra.b'l, deserving of pity. 

French eommisdraiion ; Latin nommlnifrdri, to condole with, com- 
wlLaSr&iio (muAiM, to pity ; miitr^ wretched, an object of pity). 

OommJasary, 'plu. commissaries, kom*.ml8.8a.riz. A person em- 
ployed to provide an army with personal requisites. 

Gom'mi88ary-general^2>2u. com^'missary-generals, chief of 
the commissaries ; com'missary-ship, office of commissar.\ . 

Oommissariat, kSm',mi8.8dr^ri»at. Commissary department. 

French eomvnissaire, eommisBariat ; Low Lat. wmmissariita ; Latin 
eom [con] mUeue, sent with [the army], verb mitto, to send. 

Oommiflsion, kSm„mi8h\8hun ; commissioned (3 syl.), commis^ 
sion-ing ; commis'sion-er, one authorized. 

Fr. oommiseion; Latin eommUHo, (com mitto, to send with [orders])^ 

Gommif , to give in chnrge ; commitf-ed, committ'-ing, com- 
nltt-al, committ-able (R. i., R. xxiii.); Gommit'-ment. 

Committer, one who commits. Committor, the Lord Chan- 
cellor when he commits a lunatic to a trustee. 

Ocmmiittee, phi. committees, kom.mit\ ty, kom.mit\tiz. 
French eomm^ttrtf eomitd; Latin com [con] mitto, to send together. 

Gammix', commixed, k6m.mixt ; commixture, kom.mix\tchur ; 
oommix'-ible not -able. (Not of the 1st Lat. conjugation.) 
Latin eom [con] miscere, supine commixtum, to mix together. 

Goounodions, kom.mr/.di'u8 not k6m.mo\ju8 ; commo'dious-ly, 
commo'dious-ness (Lat. commodus, convenient, suitable), 
commodity, phi. commodities, kom.mod\i.tiz, wares. 
LakiB eommddUas; French commodity, a conrenience. 

Ooounodore, kdm\rn5. dor. Commander of a detachment of ships. 
Italian eomandatore, a commandant ; Spanish comendxidor. 



i:2 ERRORS or SPEECir 

Gorn'mon, com'moxier (co7np.)> coin'moniBflt {guj^er.\ common-ly, 
coiu'mon-ziess; com'mon-able, held in common ; cam'- 
mon-aKe, right of pasturing on a common; com'mon- 
alty, the common people ; Gom'xnon-er, one under the 
rank of a nobleman ; Cnrnmona, proviaiona. 

House of Oommons, plu. Houses of Commons. 

Ck)nmion-council, plu. Common-councils. 

Common-councilman, plu. common-councilmen {not -sel). 

Commonweal, k6m.mon-we€k The public good. 

Commonwealth, plu, oommonwe^ths, hfiv/^'.mon.'weUht, 
French wnvtmn; Latin communi*, oommon {munUt tied to duty). 

Commotion, kom.mS'^hun not ko.mo\8hun. Disturbance. 
Latin commotio (can [con] moveo, to move together). 

Commune, kdm'.mune (noun), kSm.mune' (verb). Kul^ L 

Communed' (2 syl.); commun'ing; communion, kom.ma',- 
ni.on; commu'nity; commu'nicant (of the Lord's Supper). 

Com'munist, ccon'munal; com'munlsm, com^munistio. 

Fiench comnvune, commv/fuxl, communion^ GomnvumttM, eomoKiuiiiU ; 
Latin communio, communion ; communiUu. 

Communicate,A;^m.mu'.ni/Eat«;commu'mcat-ed,commu^nicat-ing 

(R. xix.), commu'nicat-or (R. ;Lxxvii.) ; commu'nicat-ive, 

commu'nicative-ly, commu'nicative-ness ; commu'nica- 

torj; communicable, k6m.mu\nukti.b% commu'm«ably, 

commu'nicable-ness, freedom in imparting; coxnjDiuni- 

cation, kdni.mu\ni.kay'\8hun ; conunu'nicabil'lty. 

French communication, communic(U\f, communicabiliU; Li^ia eom* 
municdre, communicdtio (communis, common). 

Community, plu. communities, kdm.mu'.nutXz. Body poUtic. 
French communauU ; Latin communitas, the commmiity. 

Commute, kom..mute (to exchange); commut'-ed, conJmnt'-ing, 
commut'-er, commtit'-able, commut'-ative (Rule xix.) 

Commutation, kSm'.mu.tay^\8hun; Commu'tQbbil'lty. 

French commutation, commutati/: Latin commutdre, to oon^nnte; 
commutdtio (com [con] muto, to change with [anotherl). 

Compact, kom'.pact (noun); kom.pacf (adj-) Rule L Com- 
pact'-ed (Rule xxxvi.)» compact'ed-ly, compacf-ly. 

Compaction, kSm.pak'jhun ; compact'-ible (not -able). 

French compacts : Latin compadus, compact ; eompadum, a cove- 
nant ; compaction compaction ; compactilis, compatible (^oqt fom 
fcon] patigo, sup. pactum, to drive olotie togethec). 

Companion, kom.pan\yun ; compan'ion.able (not a Lai. word), 
compan'ionably, companion-less, companion-^bjp. 
(•ship Old Eng. postfix, meaning tenuref atate, betnff,) 
French compagnion; (cum pennon, under the same flag). 



ANB OF SPEILIXG. 1J3 

GoBLpfmy, phi. oompaiiies» k8m.pa.niz, A party, a toa, d?c. 
("A firm" ia contracted into "Co.," as " Smith and Co." 

fkuch eompagnit (not. cKtn panin [eating] bread together, as is 
QsnalJb^ given, but eum pennon, under the same flag). 

Compare, k8m.pai!r^; compared' (3 syL), oompar'-ijig. com- ^ 
pSr'-er (R. xix.) Comparable, h($m'.pa,ra.b% worthy t<> ' 
be compared, followed by to (Lara. iv. 2) ; htimpaii^ .a.h'U 
able to be compared with each other, as " The two th^i^'S 
are not comparable,** cannot be compared together. 

Gomparative, kom'.par^ra.tiv. In a more or less degree. 

Compcuiaon, kSm.par^ri,nm not comparason. 

Latin eornpardre {com [con] paro, to majce or set things tc^ether.) 
(The "i" of compariwn is indefensible; it is the conjugational 
letter, and transfers the word from eornpardre "to compare," to 
eomparire '* to be extant." We are alone in this outrage, which is 
a great stumbling block to young spellers. Latin eomparaUo, 
Itidian companmon^, Spanish comparacion, French comparaison.) 

Oofflpartment. A special department or part of a niachine. 
French compartiment, but appartementt (Latin com pars, partis ) 

Com'paaB. plu. com'passes ; com'passed (2 syl.), com'pas«(-ing. 

French compos, verb oompasser, to measure ; Latin com [con] pcusutt, 
a stride or paee in common. 

Oompaaaion, kSmpa8h\un ; eompassion-ate, -compassionated, 
compassion at-ing (Kule xix.), compassionate-ly ' (Bule 
xvii.), eompassion-able. (French compoision.) 
Latin eomptuaio (from com [eon] pdtioT^ to suffer with [another]). 
Compatible. k}5m.paf ,%.Vl not -cible (not of the Ist Lat. ouiy.) 
Gompafibly, compatlbil'^ity, compatlble-nees. 

French compatible, compatibility; Lat. com [con] pSt^re, to seek the 
same thing, not compdHor, to suffer the same thing. 

Ckimpatriot, kamp(it\ri.ot. A fellow patriot. (Ita). compatriotto.) 
Gcmpeer', an equal. Compare, kompair^, to judge by comparison. 

*' Compeer," French eompbre; Latin compar, a compeer or equaL 
Compel' (to force); compelled' (2 syl.); compell'-ing, compell'-er, 
eompell'-able (Bule i.) 

Latin compellire (com [con] pello, to drive together). 

{** Compellai>le" is quite incorrect, a« it would he derived from com- 

pell&re, to address or accost some one. It ought to be "-ible;" and 

^* eompel " would be better wilh doubU " £.") 

Gompen'dinm, plu. compen'diiima or compendia (Latin). 
Compensate, kihn'pen^sate ; eom'pensat-ed, com'pensat-ing ; 

compensator, kom'pen^a.tor (not -ter, Rule xxxyii.) ; 

oompensation, kom\pen.say'* .shun, amends (Bule xix.); 

compensatiye, kom.pen' ^a.Viv ; compen'sative-ly. 

lAtin eompenswre, to make amends, eompensdiio; French wmpenser, 
to compensate, compensation^ compensatoire. 



124 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

QorsL'peiie^'k&m.peef ; compet'-ed,compet'-ing; coinpet'-er(R.xix. 
Gompetitor, fern, competitress, competitrix, or competitor 
k5m.pef,i.tor^ hSnupetfA.tress ; compefitory; competi- 
tive, kom.pet'.i.ttv ; coxftpefitive ly, by competiiion ; 
eompetition, kdm.pe,tish'.unt rivulry in merit. 
lAtin compitUor, eompiHre (com [con] pito^ to stek with [another]). 
Gomp'etence or cOm'petczicy, jplu. coiii'i)etenrie8, -teme-ez, 
Gom'petent (not competant), able ; competent-ly (adv.) 
Latin (see above) compi^tenter (adv.), eompitenst gen. -teniis. 
Ck)mpile, kom.plle' (to pile or get together), compfled (2 gyl.), 
compir ing.compil'-er (R.xix.); compile'-ment (R.xviii.1[) 
Gompilation, kom'.pi.lay'\8hun» A b(>< -k compil*^d, <fec. 

French compiler, compilatum; Latin compllo eompUdtio (from 
com [con] pilo, to pile together. Our word *' pillage.") 

Complacent, k6m.play\8ent. Gomplaisant. kdm^pUusaTW. 
Gompla'cent, affable ; com'plaisanf (French), courteous. 
Compla'cent-Iy, affably; complaisanf-Iy, courteously. 
Gompla'cence, affability; com'plaisance' (French), courtesy. 
Gom'placency, kom.play'^en.sy (same as compla'eence). 

Latin eompldcens -centis (com [cnn] placirej, to please altogethT 
(All the French words [com/plaisanif &c.] are wrong. If from 
compldceo the -a of the last syL should be -« ; if from compltiedrt 
[compldcana, to pay court to one] the -s of the last syl. should be -eX 

Gomplain", complained' (2 syl.), complain'-iug. To find fault. 

Complaint'. Dissatisfaction expressed in words. 

Gomplain'ant, a plaintiff. Complain'er, one who complains. 

French complainte, eomplaignant ; Latin com [con] plangert, niphie 
planctuniy to bemoan with [someone about a grievance]. 

Complaisant, kom'.pla.zant\ (See Complacent.) 

Complement, kom.plee'.ment ; compliment, kom'.pltmenL 

Comple'ment. That which completes or supplies a defioienc^. 

Com'pliment. An expression of praise or civility. 

Complemenf-al or complemenf ^ry. Adj. of comple'ment 

Complimenf-al or compliment'-ary. Adj. of com'plIm«nt 

Com'plemenf-ing. Supplying what completes. 

Com'pliment-ing. Paying a compliment. 

"Complement," > atin complementum (com-plere to oompleta). 

" Compliment," French compliment (from Latin complire). In Italiaa 
complim^nto and Spanish complimiento, both meanings. French 
compUmeni, compliment ; German complemeni, complimtid. 

Complete, kbm.pleet ; complet'-ed, complet'-ing, complet'-er (one 

who completes), complet'-er Ccomp.;, complet-est (superl,)^ 

complet'-ory (R. xix.) (Suffix -oryj l.at .on[t«] added 

to adj.), completely, complete- ment, complete- ness (Bule 

xvii.) Completion, kom.plee'^hun, finish. (Rule xxxiii) 

French completer, completemtni : Latin compleo, complHwai. 



AND OF SPELLING. 125 

Oomploz, hm^.plex (noun), k^nupleaf (verb). Rule L 

Oomplexed, kom.plexfs complex'-ing, complez'-ity, com- 
. ^xedness, kdm.plex\ed.ne88 ; complicaUon, kom'.pVL- 

kay^^hun, a mixture of several things. 
Wxtnch complext; Lat. eomplexuM (com [oon] plecto, to twine together). 

Oomplezion, k»m.plek'^hun. The hue of the face. 

JFraneh complaeUm. An old medical term, from the notion that the 
■kin *' embraced" or contained a hue corresponding to the humour 
or element of the body : If the element of the body is Jire, the 
humour is Hie, and the hue yelloto; if air, the humour is blood, 
and the hue red; it earth, the humour is black-bile or " melan- 
choly," and the hue livid grey; if vxiter, the humour is phUgm, 
and the hue of the skin dead tohiU. What contains the *' key/' 

Gooiplicate, kofnf.pVi.kate (to involve); com'plicat-ed (R.xxxvi.); 
com'plicat-ing (Rule xix.); com'plicat-er (Rule xxxvii) 

OompUcation, kdm^pVLkdy^^hun. Intricacy. 

Gomplicacy, k5m\pli,ka.8y not kom.plik\a.8y, 

Gomplicative, kom'.pli.ka.Viv not kom.plikf .a.tlv. 

Latin eomplicdre (com [con] plico), to fold together, to tangle. 
Complicity, k5m.pli8\i.ty. Participation [in guilt]. 

French complidtd (complice, an accomplice) ; Latin eompli^re. 

Domplimeiit, kom\pVi.ment. Complement, kdm.plee'.ment (q.v.) 
•• Present my compliments " (salutations), not complements. 

Gomplimenter not -tor, (It is not a Latin word.) 

"jcmpValff cowiplott'-ed, complott'-ing, complott'-er. (Rule i.) 

UmjfiY, complied' (2 syl.), complies (2 syl.), compli'-er, compli'- 
ance, compii'ant, compli'-antly, compli'-able, compli'-ably, 
coropli'-ableness, but comply'-ing. (Rule xi.) 

Latin eomplicdre {com [con] plico, to fold with [yon], to agree). 
It is not from compleo, nor yet from ompUiceo, generally given. 

ompo^'nent not compo'nant. Constituent. (Latin componens.) 

omport, kom.port% to suit ; comported, <fec. ; comport'-able. 
Fr. eomporter; Lat. comportdre, to carry together (com [con] portoj. 

ompofle, k6m.poze^; composed' (2 syl.), compos'-ing, compos'-ible. 

Oompofledly, kom.pd'jsed.ly, calmly; compo'sednoss (4 syl.) 

Composure, kSm.po'jshur, Tranquility. (Rule xix.) 

OompoBition, kom\p8.zi8h'\on. A putting together. 

Compositor, kSm.p8z'.i.tor, One who sets up type in printing. 

Composer, kdm.po'j:er. One who composes. 

Composite, kom\p6z.zite. Not simple, mixt. 

Cami>ositiB, kom\pdz\i.tee. An order of plants. 

French composer, composite, composition; Latin comp^ire, eompo- 
9Uio, eompd*Uor (cum [con] p&ito, to put together). 



126 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Compound, hmi'.pownd (nonn), kom4>ound' (verb). Eule L 
Gomponnd'-ed (-ed forms a sepiarate bjI. aftar 4 dr t). 

Oompound'- able (Rule xxiii); compound^er. 

Latin componderdre (com [con] pondgro), to weigh out (Vlifferei 
tilings for a mixture]. (Not from eompwngto, to put t(^;etiMr.) 

Oo1lIpreheIld^ comptehen'sfble, comprehen'sibly. 

Gomprehensidn, k5ni'.pre.heri".8kttn, (Rule xxxiii.) 

Gomprehen'flive, comprehens'ive-ly, comprehen'sive-ness. 
Latin eomprihendire, sup. -hentum {eom [eon] prifhendo, to grasp). 
Gompress, kdm'.prees (noun), kSm.presa' (yerb). Rule 1. 

Compress', compre88ed'(2syl.), compress' -ing. To press clo8( 
compress'ive, compress'-ible (not -a&Z«), compress'lbil'lt; 

Cdmpression, kdm.presk'.un ; oompressore, kSm.pre8h\itr. 

Compress-or (not -er). That which serves to ccmipress. (R. xxxvii 

Latin compressi^y tompreasor, eomprfmot sup. oompr€$awn (earn [coi 
pr^mo, to i^ress or squeeze together). 

Comprise, kom.prize' (« between two vowels =z), to include 

comprised' (2 syl.), compris'-ing, compris'-al. (Rule xix 

French comprU, past part, of oomprendre; Lat. eomprthennum, siq 
of etympr^endo (cum [con] prehendo, to seize hoid of). 

Compromise, k5m\pro.imze not kom.prom\iz^ com'promise 

(3 syl.), com'prorais-ing, com'promis-er. (Rule xix.) 

French compromis; Latin eompromisaum (cum [con] pro mUtOf i 
send forth with [a bond] ; i.e., to give bona to abide by arbitration 

Compt, county an account (nearly obsolete) ; comxitroUw, k^ 
troJ^.er, an officei* to control or verify accounts. 
French compte, an account ; Latin eomputo [comp'tl, to compute. 

Ccmipulsion, k5m,pul\shun (force); compnlBive, kom.ptiV^v 
compul'sive-ly, compul'sive-ness. (Rule xvii.) 

Compulsory, kom.puV.8S.ry (adj.), compul'sori-ly (adv.) 
Latin compello, sup. compulsum {cum [eon] pello, to drive together). 
Compunction, kSm.punk\8hun. A pricking of conscience. 

Compunctious, kdm.punk'shu8. Having quarms of conscieno 
Latin nompunctiOy twrn [con] pungo, to prick wltii [remorse]. 

Compute' (2 syl.), compiit'-ed, compfli'-ing, comput'.er, oomput 
able (Rule xix) ; computation, kom\pu.tay'\8hun, 
French camput, computation; Latin compvMre, to compute. 

Comrade, kdmWad, Companion. (French camerade.) 

From camSrat a chamber, one who occupies the same chamber. Oi 
word has quite lost sight of the true meaning. 

Con-; also co-, oog-, col-, com-, and cor-. (Latin prefix.) 

Co-, before a, e, t, o, and fu Also before any letter "vith 
hyphen, as "co-mate," "co-partner," " co-tmstee." 1 
Mathetnatict ^ complement, as " co-sine, ' " co-secant ** 



AND OF SPELLING. 127 

iSOg., befbre naseoT^ noscoj tUimeny with their derivatives. 

Coi-, before I, as ** col-lect." 

Com-, before h^ m, jp, and u. Also with fit and /ort. 

C^n-, before c, « ; d, Z, e ; q, v, / (except " fit " amd " fort " ). 

Cor-, before r, as " OGr-rect." 

Coxl: As pro ai*d eon, "for** and "against" [a proposal]. In 
this sense, it is a contraction of contra (Latin) against. 

Oon (to learn by repetition), ooimed, kSnd ; conn'-ing (Rule i.) 

Old English cof»n(an] or eimnCftn], to know ; ooh, can. 
Ooneatenate, ko^Jk&tfXnate ; concat'enat-ed, concat'enat-ing. 

Goncatenation, k8n,kaf.e.nay^\8hun. To link together. 

(In Latin the " e " of all these words is long, ) 
Latin eoncdtinare, to chain together {catina, a chain). Bule ziz. 

Concave, hSn^.hdve. Hollowed out. " Bulged out " is con' vex. 
T'he inside of a C ^s " concave,** the outside is " convex." 

Gon'cave; concaved, kon\kdved; concav-ing, kdn.kdve\ing 
(B.xix.) Concavity, kon. kdv'.tty. The reverse is Convexity. 
(When'put in opposition the accent is thrown on the final 
tyllahte, om glasses for short sight are concave", for fur 
sight the^ are convex'. ) 

Ijttfn etm-edvuSf aHogether hollow ; conc&vUcts fcdvtu, a cave). 

OOkie^al, kihi-seer ; concealed' (2 syl.), conceal'.er, coucear-able. 
Latin eon-elldre, to hide altogether foSlo, to hide). 

Concede, kon.seedf. One of the seven verbs in -cede. The three 
in 'teed are "exceed,** "proceed," and "succeed." (R. xxvii.) 

Conceded, kSn,8eed\ed; conceding, kon.8eed'ing (Rule xix.) 
Conceesion, kSn.ses\shun. Something conceded. 
French oonotder ; Latin eon-eSdo, to go vdth [you], to yield to yon. 

Conceit, kdn^seef, vanity. Conceited, k6n,8eef.ed, vain. (Rule 
xxxvi.) Conceit'ed-ly, conceit'ed-ness. (Italian concetto.) 
Latin oondHjAo, sup. eonceptum, a conceived [opinion of oneself]. 

Conceive, kdn.seev' (to suppose, to comprehend, &g.) ; conceived' 
(2 syl.), conceiv'-ing, conceiv'-er, conceiv'-able (Rule xxiii.), 
conceiv-ably, conceiv'-ableness (Rule xix. ) 

Conception, kdn,sep* .shun. Notion, impregnation. 

('" 'Ceives '' take e first, *' -lieves '' take i first. Rule xxviii. ) 
Iiatin eoncipire, c&nceptio, (con cdpio, to take with [you] X 

Concentrate, kdn' .8en>.trdte (to bring together); con'centrat-ed, 
eon'oentarat-ing (R.xix.); concentration, -tray" .shun. 

Omoentrative, k&n.8en\tra.tiv ; concen'trative-neflfl. 
ItaUan eolt6Mt¥are, to concentrate ; ooncenirazione, concentration. 



1:>« ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Concen'tre, to bring to a point. Gonsen'ter, one who coDsents. 
Goncentre, kSn.sen'.ter ; concentred, kdn^en'.terd; 
concentring, kon.8en\tring not 1(dn.8en'.ter.ing ; 
concen'tric,concen'trical; concentricity, kdn'.8en.trU^.i.ty, 
French eoncentrer; lAtin conceatrtcus {eon centrum, oommon eentreX 
Conception, k8n.8ep'^hun. Notion, impregnation. 

Conceptiye, k5n.8ep\t%v, {See Gonceiye.) 
Concern' (noun), affair; (verb) to take interest in something. 
Concerned, kdn,8emd\ Moved with interest or sympathy. 
Concernedly, kon^er'.ned.ly. Sympathetically. 

French coTuxmer; Latin concemirit to separate {cum eerno, to sepa- 
rate and put together [what belongs to each]). 

Concert, kon'sert (noun), k(m,8erf (verb). Rule L 

Con'cert, a musical entertainment. Concert^, to schema. 
Concerto, plu. concertos, not concertoe8. (Rule xHi.) 
Concertina, plu. concertinas, kdn\8er.tee'\naht &c 
Concert-ed, kdn.sertf .ed ; concert-ing, kon.8ertf.ing, 
French concert; Ital. concerto; Lat. con certdrCt to strive togeihar. 

Concession, kdn.8esh'-dn, a grant; concession-ist, a granter. 

Concession-ary, kdn.8e8h\dn.a.ry ; concessory, kon^e8'.$6.ry. 

(" Conce88ion-ery " would be more correct.) 
Latin conceasio and concessum, a concession (con cedSre, to gire way). 
Conchifera, kdn.kif .e.rah. The mussel, oyster* and other bivalvei* 
A single specimen is a Conchifer, kon\ki,fer. 

Conchoidal, kon.koy'.dal. Having a concave and convex 
surlace, like a bivalve shell. (Gk. kogchi eidos, cockle-like.) 

Conchology, kdn.koV.d.gy. The natural history of shells. 
Conchologist, kon.kSV.d.gist. One skilled in conchology. 
Greek kogcM Idgda, shell lore ; Latin concha, a shell. 
Conciliate, kdn.siV.l.ate, to propitiate; concillat-ed (R.xxxvi); 
conciriat-ing (R. xix). Conciliatory, kdnjsil\%.d,t5.fy. 
Conciliator, fern, conciliatrix, kdnMV X.a.toT, -trix. 
Conciliation, kdn.s\V .i.d'\8hun. Reconcilement. 

Latin conciliator, conciliatrix, conciliatio, concilidre, to reconcile /'eoM 
cAlo, to call together, hence to unite or bring together). 

Concise, k6n.si8e' (brief), concise'-ly, concise'-ness, brevity. 
Latin concleus {concldo, to cut small ; con ceedo, to cut entlreljX 
Conclude, kdn.klude', conclud'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), condud-ing, 
conclud-er (Li. xix.). To detei*mine, to end, &c. 

Conclusion, kdn.hW .shun^ the end (R. xxxilL); Oonelnsiye, 

k6n.klu.8iv ; conclusive-ly, conelusive-ness (Rule xvii.) 

Latin conclusio, verb conciado, supine eoncUtsum, to ooneliide (frooi 
con claxulo, to shut-up altogether, hence to tlnish). 



AXD OF SPELLING, 129 

Coniooct', oonooct'-er (not -tor); concoction, kSn.koh\8hun, 
Latin etmeodiOt e(m-c6qw)y to oook together, to concoct. 

Concomitant, concomitance, concomltaDt-lj, concomltancy. 
Latin ooneHmXtans, -tantU {con cdmitdre, to go often together). 

Concord, k8n\kord (noun), k6n.kord' (verb). Bule 1. 

Goncord'ance (not kon'.kor,dance). An index of words. 

Conoord'ant, concord'^ant-ly, concord'anoj. 

Concor'dat. A convention between a king and the pope. 

Latin eoncordta; eoncorddre, to agree (con corda, hearts together). 
French eoneordancef concordant, concordat, ooncord«r, to agree. 

Con'eourse, not con'cottrce. (Fr.concowr*, a throng; Ital. concor^o.) 

Latin eoncursu« {con ctirro, sup. cursum, to mn together). 

(This is one of the puzzles of spelling : course, source. Bulk. — Every 
word beginning toith "c" is followed by "»,'* and every word 
beginning toith "«" is followed by "c"; coarse, corse, course, 
** eon-course," ** dis-cov/rse,'* *' inter-course,** <kc.: source, "re- 
source,** sauce, <kc The only other words in "-ee** of a siv^ilar 
sound are force, with its compounds "en-force," *' per-foreCf'* **r§- 
mfvrct^* and divorce.^ 

Concrete, kon\kreet (noun), kon.kreef (verb). Rule 1. 

Concret'-ed (R. xxxvi.), concret-ing, concret-ive (R. xix.) 

Concretion, kon.kreei'^hun, A concreted mass, union of parts. 

Con'crete (noun), a cement; adj. having a real existence, 
not abstract. White is abstract, white paper concrete. 

French ooncret, ooncretion; Latin concritum, concritio, a concretion 
(from eon creseo, supine crUum, to grow together). 

Concubine, kdn'.kuMne. A woman who acts as a wife. 

Concubinage, kSn.kil\b%n.age ; concubinal, kon.ku' .hln.ah 
Latin WMuXyinus, a concubine {con cQbdre, to lie togetherX 

ConcupiBcence, kSn.ku^pis. sense, lust ; concu'piscent, lustful. 
( The -8C- is the Latin frequentative or intensifying prefix.) 
IsUn eoncupiscentia (con oupiscens, -entis, greatly desiring). 

Concur, kihi.kur^, to agree; concurred' (2 syl.), concurr'-ing, 
concurr'-ence, concurr'-ent, concurr'-ently. (Rule i.) 
Latin eoncwrrens, -entis (con currifre, to run together). 

Cououflsion, kon-kOsh^on; concussive, kon.kus'jtiv. 

Latin eoncussio, a striking together {con gudtio, to shake together). 

Condemn, k8n.dem'; condemned, kon.demd'; condemning, kSn. - 
dem'.ing (not k6n\dem.ning) ; condenmer, k6n.dem\er ; 
condemnation, k8n\dem\nny'\8hun ; condemnable, kon.- 
dem'.na.Vl (not kon.dem\a.b'l), censurable; condemna- 
tory, kon.dem\nd.tS.ry, worthy condemnation. 
Latin condemndtio, eond&nndre (eon damno, to cast in a law-suit). 



1.10 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

GondenBe', condensed' (3 syl.), oondens'-ing, condens'-er (Rule 
xix.), condens'-ity, condens'-able, condensation, kihi'.- 
den.8ay'\8hun. To shorten, to make more close. 

Latin condensdtio, eondensdref to condense {eon deruo, to make thick). 

(There are nearly seven hundred toords ending in *'nce,** and only 
nine in "-nse": viz., dense and condense; dispense, expense, pre- 
pense, and recompense ; immense, sense, and tense. The larger 
part of the seven hundred have as rnuch claim, to **$** a$ these nine.) 

Condescend, kdn\de.8end\Xo %U)0^ (morally); conde8cend''-ence; 
condescension, kon\de.8en' ^hun (Rule xxxvii.) 

Latin con descendi^e (de scando, to climb down, dis-moont). 
Condign, kon.dine't deserved ; condign'-ly, condign'-ness. 

French condigne, appropriate ; Latin con dignus, wholly deserved. 
Condiment, kdn'.dl.merU. (FreDch ; Latin condimentum, sauce.) 

Condition, kdn.disK.on; condition-al, condition-ally, condition- 
ary, condition -ing ; conditionality, kdn.di8h\on.aV\i.ty ; 
conditioned, kdn.dish'-ond; condition-ate. 
French condition; Latin conditio, eonditionaUs (adj.) 

Condole, kdn.dole'; condoled (2 syl.); condol'-ing, condol'-eTf 
condol'-ence (Rule xix) ; condole'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
Latin condolentia, con dolere, to grieve with [those who grieve]. 
Condor, kon\dor. The vulture of S. America. (Span, condor.) 

Conduce, k&n.duse'; conduced' (2 syl.), conduc'-ing, condiic'-ible 
(not -a6i«), conduc'-ibly ; conducive, kon.du\B\v; con- 
du'cive-ly, condti'cive-ness (Rule xix.) Tending to. 
Latin oonducibilis^ con ducirCy to lead with [you], to conduce. 

Conduct, kon\duct (noun), behaviour; kori.duct' (verb), to guide; 
conduct'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), conduct'-ing, conducf -ive. 

Conducfor, jem. oonduct'ress ; conduction, kfm.dxL}^ .ihxoi, 

Conductibility,/r^.^i«A;'.t{.Mr'.{.t^. Capacity of transmittiDg. 

French cxyndAuAicm : Latin oondujdiOy con ducire, to lead with (yon]. 
Conduit (French), kon\dwit not kun'-dit, a duct. 

Latin con dtico, supine ductum, to convey [by pipes, &c] 
Cone, kdne. A shape like a sugar-loaf; the fruit of a fir tree. 

Conic, kdn'.lk; conical, kdn'.i.kul (adj.), cone-shaped. 

Conies. The geometry of conical figures. (All the 9cienee$ 
in -ic, except " logic" " music," and "'rhetoric " are phtraU) 
(The "o" of "conic** in Latin and Greek U long,) 
French coiu; Latin convA; Greek h6n6s, a cone. 
Conifer, plu. conifers, k(f.nl.ferz; Coniferss, k5.n^.e.ree, tl^ 
cone bearing plants. (Latin conus f^o, to bear cones.) 

Coniferous, ko.nif.e.ru8, cone-bearing ; co'niform. 
^lonoid, kd'.noid (Greek kdnds eidos, cone-Hke). 

Conoidal, ko.no%d\al; oonoidic, kd,noy*dik; conoi'dical. 



AXD or SPELUXG. V,X 



ConfiOnilmto, kSn.fab'.uJaU, to chaA; confab'alat^ (Rxxxvi.), 
eoDtab'iiliiUiiig, confab'olat-oir (not -er. Role xxx\-ii.) 
Oonftkbiilstoiy, kdn.fab\u.la,rry (Role xix.). Gossip. 
CgnAbnlatlini, kSn.fab'.u.lay^ahun, Gossip. 

French coi^abu!er, eonfabulatum ; Latin eon fahuUUt, to tell stories 
or gooipy tales together, hence to ch«t, fte. 

CoofSsetUm, k5n,fiyjhun; oonfec'tion-er, confec'tionery (not 

-ary). Sweetmeats, the maker or seller of pa8tr\ , Jtc. 

ftvndi oo^feeUon; Latin om^ecfio, eon^/Mo, rapine -ftduwiy to make 
ivith (flogar, kc] 

CoofBdarate, kSn.fed^Xrate^ to lea^rae together ; confedVrat.fd. 
confiMi^erat-ing (R. xix.). confed'er&t-or (not -er, R. xxx\ ii.) 

OonfedAration, kSn.fe^.€.ray"jihun, A league. 

Oonfederaoy, plu, oonfederaoiea, konJeiT .e.rHMz (R. xliv.) 

(In Latin, the first **e" of aU these words in long.) 
Latin con faderatio, a confederation (eon fceduty a leagueX 
Confei^, cmferred (2 syl.), conferr'-ing, oonferr'-er (Rule i.) 
Confer-enoe, kon*.fer,ence (not -once, and only one r). 
(This abnormal word is borroved from the French.) 
Frendi eonfifwr, eonfSrence ; Latin eonfiro, con/fretu, to confer. 
Coofiarva, phi. oonfervas, k^n.fer^.vah, kon.fer^.vee, fresh- water 
plants. Confefyaceous^ kon'.fer.vay" uthtis (adv.) Con- 
fervoid, kon.fer^.void, articulated like the confervH*. 
Confervitef j7{ii. confervitas, kon.fe/vites, fossil couftTvn'. 

Latin conferva, from conferveo, to Join together like broken bones. 
Pliny tells ns the covfervce were so called because of their efficacy 
in knitting together broken bones, f Pliny, 27, 45 J 

GonfeBs', ooofeBaed' (2 syl.), confessed-ly, kon.fes'.sed.ly* 

ConfeaB-or (not-er, R. xxxvii.) A priest who hears confessions. 

Oonfession, k9n.fe8h'.on ; confesslon-al, confeRs'ion Sry. 

French confessor, to confess ; confession, confessiovcU ; Latin con/tsaio, 
eonfessdritu, conJUeor, -fessus (confaieor, to confess). 

Coniide, kSn.fide' (to rely on); confided, kdnfi'.ded (R. xxxvi.); 
conf idling, confid'-ingly, confid'-er. (Rule xix.) 

Coiifldaiit,/em.coiifidante (Fr.), *on'./«.danf. A bosom frien<l. 

Gonfident, konff\.dent (positive) ; con'f ident-ly, con'fidence. 

OonfldentiaU kon\fl.den*\shal ; confidential-ly. 

(In Latin, the "i" of all these words is long.) 

Lat. eof^fidentia. confidence ; confidens, -entis, confident ; eon -fldAre, 
to tnut one wholly ; French confidence, confident, cor^idant, &o. 

Oonflne, kSn\fine (noun), a limit; k^n.fine' (v.), to imprison (R. 1.) 
Oonfined, kon.fmd\ confin'.ing, confin^er (Rule xix.), con- 

fin'-able (Rule xxiii.), confine'-ment (Rule xviii. ^). 
Conflnity, kdn^n\l.ty, nearness. (In Lat. the "i" is long.) 

French eor^ner, to confine ; Latin eonflnium, eonflnitas, eonflndlis 
(adj.), 09» fUortf to finish with [some limiting boundary]. 



1.12 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gonfiim', conflrm'-able, (not -iftle), confirm'-Stive, confirm'- 

atively ; confirm'-er, one who corroborates ; conflrmat-or, 

kon.Jir\md,tor ; confirm'atSry (the "a" w long in Latin); 

confirmation, kon\Jir. may'* , shun, corroboration. 

Latin eon jirmdre, to make strong with [additional assurance], eon- 
JwmatiOy c<mfirm&tor; French conjirmatif, conjwrmation, eonjirmer. 

Confiscate, kon* .fis.kate not kon.Jis^kate, to alienate ; con'fiscat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), con'fiscat-ing (R.xix.),con'fi8cat-or (R. xxxvii.) 

Can&Bcakiiou.fk<m\Ji8.kay'*jihun, A forfeiting to the exchequer. 

Confiscable, kon.Ji8\kd.b'l ; confiscatory, k8n.Ji8\k(i.to.ry. 

Latin confincdtio ; con fiscdre, to confiscate ffisciu, the exchequer}. 
Conflagration, kbn*Jla,gray*\8hun (not k(m\fii.gay'' ^hun), 

Lat. wnfidgrdtio, eonjidgrdre, to bum wholly ; Greek phligo, to bum. 
Conflict, kon\Jlict (noun) ; kdn.Jlict* (verb), to contend (Rule 1.) ; 
conflict'-ed (R. xxxvi.); confiict'-ing, confijictive, kon.- 
JlW.tiv; conflictive-ly ; confliction, kon.fi\k' ^hun. 

Latin conjlictio, conflictus, conjligdre, jllgire, to dash together. 
Confluence, kon* .Jlu.eTice. The meeting of two or more streams. 

Con'fluent, flowing together. Conflux, a crowd, a flood. 

Latin confiHentiay confl/Aena (confltto, sup. Jhueum, to flow together). 
Conform', conformed' (2 syl.), conform'-able, conform'-ably. 

Confirmation, kSn.Jir.may'^^hun. The act of confirming. 

Conformation, kon*. for. may** ^hun. The act of conforming. 

Conform'^ty, conformist; non-conformity, non-conformist 
('* Conform,'* " conformable," are followed by " to,*' as **Be 
not conformed to this world " [Rom. xii, 2]. ** C<mfarm' 
ity " m^y have either " to " or " with," as *' In conformity 
with your wish," " In conformity to your order.") 

"CoDformare se ad [to] voluntatem..,'' or "mentem meam ifA 

cogitatione [m</i]..conformabam." f Cicero J 
Lat. cov/ormdtio, conformttas, con formdre, to form like [something]. 

Confound' (to confuse), confound'-ed (R. xxxvi.), confound'-er. 
Confuse', confused' (2 syl.), confus'-ing, &q. {See Conftuse.) 
ItoXij^ fionfund^e, sxipine fuavm, to pour together. 
Confront, kon.frunt* (not konfronf), to bring face to face; con- 
front' -ed (Rule xxxvi.), confront'-ing ; con£ront-er. 
French con/ronter, to QOi^front ; Lat. confrons, front with [front]. 
Confuse', confused', confus'-ing; confused-ly, kon.fil*jsed.ly; 
confused-ness, konju* .zed.ne8s (with -ly and -ness); con- 
fusion, kdn,fil*.zhon, disorder; confus-er, kon,fitjser» 
Latin confund^e, supine fusum, to pour together. {See Confoimd.) 
Confute', confut'-ed (R. xxxvi.), confut'-ing, confiit'-er, confat'- 
able (not -ible), confut'-ant (R. xix). To prove wrong. 
Confutation, k5n*.fu.tay**.8hun. Disproving, a denial pro?ed« 
Latin eonfutdtio, co7^/iltdre, to argue against [another]. 



AND OF SPELLING, l^n 



G(mg6 (French), kdm^Jtjaf, Leave of absence, discharge, farewell. 

Gong^ d'61ire, Tton^.zja de-leer^. The sovereign's request 
to a dean and chapter to elect a bishop. 

P.P.O. (pour prendre congS), To take leave. (Written on 
cards on leaving home.) 

Congeal, kon.jeeV (to freeze) ; congealed' (2 syl.), congear-able. 

Congelation, k6n\j^.lay''.8hun (not congealation), 
{The "a" of "congeal," (&c, is a great error.) 

Latin eongi^latio, eongil&biUs, eon g^o, to freeze thoroughly; French 
congder {:=conge-lerf 2 ajh), oongilable, congHation. 

Congener, kon.jee\nSr. Of the same origin or kind. Gongener'ic. 

Latin con ginery of the same itock. (The -ge- in Latin is short.) 
Congenial, konjee'.ntal (social) ; conge'nial-ly, conge'nial'lty. 

Latin con g^nidlis, genial with [others], con g^nialltiu. 
Congestion, k5n.je8\tchun; congestive, kon.jesWlv; conprest-ible. 

Lat. oongtstiOy con gSrire, sup. -geatum, to bring together, to amass. 

Conglomerate, kon,glom'.e.rate (one m), to amass; conglom'- 
erat-ed (Kule xxxvi.), conglom'erat-ing (Rule xix), 
conglomeration, kon* .glom.e,ray'\8hun, a collection* 
Latin congWrn^raxCt to wind into a ball (gl6mu$y a ball). 

Congratolate, kfyn,grdif.u.late; congrat'ulat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
congrat'ulat-ing, congrat'ulat-or (not -ter. Rule xxxvii. ) 

Congratulatory, kSn.grSf.ii.ld.t*ry. Expressing joy (R.xix.) 

Congratulation, kSn.grafM.lay^'.shim, Expression of joy. 

Lat congrdiiUdtio, congrdtHldtor, congrdtiUdre, to rejoice with [you]. 

Congregate, kSn\gre.gate (to assemble in a crowd) ; con'gregai-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), con'gregat-ing, con'gregat-er (Rule xix.) 

Congregation, kon\gr^.gay'\8hun ; congreo:ation-al, con- 

gregutional-ly, congregational-ism, congrei^ational-ist. 
LUln congrifgdiio, con gr^gdre, to herd together {grex grggis, a herd). 

Congress, kon'.gress, a senate; congressional, kbn.gr es' .shun. al. 

Latin congresses, a meeting; congridior, sup. -gressum. to meet to- 
gether {eon grddior, to go with [others] ; grddus, a step). 

Congmity, k&n,gru\\.ty (fitness); congruous, kbn'.gru.us, &q. 

Lai congruus, eongmire, to nock together like cranes {gnis, a craneX 
"Biitls of a feather [which] flock together," exactly meets the idea. 

Conia, kd.n%\ah. Hemlock and other plants of the same genus. 

Coneine, ko.nee'.in. The poisonous alkaloid of hemlock. 

Greek k&neidn, hemlock. (" Goneine," A;o.ne^ i», is not well formed.) 

Oonic, kSn\ik; conical, Hke a cone; conies, kovfdks. (See Cone.) 

Conifer, ko.ntfer; oooiferons, kd.nlf.&nu; conifersB. See Cone. 



134 ERnonS OF SPEECH 

Conjecture, JcihtJ^.tekur (a sannise, to snnnise) ; eoDJec'tnred 

(8 syl.), conjee'ttir-ing, coDJec'tnr-er ; conjec'tur-al, con- 

jec'iural-ly (Rule xix.). ccnjec'tur-able (Rule xxiii). 

Latin eovjectura, a guess, coi\}tctur&lis : eonjidre, to aanoiie (eon 
jdcio to cast [two and two] together [to form a gneas]). 

Gonjngal, kon'.ju.gal. Pertaining to marriage. 

Latin conjugdlis (from amjux, a husband or wif eX 

Conjugate, kdn\ju.gate; con'jugat-ed (R. xxxyL), con'jugat-ing. 

Conjugation, kdn\ju.gay^'.8hun; con'jngat-or (R. rix, xxxvii.) 
Lat. eonjUgatio, eonjUgator, eoniX&gdre (eonjugo, to joke together). 

Conjunction, k6n.junk\8kun (union); conjunctive, kSn.junk.tiv; 
conjunc'tive-ly, conjunc'tive-ness (Rxvii.); conjunctuie, 
k8n.junk^,tchur, a crisis, a critical period. 
Latin conjunetio, eor^ungo, supine -jwictum, to join together. 
Conjure, kun'jer, to play tricks ; konjwre\ to implore. 

Con'jure, kun'.jer; con'jured (2 syl.), con'jur-ing (R. xix.), 

con'jur-er ; conjuration, kun\ju.ray'\shun. 
Conjure, kdn.jure' (to implore) ; conjured' (2 syl.), coiy fill- 
ing: conjur'-er, one who conjures'; conjuratioiL, k9n\ju.- 
ray^\8hun, invocation to a prisoner to answer on his oath. 

Both these are the same word. A con^jurer is one who acts 
with a confederate bound by oath to secrecy. A eoiytir'er 
is one who calls on another to answer on his oath. 
Latin eon jwro, to swear together. 
Connect", connect'-ed (R. xxxvi.) ; connective, kon\nek^.VSv. 

Connection, a junction of substances ; connexion, a relative. 

(" ConTiexion " is not required, ** connection " answers both meanings.) 
Latin con necto, supine nexum, to bind together. 

Connive', connived' (2 syl.), conniv'-ing, connlv'-er (R. xix.X 

conniv-ance (R. xxiv.) (Ought to be connivence.) 

French connivence, conniver, to connive ; Latin connivena. tmmivirt 
(con nlveo, to wink with [the eyes], to pretend not to see). 

Connoisseur (bad French), kdn'.nis.seur'. A judge of the fine arts. 

French connaisseur: Latin cognosco, to know thoroughly. 
(It is surprising that the host of bad French words which diagraee ow 
language shmUd be suffered to remain. J 

Connubial, kon.nu\M.al. Pertaining to wedlock, 

Latin conwuhidlis, con mubo, to many together. 

Conquer, kon\kwer not kSn'.ker; conquered, kon^ktoerd: 

conquering, k6n\kwer.ing ; conqueror, kfin\-kwer.or ; 

conquer-able, kon\kwer.a,h'l ; conquest, kon^kwest, 

French con/guerir, to conquer ; Old French eongueste^ now ^omquMt, 

Latin eonqutr^re (qucero, to seek, to acquire, to conquer). 

Consanguinity, kon\8an,gwin'\\,ty. Relationship by blood. 
Consanguineous, k6n.8an.gwin'\e.u8. Related by blood. 
Latin consanguXnitas, oonsangulnifus (oon sanguis, same UoodQi 



AND OF SFELLINO. ir,') 

Conscieiioe, kSn'jkVenee; conscience-less; ooiucious, kdn.$h^ii*; 
conscions-ly, conscious-ness (Latin conscius^ conscious) ; 
conscientious, Aon^^^.en''^/ius,con8cientiouBly, coDscien - 
tious-ness (French consciencieux, conscientious) ; oon- 
scionable, kdn\8hun,a.b'l, consoionably, conscionable-ness. 
**For conscience sake" (not /or conscience' sake, nor for 
conscience's sake). *' Conscience " has no possessive case. 
Only nouns personified, and those which denote animal 
life have possessive cases. 

(Note the "-sc-* which are the initial letters of " science,") 

Latin con scientia, knowledge with [another]. Man being supposed to 
be a dual being, conscience is the privacy of the " inner man" to 
^e acts, &c., of the " outer man"; French cotucience. 

Conscription, kon.8krip\shun. Enrolment for military service. 

French conseriptio; Latin conscripHo (which is incorrect), con scribd, 
supine -gcriptum, to write with [other names]. 

(kmsecrate, kon' .sS.hrate, con'secrat-ed, con'secrat-ing (R. xix.), 
con'secrat-or (not -er, R. xxxvii); consecration, k6n'.sf..- 
kray*\shun, dedication to sacred uses. 
Latin consecrdtio, consecrdre (eon aacrOf to hallow with [sacred rites]). 

ConsecutiYe, k6njiekf.u.tiv. following in systematic order; con- 
secutive-ly, consecutive-ness (Rule xvii.) 
French consecutif, consecutive; Latin consequA'e, to follow in order. 

Consent, kM^senf, to agree to, an agreement. Consenf-er. 

Consentaneous, kon*.sen.tay'\nSMSy consistent with; con- 
sentaneous -ly, consentaneous-ness (suitableness). 

Consentaneity, kon.8en\ta.nee'\i.ty, JVIutual agreement. 

Consentient, kSn-sen'.she'ent; consentingly, kon.sen'ting.ly. 

Latin coTisensus, consensu), eonsentdneus, consentiens, -eniis, verb 
consentio, sup. -sensum {con sentio, to think with [another]). 

Consequence, kon* .s^.kwence ; consequent, kon^se.kwent; con- 
sequent-ly (therefore); consequential, kon'.se.quen'\8hal 
(important) ; consequential-ly (conceitedly). 
French consequence; Latin consi^quentia (con siquor, to follow upon). 

CotDBerve, kon'.serv (noun), a jam ; k6n.8erv' (verb), to preserve. 
Conserve, kSn^serv^; conserved' (2 syl.), conserv'-ing, con- 
serv'-er, conserv'-able (R. xx.), conserV-ant, conserv'-ancy 
(R. xix.); conservation, kon\8er.vay"^hon; conservi^ 
tive, kdn.ser'.va.tiv ; couser'vative-ly, conser'vative-ness ; 
conservatism, kdn.ser'.va.tizm ; conservator, kdn^se/.va.- 
tor (R. xxxvii.); conservatory, kon.8e7^\va.t5.ry ; con- 
servatoire, k6n.8er^ .va.twor (Fr.), a public school of music. 

French eonserver, to keep : conserve, fruit, &c., preserved in sugar. 
J^atin wnservdioT, conservaru, con servdre, to preserve with [sugar, Ac.] 



136 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Consider, Tt^in.std'.er {to think about); considered, k6n^%df.erd; 
consid'er-ing, consid'ering-ly ; considerable, kSn.$ld\er.- 
a.Vl; consid'erable-ness, conBid'er-ably. 

Considerate, kSn,8id\e.rate ; coD8iderate-l7,considerate-ne8S. 

Consideration, k5n.8id\e.ray''^hun. Mature thought. 

French eortsdderahley consideration^ eonsiderer; Latin conaidfirdtiOf 
eon ndirdre, to consult the stars (Hdira, the stars), contemplate. 

Consign, konMne'; consigned' (2 syl.), consign'-ing, consign'-er, 

consign'-ment ; consignee, k8n\s%,nee, one to whom goods 

are consigned; consignor, kon^si.nor'f he who consigns 

the goods. 

French eonsi^pier, to consign : Latin eon-Hgndre, to seal with (your 
own seal] as a Toucher that the consignment is authorised. 

Consist^, consist" -ed (R. xxxvi.), consist'-ing, consist'-ent, con- 
sist'ent-ly, consist'-ence, consist'-ency. To be made up ofl 

*' Consist of" = composed of. "Consist with" = to be in 

accordance with. 
French consistert to consist ; Latin con aisUfre, to stand together. 

Consistory, k5n.8i8\tS.ry, a *' spiritual " court ; consistorial, 

kon'.sis.tdr^'ri.al ; consistorian, kSn'.sls.tdf'H.an, 

French eonsistoire, consistory, consistorial; Latin con$ist6rittm, a 
council, the priTate council-chamber of Roman emperors ; now it 
is applied to the college of cardinals, the court of the bishops, &c. 

Console, kon\8ole (noun), an ornamental bracket; kon-sole' (verb),- 

to comfort; console', consoled' (2 syl.), consol'-ing, con- 

sol'-er, consol-al)le ( R. xix.) ; consolation, &d7i'.«^.2a^''^Au7i, 

comfort; consolator, kiSn.8})l\a.tory one who consoles 

another; consolatory, k6n.86l\a,to.ry, comforting. 

Fr. consoler, to console, consolation^ consolahle, console (in Architee.) 
Lat. consOldtio, consdldtor, con-s6ldri, to solace with [words]. 

Consolidate, kon.8oV.i.date, to form into one mass; consol'idat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), consol'idat-ing (Rule xix.) ; consolidation, 
kon.8ol\uday".8hun, condensation, union. 
French consolider, consolidation; Latin consdliddrc, to Join together. 

Consols, kon.86lz\ " 3 per cents." Consuls', Roman magistrates. 

"Consols," i.e., consol-idated stocks. Govornment has borrowed 
money at different times from various sources, and at different 
rates of interest. In 1751, the several sto<^ were consolidated, 
with a uniform interest of 3 per ceiit. 

Consonant, kon\8o.nant (adj.), agreeable (followed by to or with). 

Consonant, plu, consonants. All letters except vowels. 

Consonance, concord ; consonancy, kon\8}i.nan.8y, 

(In Latin it i8 followed by " to" : a8 "8ibi consSnam,**) 

Latin consdnans, -nantis, consHnantia, con-sdndre, to sound together. 

A "consonant" is a letter which carries in its sound another letter^ 

thus : " B " carries with it the sound of e, and " K " the loand of a! 



AND OF SPELLING, 1,17 






Gonflort, k^*^ort (noun); k^.sorlf (verb). Con'cert, concert'. 
Oonsort, kSn'^ort. Husband or wife of a crowned head. 
Ck>n8ort, kSn^orf. To associate together (followed by " with"). 
Concert, kSn'jierU A musical entertainments 
Gonsert, h6n.8erif (to league) ; consert^-ed, conserf -ing. 

**Con'8ort,'*Lat.(Jorw(>r«, -«orfi«, a partner (eon sors, same lot with fyoul). 
"Gonaort'/' a verb coined from the Latin eonaortio, partnership. 
"Concert,** Fr. concert; Ital. concerto; Lat. concertdre, to concert. 
"Goncertv* Lat. con eertare, to strive together, hence to plot. 

Oonspicnons, kon.8pik'ku.iL8 (obvious) ; conspicuous-lj, con- 
spicuous-ness ; conspicuity, /c(5n.sp{./(u'.t.t2^. visibility. 
Latin eonspicuMS, conapidre (con apecio^ to see with [clearness]). 
Coogpire, kon.8pvre'; conspired' (2 syl.)) consplr'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Clonspiracy, plu, conspiracies, k6n.8pi7^raMz, Plot for evil. 
Conspirator, k^^pir^rador (R. xxxvii.) One of a conspiracy. 
French eonapirer; Lat. eonspirdtiOt eon spvrdre, to breathe together. 
Constable, 2:un^8^a.&'Z,a peace-officer. Constablery, constabulary. 
Constabulary, kun.8tay.ii.ld,ry (acy.) Pertaining to, Stc. 
Constablery, kun' Ma.VLry (noun). The whole body, &c. 
Constablewick, hun\8ta.h'l-wik, A constable's district. 
Lord High Constable, plu. Lords High Constable. 
High Constable, plu. High Constables. Of a county. 
Petty Constable, plu. Petty Constables. Of a parish. 

French constahU: Latin cdmea stahUliy superintendent of the impe- 
rial stables, then *' Master of the Horse," then " Commander-iu' 
chief of the army " (Obsolete). 

Constaot, kSn*. slant (frequent) ; con'dtancy, persistency. 

Latin eonstantia (eon stdre, to stand together, to be con-sistent). 

Constellation, kon'MeLlay'^^shun (double 2;, a group of stnrs. 

French constellation ; Latin consiellatio {con stella, stars together). 

Consternation, kdn\8ter.nay'\8hun. Amazement with terror. 

French consternation; Latin eonstemdtio (con stemo, to cast down). 

Constipate,. kdn'Mtpdte, constipated (R. xxvi.) ; constipat-ing. 

Constipation, kSn\8ti.pay'\8hun, costiveness (Rule xix.) 

Fr. eonstipation; Lat. constlpdtio (con stlpdre, to cram together). 

Constltaent, kSn.8tif.u.ent (adj.), essential, elemental. 

Constitnent (noun). One who is an elector. 

Constituency, k5n.8titf.u,en.q/. An entire body of electors. 

Lat. eonstUuo, part constltuens, to constitute. A ''constituent" is 
one who by his vote "constitutes" or elects a member of parliament. 

Constitate, k<5n\8t\,tute (to establish) ; constitut-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
constitut-ing ; constitiit-er, one who constitutes (R. xix.) 
Constitation, khn' Mi.tvf^shun (frame of body, of a govern- 
ment, &c.) ; constitution-al, constitution al-ly ; constitu- 



ins ERRORS OF SPEECH 

tional-ist, a lover of a constitutional government; oonstl- 
tntion-ist, one who advocates snch a government. 

(**G(mstituiion-al*' should be ** constitution-el." TJie 
French have preserved the right vowel, " constitutionneL" ) 
Fr. constitution; Lat. eonstUHtio (con statu£rt, to set up together). 

CJonstrain, konMrain^ (to compel) ; constrain'-able (B. xxiii.) 
Ck>n8trained^ constrainedly, k5n.strain\eddy (Rule zxxvi.) 
Constraint, kon.strainf. Restraining influence in action. 
French contraimdre, contrainte; Latin con8tringir$, to bind fast. 

Constrict, konMricif (to bind) ; constrict'-or (not -<r, R. xxxviL) 

Boa Constrictor, plu. Boa Constrictors, Bore Kon,strik' ,tor 
The serpent which with its coils binds its victim fiist. 

Lat coTMtringOy supine tonstriduin, to bind fast. 
Construct, kon.strucf (to make), oonstruot'-or (not -er, R. xxzvii.) 

Construction, k8nMruk^,8hun, construction >al ; constmctiye, 

k5n.8truk\t%Vf constructive-ly, constructive-ne^s (R. xvii.) 

Frvnch construction; Latin eonstructio, constructor, construire, to 
heap together ; Greek str66, stdrid, to spread, &c. 

Construe, kon'-stru; construed, kon' strode, (not k6n.stru\ k^n,- 

strude*) ; con'stru-ing, con'stru-er (R. rix.) To translate. 

Fr. construire, to construe ; Lat. eoTistruire, to build, to heap together. 

Consubstantiation, k6n'-suh.8tan'-8he.a^''8hun, the Lutheran no. 
tioD that the body and blood of Christ are in union with 
the eucharistic bread and wine. 

Transubstantiation, the Roman Catholic notion that the 

eucharistic bread and wine are veritably changed into 

the body and blood of Jesus Christ. 

Latin con substantia, [in union] with the substance (i.e., Ohrlat); 
trans substantia, transferred into the very substance of Christ. 

Con'sul, plu. Con'suls, Roman magistrates. Consols^ British 
3 per cents. Consular, kon^sUMr (acy.) ; consulate, 
k^n\8u.late, the term of a consul's office; consul-ship, 
the tenure of the office of consul. Consul graeral, plu, 
consul generals (not consuls general). 

Latin consul, consiUo, to consult (con aiUo, Lt., »i vdlo, to emniiM 
and seH if each one is willing, or approves of a decree). 

Consult, kon.8uUf; consulf-er; consultation, kSn'^suLtay^'ahun, 

•* Consulter" ought to be ** consultor" Latin consudtor. 
Fr. consulter, consultation; Lat. consultdtio, consultare, to consult 
Consume, kon^sume'; consumed' (2 syl.), consum'-ing, oonsum'-er 
( K. xix.), consum'-able (R. xxiii.) To devour, to bum. 

Consumption, k8n.8U7np\8hun ; consumptive, kon^sump^.tSiv, 

consiimpiive-ly,consumptive-ness (consumptive tendency). 

Fr. coTisumer, to consume ; Lat. eontumpiio, eonsumirtf to t^T «^i nt - 



AND OF SPELLING. ir,a 

OoBsiimmate, kSnMtw,\maU (a4j.) ; hm^jium.mate (verb). 
CoiiBii]n''iiiate, complete ; consam'mate-ly (Rule xvii.) 
Con''8iuiuiiftte, con'summat-ed, con^samm&t-ing (Rule xix.) 

CoTwnTnTnation, k<Sn\8um.7nay'\shun. Completion, (-mm-.) 

"ConBtun'mate,** Latin consummate, folly (fummo, the sum total). 
"Con'sommate," Latin ooiumnwnare, to aam together [all the figures]. 

ConsmDaptixnL,kSn.8ump'jhun; consumptiYe. (5^^ Oonsnme.) 
Contagion, kSn.tay\jun, Communieadon of disease by contact. 

Contagions, k6n,tay\juSy contagious-lj, contagious-ness. 
Fr. €owta4jion: Lat. eontdgio {con tago = tango, to touch together). 
Contain'' (to hold), contained' (2 syl.), contain'-able (Rule xxiii). 
(The spelling of all these words is indefensible.) 
French contenir^to contain ; Lat. continue (con Uneo, to hold together). 
Contaminate, h6n.tam\%.nMte (todefQe), contam'inat-ed (R.xxxvi), 
contamlnat-ing, contamlnat-er (ought to be -or), R. xix. 

Contamination, klin.tamW.nay" .shun. Pollution, taint. 

Yr. oontamineTf contamination ; Latin corUdmfnatio, con(diMtnd<or, 
eontdminare {con tdmlno, to defile with [assoolationl. 

Contemn, Condemn, kon,t^nf, kdn.dem' ('* n " not sounded). 

Contemn, to despise ; Condemn, to blame, to pronounce guilty. 

Contemned, kon.t^d\ despised ; Condemned, kon.d^md\ 

Gontemn-ing, k6n.tem\ing ; Condemn-ing, k<5n.dem\ing, 

Contemn-er, k6n.t^\ery despiser ; Condemn-er, kdn.dem'er. 

Latin coniemTiSre, to oontemn {con temaio, to despise altogether) ; but 
eondemndre {con damno, to doom with penalty). 

Contemplate, kdn\t^.plate (not kdn.tem\plate), to meditate 

upon ; con'templat-ed, con'templar-ing (R. xix.), con'- 

templat-or (R. xxxvii.) ; contemplation, kon\tem.play'\ - 

shun, meditation ; contemplative, kon.tem\pla.t%v ; con- 

tem'plative-ly, contem'platiLve-nefls (Rule xvii.) 

Latin contem^ldre, to contemplate, contempldtio, contemplativua, con- 
templator. The Roman augurs having taken their stand on the 
Capit'oline Hill, marked out a space called the templum. Watching 
on this space to see what would happen was called "contemplation. " 

Cont^nporaneoiiB, k5n\t^.p5.ray'\ni.u>i (not cotemporaneous) 
(adj.), of the same period; contemporaneous-ly. contem- 
poraneous-ness ; Contemporary, plu. contemporaries, 
kbn.tem\po,Ta.ry, k6n.tem\po.ru,r%z (not cotemporary). 
(*' Co-" precedes a, e, i, o, and h. '* Con-" precedes c, d, t ; 

f, v» q ; g J ; » <wid s.) 

Contemporary of or with f If an article precedes, of must fol- 
low ; if not, with. " He was a contemporary of mine." 
"He was contemporary with me." In the former ex- 
ample "contemporary" is a noun, in the latter an adj. 
Latin eontempdr&neus {eon tempus, the same time). 



140 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

CJontempt, kon.temf (scorn) ; contemptnonsness, 'tem\tu.U8.ne88, 
Gontempt'-ible (worthless); contempt'uous {-tu.us) scomM. 

Oontempt'-ibly (worthlessly); contempfuons-ly, scornfully. 

"I gave him a contemptuous look" (not contemptible). 

"He treated them contemptuously" (not contemptibly). 

"He is a contemptible fE?llow," wortbless. 

Latin contempttts, disdain {con temn^re, sup. temptum, to scorn wholly). 

Contend' (to dispute); contention, kon.ten\8hun, strife. 

Contentions, kon.ten\8hu8 ; contentions -ly, contentions-neas. 
Latin contentio, contentiOsuSf contencUfre to strain with [force]. 
Content, satisfaction ; (Dis-Content, dissatisfaction). 

Content'-ed, content'-ment. The negatives are " discon- 

tent'-ed," " disconteni'-ment." 
Gontenfed-ly, discontent'ed-ly ; content'-ing. 
Hal-content, plu. mal-contents, persons not satisfied. 

Non-content, plu. non-contents, lords who negative a " bill." 
Those who approve of it are called " Contents." 

Contents (no sing.) of a cask, book, &c. ; i.e., wbat it contains. 

Vr. content f contentement (3 eyl.); Latin eontentus. continiref supine 

contentum (con Un^o. to hold together, to contain). 
(*• Contentus belongs to two verbs — contendo to stretchy and conttneo.) 

Contest, kdn'.test (noun) ; kdn.tesf (verb). Knle 1. 

Contest, kdn:te8f (to dispute), contesf-ed, contesf-lng, 
contestlng-ly ; contesf-able (not -ible)y contest'able-ness, 
contestation, kon\te8.tay'\8hun, strife, joint-attestation. 
French contester^ to contest, contestation, contestable; Lat contMtdHo, 
con testdri, to call witnesses to prove a case {testis, a witnessX 

Context, kon'.text. The part bearing on a " text" or quotation. 

French contexte; Latin contextus, eon texo, to weave together. 
Contiguity, kon'.ttgW.tty. Proximity, contact. Cowper uses 
the word for "uninterrupted extent," "continuation": 

Oh ! for a lodge in some vast wilderness. 
Some boundless contiguity of shade. . . 

Contiguous, k6n.tig\u.u8 ; contiguoiis-ly, contiguous-ness. 
Fr.contiguitS ; Lat. eontigHfos, adjoining (con tango, to touch togetherX 
Continent, kon'.ti.nent; continent-ly, continence, k6n'.ti.fienee; 
continency, applied to man as " chastity " to women. 

Con'tinent. A large extent of land not severed by sea. 

Continental, kon\ti.nen*'.tal. Pertaining to the Continent. 

Fr. continence, continent, continental. Latin eontinenUa, chMtltj ; 
eontinens -nentis, mainland ; contlnire, to contain or restrain <meMlf 
{con tinere, to hold together, like different lands on a "oontinmt.'*) 

Contingent, kdn.tin\jent (dependent), contin'gent-ly. 

Oontingence, Icon.tin'.jence ; contingency, kSn.tin\jen.sy. 

Fr. contingent, contingenee; Lat. contingena (con tangirt, to toii6h)L 



ASD OF SPELLIXG, 141 

Gontiniial, kdn.tin\u.al. (See next article.) 

Goiitinne, kdrLtin\u (to last) ; contm^Tied (3 syl.), contin^u-ing. 
Oontixi'ii-er, one who continues; contin'^na'tor, one who con- 
tinnes a book or poem begun by another ; contin'u-able ; 
contin^u-al, oontiii'iial-ly, contm'uance, contmnation, 
kdn.tin'.u.d'\8hun; contiD.TumB,k5n.tin\u.u8 ; continuoxis- 
ly, continiiity, kon\ti.nu'\i,tyy uninterrupted succession. 

Fr. wnixnuvr, eo^itinviU; Latin cont{nuan«, continuation eoniinuvLt 
eontXnuittu, eontinudre, to continue. (Fr. continiiel is incurrect.) 

CkmtGrt' (to twist), contortion, kon,tor'jthun, a twist. 

Latin coniortio or contorsio, con torqueo, to twist wholly. 
Contour, k&n^toor' (not kon.tocy/). The outline of the face. 

French contour, outline, turn ; Latin con tomo, to turn. 

Contra- (Latin prefix), against, in opposition to. 

Per Contra. A commercial term, used in ledgers, &c., on 
the "credit" side : as " Dr." (left side), " Per Contra, Cr." 

Gon^traband, illicit [traffic] ; contrabandist, kdn^-tra,banf''4§t, 

Contrabandibta, kon* -traJban-dU* -tah, plu. -Ua, Sminggler. 

ItaL eontraJbbando, to smuggle ; Lat. contra hannus, against tbe edict. 
Contract, kdn', tract (noun) ; kdn,tracf (verb;. Rule 1. 

Con'tract, a bargain; contract^ ,to make a bargain, to shorten. 

Contract^ , contract'-ed (xxxvi.), contract-or (not er), xxxvii. 

Gontracf (to shorten), oontracf-ed, contracted -ly, con- 
tracted-ness ; c6ntraction, kdn.trac\8hunf abridgment. 

Contractile, kon,trac^..U. Able to contract itself. 

Contr&ct-ible (not -able). Capable of being contracted. 

Contractility, k5n-trac.tiV'-i-ty, Having a contractile force. 

Contractibility, kon-trac-t\.biV*-i.ty, Having a contractible 
property. The opposite property is dilatability, 
(**Air *' is contractible^ but not contractile^ and we speak 
of its " contractibility" Animal muscle has a '• contrac- 
tile " force, and we speak of its " contractility" 

French contracter, to contract, contraotite, contractility, contraction. 
Lat. contra^io, contractus (fion PrdMre, sup. tractum, to draw together.). 

Contradict, kdn'-traMct" (to gainsay) ; contradict'-ed (R. xxxvi.) 

Contradict'-^r (not -or. Not a Latin word. Rule xxxvii.) 

Contradiction) kdn\tra.dic'' ,shun. A flat denial. 

Contradictious, kdn/traAic/'shus ; contradictious-ness. 

Contradictory, k^\tra.dic'\t5.ry ; contradictori-ly (adv.) 

French contradiction, contradictoire, contradictory; Latin contra- 
dietio, contra dicire, to say the opposite. 

Contralto, plu, contraltos, kon,traV .toze (Italian). Rule xlii. 

" Contralto " is a low female- voice ; Soprano (jso.prah'.noX 

a high female-voice. 



142 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Contrariety, plu. contrarieties, k^\tra,ri'\^.tiz. Antagonism. 
Frendi etmtratieti; Latin oontrSrieUUt disagreement, opposition. 

Contrary, plu. contraries, kon\trd.ry, -riz (not k5n.trair^ryt &c.) 
Contrari-]y, kdn\trd.H.ly; con'trari-ness, con'trari-wiBe(xi.) 
Contrarions, kSn.trai'/ri.us ; contrarions-ly, -ness. 

Contrariety, kdn\tra.ri'\e.tyy plu. -ties, -tiz. Antagonism. 

French contraire; Latin contrdrie (adv.), contrdrius, ▼. contrdHo. 
' ' Contra'ry " -is more correct, but i8 not in vm. Shakespeare vsa both : 
"Had faUely thrtut upon contra'ry /eet.'*—K. J., iv., 2.) 

Contrast, kdn^trast (noun); kon.tra8f (verb). Rule 1. 

Con'trast. The opposite. (Followed by to : ** A contrast to...**) 

Contrast^. To show the difference of things by comparison. 

(Followed by with: "Contrast God's goodness with..") 
Fr. contraster (v.), contra^te (n. ) ; Lat. contra stdre, to set in opposition. 
Contravene, kSn,tra.veen' (to thwart); contravened' (8 syL), con- 
faaven'-ing, contraven'-er (R. xix.), one who thwarts. 
Obntrayention, k5n'-tra.ven'\8hun. A thwarting, &g. 
y Wr. contravention, v. contrevenir; Lat. contra venio, to come against. 
Contretebips (Fr.), kohW.trd.tah'n'. Something inopportune. 
Latin contra tempus^ fcoming at] the wrong time. 

Contrihnte, k6n.trlb\ute ; contribut-ed (R. xxxvi.), contribut-ing, 
contribut-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.), contribut-able (R. xxiii.), 
contribnt-ive,-trl6'.M.fCz?; contribution, kon\tri.hu"^hun, 

Contributary»-<ri6'.w.ta.ry. Payingtribute to thesamecrown. 

Contributory, -trib\u.tSry. Contributing to the same object. 

Fr. contribviixm ; Lat. contrihutdrius, contriMiio, corUrUnUor, etm- 
tribiUlre {con trilmo, to give with Lothers]). 

Contrite, kdn\trite (penitent); contrite-ly, kon.trite\ly (adv.) 

Contrition, kon.trish\un (not -«ton, R. xxxiii). Sorrow for sin. 

Fr. contrit, contrition: Lat. contrltus {con tiHfre, sup. trit/wm,, to mb 
together. "A conUite heart " is one broken or bruised with rubs. ) 

Contrive, kon,trive'; contrived' (2 syl.), contriv'-ing, contriv'-er, 
contriv'-able, contriv'-ance (R. xix,) To devise, to plan. 
Corruption of the French controuver, to find out, to invent. 
Control, kSn.tr die' (to keep under restraint) ; controlled' (3 syL) 
Controll'-ing, controll'-er (R. i.) ; but contior-ment (R. ii. %,) 

Comptroller, k8n,trole\er. One whose duty it is to examine 
tax-gatherers' accounts ; an officer of the royal household. 

Comptroller of the Pipe. An exchequer officer connected 

with the "pipe," or great roll. Both these words are 

now spelt controller. {Loyr Jj&t. eontrardt&ldtor.) "Gomp. 

troller " is computus rotuldtor, keeper of accounts. 

Fr. contrdle, i e., contra r6le; Lat contra rdtiUtu, a ooianier register. 
All contracts were at one time enrolled in a pnbHc register. 



AXD OF SPELLTXG, \\r> 

Ckmtrovert, kdn\trS.ver% to dispute; oontrovert-ed (B. xxxvi.) 

Controveii'-ear, one who dispates a stfttement; ocmtrovert'- 
ist, oontroverf-ible, controvertlbly. 
(The second t in the$e words is an error. The root verb 
is not ^'vert^e" to tum^ hut "versdri," to dispute,) 

Controveisy, jjZu. controversies, kSn'.trd.verMz, dis^ui&iion. 

Controversial, kon.tro.ver^jhal; controversial-ly (adv.) 

CSontrovendal-ist. A profeBsional writer of controversies. 

Fr. oontroverse (n.), et/ntrtwerser (▼.). corUrovers-aJble ; Latin contro- 
tergiOf controverAdri (not controverUfre, to torn against). 

(kmtiimacy, k6n\tu,md,sy (not kdn.til\ma.sy)t obstinate resistanc^e 

of authority; oontumadoiis, kSn\tu.may*\shus ; contu- 

madons-ly, oontumacions-ness. 

Fr. contuvfMce, contnmacf; Lat. contAmdcia (eon tumirt, to swell 
aealnst one. ContHurMix, gen. contiJumdcis.) 

Ckxntnmely, plu, contumelies, kfin'.tii.mi.ly, kSfi\tu.m^.llz (not 
k8n.til,'me,ly), insolence, affronting language. 

Contumelious, kiin\tu.mee'\U.us ; contumelious-hf. 

Contumelious-ness. (Same root as " contumacy.") 

Latin contHmiHa, contHmeliCma, abusive {con tumere, see tibove). 
Cotttiise^ (to bruise), contused (2 syl.), contus'-ing, contus'-er, 
contusion, kdn.tii',shun (Bule xxxiii.), a bruise. 

Fr. contusion; Lat. eontusio (con tundo, sup. tusum, to pound). 

Connndnun, plu, connndrnms. A punning riddle. 

(Hd £ng. cunnan to know, dredm ton, ** fun-knowledge." Like JUredfnr 
crc^ joy-craft, i.e., music, &c. 

Convalescence, k&n\va,les'' ,sense. Renewal of health after illness. 
Convalescent, kbn,va.les",sent. Restored to health. 

("Sc-" denotes that the action of the word ij '^progressive.^') 

Fr. convalescence, conval£8cent ; Lat. con vdlesco (vdleo to be well, 
vcUesco to grow stronger and stronger). 

Ocmvene, kon,veen' (to assemble) ; convened' (2 syl.), conven'-ing, 
conven-er (Rule xix.), conven-able better conven-ible. 
(The vyrong conjugation, as untal, is a borrowed French error.) 
French convenir, contenahle; Latin eon v^ire, to come together. 
Convenience, k5n.vee\ntense. Something commodious. 
Conve'niency ; oonve'nient, conve'nient-ly. 
Lat. conveniens, oonvinientia {con ven/S/re, to fadge together). 
Convent, k^\ventt home for nuns [or monks] ; conven'tual, 
(monastic) ; conventional, -shun.aly customary. 

A ** conventional phrase or manner,** i.e., in vogue, usudL 
A '* convcTiitMl prior," dec, the prior of a convent, 

Gonventicle, kbn.ven\tl,kX A dissenter's chapel (a word of 

contempt), it means a " little " convent or assembly. 

Conventicler,fc^.i;ew'.«.fcl«r. A dissenter (word of contempt). 

French convmJticuU; Latin eonneniiciUwm (-«uZ, -de, &o., dim.) 



lAi ERRORS OF SPEECH 

CJonvention, kon.ven\8hun, A meeting of delegates, a contract. 

Gonven'tioii-al (customaiy), conven'tioii-ally (adv.) 

Conventionality, kon.ven'^hun,aV\i.ty. Formality. 

Conven'tional-ism. Manners in accordance with the fashion. 

Gonventionary, kon.ven\8hun.d,ry. Settled by convention. 

Gonven'tion-er, a party in a convention. Gonyen'tian-ist, 
one who makes a contract. (See Convent note,) 

French convention, conventionnd : Latin conventio, conventiondlii 
{con venio, supine ventum, to come together). 

Converge, kdn.verj\ to incline to one point ; converged' (3 syl.), 

converg'-ing, converg'-ent, converg'-ence, -ency (R.xix.) 

French converger, convergence ; Latin eon vergSre, to bend tORether. 

Converse, kon'.verse (noun and adj.) ; kon,ver8e' (verb). Rule 1. 

Con'verse, a proposition turned round : thus, the converse 

of " every A is a B," is " every B is an A." Gonverse'-ly. 
Gonversion, kon.ver\shun, complete change. (See Convert.) 
Converse' (to chat) ; converse^' (2 syl.), convers'-ing, ccm- 

vers'-able, convers'-ably, convers'able-ness. (Rule xix.) 
Conversant, kon\ver.8ant (not kon.ver^,8ant)t acquainted 

[with an art, &c.] by familiar use ; oon'versant-ly. 
Conversation, kon.ver.say'\8hun (chat); converBation-al, 

conversational-ly, conversation-ist. 

French conversation, converse, converser (v.) ; Latin eonvertdrif eon^ 
versans, conversatio (con versor, to converse with another). 

Conversazione, plu. conversazioni (Ital.) kon''Ver'8&f'Zl.5''ne, 
A party in which conversation is to furnish the amusement. 

Convert, kon'.vert (noun) ; kon.verf (verb). Rule L 

Gonverf, convert'-ed (R. xxxvi.), convert'-er, convert'-ing. 

Gonvert'-lble (not -able), convert'-ibly, convert'-ibil'"ity. 

Gonversion, kon.vet'.shun. Entire change. (Rule zxxiii.) 

French convertir, convertible, conversion; Latin converaiOf amveri^ 
bilis, convertire (con verto, to turn completely). 

Convey, kon.vay^ (to transmit); conveyed' (2 syL), oonvey'-ing, 

convey'-able (R. xxiii.), convey'-ance (R. xxiv.), oonvey'- 

anc-er, a lawyer who draws up writings for conveymg 

properly ; convey'anc-ing, the business of a conveyance. 

Low Latin conveiancia, a conveyance ; conveidre, to convey ; Latin 
conviMre, to convey by [horse and cart, &c.] 

Convict, k5n\victj a felon ; k5n.vict\ to prove guilty. (Rnle L) 

Convict', convict'-ed (R. xxxvi.), convicf-ing; oonviotioii, 

kon.vik' .shun, strong belief, proof or detection of gailt. 

Gonvictive, kon.vik'.tlu, condemnatory ; convictive-ly. 

French conviction; Latin convictio, v. convindre, supine eonvietvm 
(con vinco, to overthrow altogether). In Latin there are two 
supines tdike, " convivo " (to live together) and *' convince. ** Henoe 
convictio means either, " a living together " or a " oonid<^on." 



AND OF SPELLIXq. 145 

CcniTiiioe^ (3 syL), oonvin'ces (3 eyL, R. liii.), convinced' (2 syl.), 
oonyinc'-er, convinc'-ing, convin'cing-ly, convinc-ible. 

Latin eommneirt^ to conyfnce ; same root-verb as conHet fq.v.) 
Hence, Jno. viiL 46 : " Which of you canviTicts [convicts] me of sin f* 

OonyiTial, kon,vWXdl (jovial); oonyivial-ly, convivial-ist. 
Conyiyiality, konxW .\.aV\l.ty, Festivity, social indulgenre. 
French eofucivialilU ; Latin conioivialis, com^vo, to live together. 
Convoke^ convoked' (2 syl.), conv6k'-ing,conv6k'-er (Rule xix.) 
Oonvocation, k8n\vo.kay'',8hun, A clerical couDcil. 
French convocation ; Latin convdcdtio, eon rdcdre, to call t(%ether. 
Goavolntion, kon\vo.lu'\8hun. A fold or coil. 

Latin convdlutus (eon volvo, to roll together). 
GoBVolvnIiiB, kon.voV. vu.ltu. The garden bindweed (-tti. not -vo). 
Latin and French convolvUltu {-ithu dim.), the little twisting plant. 
CoAVolvnlacefB, kon-vbV .vu-ldy" ^S.ee. The order including the 
above. Tbe suffix -acecB denotes an order of plants. • 

Convoy, kihi'.voy (noun), kon.voy' (verb). Rule 1. 

Ckm'voy, an attendant for defence. Ck)nvoy', to attend, &e. 

Ckmvoy', convoyed' (2 syl.), convoy'-ing. (Rule xiii.) 
French eonvoi; Low Latin convHo; Latin convifho, to convey. 
Convulse' (2 syl.), to shake emotionally ; convulsed' (2 syl.) 

Ckmvnls'-uig (R. xix.); convulsive, kon.vuVMv; convul- 

sive-ly, convulsive-neBs (R. xvii.) (Fr. convulsion^ &c.) 
Lat. eonvulsio, from eon vello, sup. vuhum, to pluck or tear to pieces. 
Coo (like a pigeon), cooes, koozj cooed, kood; coo'-ing (R.xliii.) 
An imitative wordL 

Go(d£ (to dress food), cooked (1 syl.), cookery, kook\^.ry. 

Old English o6c or c&e, verb cucodan] ; Latin c6quo, noun cdquus. 
Cool, oool'-er (comp.), cod'-est (super.) ; cooled (1 syl,), cool'- 
ing ; cool'-er (a vessel for cooling liquids); cool'-ly, coor- 
ness, cool'-ish {-ish added to a<^. is dim. ; added to nouus 
it means *|like," as hoy-ish, like a boy). 
Old English c6l, cool ; verb c<il[ian], c6l-nea, coolness. 
Coolie, kooV.^y a porter (East Indies). Cool'-ly, chilly. 
Coom, koom; Coomb, koom; Comb, kome. 

Coom. Refuse such as collects in carriage- wheels, &c. 
Coomb. Four bushels (dry measure) ; a valley. 
Comb (for the hair), verb to dress the hair. 

" Coom,*' (Jerman kahm, mould. 

" CJoomb/* O. Eng., a liquid measure ; a valley ; Gk. kumbS, a hollow. 

** Comb ' (for the hair), Old English camb. 

Coop (a pen for fowls, to pen fowls), cooped, koopt. 

Latin e&pa, a butt, a coop ; Old English cofa, a box, a chamber. 

K 



146 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Oooper, koop\er, one who makes tubs. Oooperage,. hoeffjeryo^tt 

the workshop of a cooper, charge made for coopor's work. 
Li^in mpOi a butt or tub (-agt something done, -099 to- do).*' 

Ck^-qperate, ho.bp'.e.rdte (to work in unison), co-op^erat-ed (B. 
xxxvi.), co-op'erat-ing (R. xix.), co-op'erat-or (not -er 
IL xxxvii.), co-operative, kd.op' .S.ra.t%v (acfj.) ; oo^ypera- 
tion, ko^-8p-S.ray**-shun; co-op'erant (a^j.) 

French cooperani^ concurring, cooperation^ eoopeiw (Terb); Latin 
codp^dtio, codpifrdtor {co[con]op£rdri to work with [oUi^rslX 

Co-ordiiiate, ko.o7^,dl.ndte (adj). Of equal order, rank« or degree. 

Go-or'dinate-ly, co-or'dinate-neB8. Equality of rankv Ac, 

Go-or'dinate, plu. co-or'dinates. Lines, &c, ranged in order. 

Oo-ordination, ko.or^.dl.nay'\8hun. Just arrangement. 

French coordination, coordonner! (verb}: Latin eo-ord{nd<i<>, eo-ordl- 
ndtlw^, oo-ordindtus (coi.con]oi-(2-rndre, to arrange togetherji, 

Gooty a water-fowl; Cote, a pen for doves or sheep; Goat {q.v.) 

"CJoot," "Welsh cwtiar, a coot (cwta, the bob-tail [bird]); 
"Cote," Old Eng. cdte, a cot ; Welhh cwt, a cot, sty, &c. 
"Coat" ca garment), French cotte; Italian cotta; Qerman ]n»M«. 

Copaiba, kd.pay'.bah. A balsam. {See OapiTi.) 

Copal, 'ko'.pal (not ko.paV). A vamisb. (Mex. copalH, resins.) 

Go-part'ner (a joint partner) ; co-part'nery, or co-part^nexshipi. 

Ckipe, a hood ; Cope, to vie with others ; Coop, a pen for fowls. 

' Cope " (for the head ], Old Eng. cop, a cap or hood ; Welsh eob^ acoafc. 
' Cope" (to vie), Danish kappes, to vie with others. 
'Coop" (for fowls), Latin cupa, a butt or coop. 

Coping, kd\ping. The uppermost tier of a wall (cqpe» a hood). 

Copious, ko'.ptus (plentiful), co'pious-ly, co'pioua-neasi 
Latin cdpiosus, cdpia, plentf (co[con]opts, very rich). 

Copper. A metal, made of copper, to case with copper, ajeoin. 
Cop'per-ish. Having a slight taste or smell of copper. 

Coppery, hSp'.pe.ry. Containing copper, resembling copper. 
Latin cuprum^ Le., ces Cyprium, Cyprus brass ; German hu^t^. 

Copperas, kop\pSr,rds, Green vitriol. (It ought to be eoppen$y 

Fr. couperose; Ital. copparosa; Lat cupri roa, liquor of cojf^pn,. 

Coppice, kbp'.pis. A wood consisting of brushwood. 

Low Lat. copieia; Gk. kdptd, to cut, so called because the treea are eat 
to the ground every few years, to make underwood as oovarfor^came. 

Copse, kops. Same as Coppioe. {See above,) 

Copula, plu. copulas, kbp*.u.ldh, &c. The verb which lonites or 
couples the predicate with the subject : via., {« Of jit not. 

Copulate, k6p\u.late (to pair sexually); oopfulfit.edi 
cop'ulat-ing (H. xix.); copulation^ k6p\u,ki^''^hm' 






AND OF SPBLLJNO. 147 

Oopabktm, X^^u.2ai<U;, connectiye, as '* copulative •on* 
iuQctions." Copiilatory, kdp'\u.ld.tb,ry, 

French eopvXation^ copulative ; Latin eOpAio^ eiplUMiOt dipAlattvui, 
▼. eSpHUre, to unite, to couple. 

CopYfplu. copies, kSp'py^ kdp'piz, A transcript, a pattern* 

Cop'y, copies, hop'plz ; copi-ed. kSp'pXd; copi-er, k9p\ter; 

cop'y-ing, cop'y-ist, cop'yright, cop'ybook, cop'yfaold. 
Fr. eopie, » tr&nscr^t ; Low Lat. o&pta, a' transcript, Y. dfpidm, 
Coqnet, kd.ketf (verb), to *' play " love-making. Ooqiiette (non»)« 
Coquet', coqttetf-ed (R. xxxvi.), coquetf-ing (R. ii., 6.) 
Coquette, kd.kSf ; coquett^-isb, coquett'ish-ly (jauntily). 
French coqueter (v.)^ eoquettet coquetterU (cd^ [to imitate] a cockX 
Cor- (Latin prefix), con before r. 

Coracle, k8i^rd.k% a Welsh boat; Curricle, kur^,ri.k% a carriage. 

" Oorade," Welsh ctorxogl (cwrtog. a frame 6t carcase). 

*' Cunicle," Latin curriciUus, a little carriage (-deot-cuhUf dlm.^ 

Coral, ka/ral (a zoophyte, the shells conglomerated). • ' 

CoraU-aceouB, kdr^raLlay'^skus (&^j.); oom^-ine, M9i^fdl.Ui, 

Corall-iferouB, kdr^rallif.^.rus. Containing coraL 

Corallifomi, kofrdLLform, resembling coral ; cor'all-ite. 

Coralloid, kor^ralXoid ; coralloid-al, kofral.loid\al. 

Greek koraUion eidos^ coral-like. 

C *Coral ' <mght to have double 'H/' or iUcompoundi only one* 'I." B.iil.) 
Ft. corail, coraline, C4tmlUflde ; Lat. oUrallium, cdroUum, or CMnUiitm; 
6k. kdrcUlion or kourdlionf coraL 

Gozaiiacli, kofra.nak. Lamentation for the dead. 
Gkielie comh rdnaich, crying together. 

Covbeil, k&r'.hel (used in sieges). Corbel, kcrf.hel (used in archi- 
tecture). The base of a Corinthian pillar, the projecting 
knob (often cnrved) on which an arch rests. 

Corl)el, corT)elled (2 syl.), cOr'belling. 
Fr. eorbeille, a small basket, a corbel ; Lat. eorbUla, a little basket. ' 
Cord (string) ; Chord (of music); Cawed, past tense of caw. 

Cord, to fasten with cord ; cord'age, cord collectively. 

French eorde; Latin chorda; Greek ckordi {-age snflix collective). 
Cordelier, kof'.de.leer^. A grey friar who is girded with a rope. 

French cordelier {eorde, a rope), one Who wears a rope. 
Cordial (n.), Ad/.dt'aZ. A cheerini? draught; (adj.) hearty. 

Cor'dial-ly, cor'dial-ness, cordiality, k^t'MMV'.i.ty. 

Frendi cordial, cordiality (Latin cor, gen. cordis, the heart). 
Cordovan, kor^.dcvdn (not kor.doiVun), Spanish leather. So 
called from Cofdova (not Corcio'va), where it was first mude. 
Ccoduroy, kord'roy, A thick ribbed cotton for trousers. 

Fx«aeh cord du roij the king's cord. 



148 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gordwainer, kord\way-ner, A worker in leather, not cord maker. 

French eordouannier, bow cordonniery a corruption of coTdova/nitr^ » 
worker in Gor'dovan leather. 

Gore, Corps, Gaw, kdr. Core. (I^at. cor the heart, Gk. hear,) 
Gore (of an apple), v. to take out the core ; cored, cor'-iiig. 
Corps, hor^ a body of soldiers. (Fr. eorps^ Latin corpua.) 
Caw. The cry of a crow, an imitation word. 

Coreopsis, /i;ar're.5p".«l». The tick-seeded sunflower. 

Oreek Icdris dpns, a bug in appearance [referring to the seed]. 

Coriander, k5r^ri.an'\der, A plant famed for its seed. 

Old English corion; Latin cdriandrum' Greek kdriannon or hSrUfn 
(kdria, a bug). The bruised seed smells like that insect. 

Cork, Calk or Caulk, Cauk. All pronounced kork. 

Cork (of a bottle),, v. corked (1 syl.), cork'-y, tasting of the 
cork ; cork'i-ness, having the buoyancy of a cork. 

Calk. To close the seams of a ship with oakum. 

-€aiik. A sulphate of bary'ta. (A miner's word.) 

" Cork," German kork ; Latin cortex, the bark of a tree. 

" Calk," Latin calco, to tread or press (calx, the heel of the foot). 

Cormorant, kdr^.mo.rant. A glutton, the sea-raven. 

French cormoran; Latin corvtts marirms^ the sea-raven. 
Com. Grain; an excrescence on the feet; to salt meat. 

Com (grain), has no plural, except when the general crop or 

different varieties are referred to, as " Corns are better." 
Old English com; German kom; Danish kom; Latin gramwn. 
Com, plu. corns (on the feet); com-y; cor'neous, homy. 
Old English com; Welsh cotti; French come; Latin comu, hem. 
Com (to salt meat), corned (1 syL), com'-ing. 
German komen, to com or salt meat. 
.€omefb, kor\ne.ah. The membrane in front of the eye. 
French corn^e; Latin eom^tts, homy (comu, horn). 

Cornelian, kor.nee'.luan, A chalcedony. (See Cameliaa.) 

Comet, ko/.net, a cavalry ensign; a horn. Cor'net-cy (-cy 

denotes " rank "). Cor'net-a-piston, a musical instrument. 

French comette, a cavalry officer ; comet, a horn ; comet d pisUm. 
T^e officer so called carries the " comette " or ensign of his company. 

Cornice, k5r^.nl8 (not comUh, as it is very often prononnoed). 
The border round the ceiling of a room. 
Italian cornice; Greek kdr&nis, the end or finish of anytiiing. 
Comn-arn'monis (not -ammo'nU), the ammSnite (q.v,) 
Cornucopia, kof-nuxd'-pl.ah. Emblem of abundance. 

Latin comii cdpia, horn of plenty. It was the horn of AmalfthSa 
(nurse-goat of Jupiter) which AchSloiis gave t<.* HerotUte. 



ANi) OF SPELLING, MI> 



Corolla, fto.roZ'iWtA, blossom ; coroUaceOns, koi^.rhl.lay'\shu8{BjA']. 
of corolla) ; coroUet, kor^rUMt^ one leaf of a blossom. 
Latin edroUc^ » little crown (dimin. of cOrOTuiy a crown). 

Corollary, kor^rol.ld,ry (not ko.roVM.ry nor kor^rol.lairWy), 

An inference which rises out of an inference : Suppose it 

is proved that matter was created, then it foUows as a 

" corollary " that there was a creator anterior to the 

existence of matter, and that matter is not eternal, <&c. 

Latin eSTOlldrium^ a consectary (from edrolla, a garland which was 
given invariably to an actor who had performed his part well). 

Coronilla, kofrSMiV.lah (not coroneUa), A plant so called be- 
cause the flowers crown the branches in a corymb. 
French eoroniUe (Latin cdrorui, with a diminutive ending). 

Corona, ko.ro'.nah, a halo ; the upper surface of molnr teeth; the 
margin of a radiated compound flower ; a drip, &c. 

Coronal, koT^ro.nalj belonging to a crown; coronet, k6/ro.neU 
the crown worn by a nobleman ; a downy tuft on seed. 

Coronation, kor^ro.nay" ^hun. The ceremony of crowning. 

Coroneted, kor^ro.net.edt entitled to wear a coronet; coro- 
nated, kdr^ro.ndy.tedy crowned ; coronary, kor^roma.ry, 

French coronal ("coronation" is one of the very few words in -tion 
which is not fVenCh) ; Latin cdrdna, cGrdndtiOy e6r6ndiu$. 

Coroner, koi^roMer, So called because he has chiefly to do with 
" Pleas of the Crown." (Low Latin corondtor, a coroner.) 

Corporal, Corporeal, ko7^.po.ralt kor,po\r^.dl (adjectives). 

Corporal. Pertaining to the body, bodily, of the body. 

CorporeaL Having a material body. 

"Corporal punishment," bodily punishment; not corporeal 
punishment (punishment having a material body). 

"Corporeal substance," "This corporeal frame," that is a 
substance or frame having a material body. 

" Corporal pain,'* pain of the body ; " Corporal injury." 

Corporeal rights," rights over material substances. 

Corporal " is opposed to Mental; " Corporeal " to 
Spiritual or Immaterial, 

Cor'poral-ly, bodily. Corpo'real-ly, in a material form. 

" He was present corporally" bodily, in his proper person. 

" The ghost in Hamlet is shown on the stage corporeal-ly," 
that is, not as a spirit, but having a material form. 

Corporallty, bodily state. Corporeality, materiality. 

Baleigh speaks of the " corporality of light," it should be 
«* corporeality," meaning that light is material, according 
to Newton's theory; but it would be quite correct to speak 






15# JCJiRORS OF BPEECE 

of the "corporaMty " of ihe.^host, meaning his embedied 
state, or Laviog his own veritable body. 
Cor'poraL The lowest ofi&eeor in a company of foot^oldlers. 

Corporale, kor^.po.rdle. The cloth which covers the <«ii(duur- 
istic elements. Hence a Corporal Oath (or Corporale 
Oath\ one taken while touching the efucharistic cloth. 
(The spelling of " Corporal,*" for an officer is ineorreet. It 
ought to be eaporal. French caporal; Italian caporale; 
Spanish caporaU a ehi^; Latin caput, a head .-(head of 
the men under him). 
"Corporal," Fr. corporcU, corporaliti; Lat. eorpirSlis, torfOreKtas. 
Oorporate, ko/.po.rate, united in a corporation ; corporarte-ly. 

Corporation, ko/ .po.ray'^ ,shun, A body politic. 
French corpora,tion ; Latin corp&rdtio, eorp&rdtus (corjnu, a bodj). 
Corporeal, kor-po* sS.dL Material, opposed to spiritual. 

^rpo'real-ly, csorporeal'-ity, corpo'real-ism, raateriakHsm. 

•Ctoipo^real-ist, one who denies the existence of spirit inde* 

pendent of matter; corporeity, fcor'.p^.rcg't.tt/, materiality. 

(Corporeal or Corporal, see tt»<icr<)orporal.) 

French corportl, corporeity; Latin corpSreu», bodily (corpta, a body). 

Corps, plu. coips, kor, plu. korz, A body of soldiers. {SeeKkae,) 

Covpse, plu. corpses, korps, plu. korps\Sz. A humian dead hody. 

Freneh eorps; Latin eorptM, a.body [twpo itpifre, flesh fashionedX 
Corpulence, ko'/.pUMnse (not corpnUance), oor'.pulMicy, bulki. 
ness of body; cor^iileat, stout; cor'pulent-ly, fleshily. 
French corpuUnee, corpulent; Latin corpulewtiat corpulerUe (adv.) 

Corpnscule, plu. corpuscules or corpuscula, kor.p^l8'.kute, pin. 
kor pus^kulz or kor. pits'. kii.lah. A minute particle. 

Corpus'cular (a^j.), corpnscularian, kor.pu8\ku.laif^\tan. 

One who maintains that corpuscules were the germs of 

all material substances, and not the *• Divine Word." 

French corpu^yule, eorpuseulaire ; Latdn corpwcAkim (oeipus a body, 
and -ciUum a diminutive). 

CoEFOct. The degrees are : nearly correct, more nearly correct, 
very nearly correct, quite correct. More correct is the 
comparative of "incorrect;" most correct means quite 
correct, the moKt correct means that all otjiers jve iooQcreot. 

Corveot (adj.), right; (verb) to punish, to put right. 

Correction, k5r.rek'ishim. Emendation, punishment. 

Correc'tion-al. (This word ought to be correcHom'^) 

Corrective, khr.re^.t^. That which corrects. 

Oorrect-or (not -«r. Rule xxxvii.). One who corveets. 

French corredif, oorrectum, correctiormel : Latin oorrsetio, corrtchu, 
V. eorrig^re {cor [con] rego, to regulate or set quiJle x^^). 



AND OF SPELLING. 151 

' Oo f^r e tp ond, to hold intercourse by letters ; correBpond'-faig, 
writiDg letters, similar; eorretpond'-ent, one who cor- 
responds, something which *' pairs " with something else. 

Oonre0pGDd''hdnoe. Intercourse by letters, similarity. 

Oorrespond'^stJy. In a corresponding manner. 

Ooitedpond-ing-ly, by let tnr ; Oorresponsiye, kor'.TfjpiotC'jiiv. 

Prencfa ootr^pondance (incorrect), etyntspondant finoorreet),' t. tor- 
rtspondrt: Lat. eor [con] rtspondirt, to answer with or to [another]. 

Oozfeidor, har^.fijdor (French). A gallery communioating with 
diiOferent apartments of a house. (Latin curro^ to run.) 

Ccmlgendam, plu. corrigenda, kor^,ri.jen'\dum, plu. hof^si.- 
jen'\dah. To be coriecce*! (Latin). Kule xlvi. 

Corrigible, k(y/,ri,jiVl, capjible of correction. Incorrigible, 
hopelessly bad, regardless of reproof. 
French corrigible,- Latin corrigibtlis (corrigire, to correct). 
Corroborate, kor.r5b\o.rate (not kosob'.e.rate), to confirm. 
OorroVorat-ed, corrob^orat-ing (E. xix.), corrob'orat-or. 
Corroborat-ive, kor.rob\o.ra.tiv ; corroborant, kor,rS6',o.rant. 

Corroboration, kor.rob\o.ray" .shun (not ko.r5b\e.ray"^hun), 
(In Lat. " -ro-" is long ; koi-.rO'.bC.rate would he better.) 

French corroborer, corroborant corroboration; Latin eorrSb(MI/r€(e&r 
[con] rdb&ro, to strengthen with oalc, rCbur, oak). 

Oouhxlde, kor.rode' (not ko.rode'\ to eat away by degrees, as by 
rust, &c.; corrod'-ed, oorrod'-ing. corrod'-ent (not -ant) ; 
oorrod^ble (not -able), corrOd'-er (U.xix), corrodlbil'lty. 

Corrosion, kor.rS'.shun (not ko.ro'. shun). A fretting. 
Corrosive, kor.rd'.siv ; corro'sive-ly, corro'sive-ness. 
Corrosibility, kor.ro'.si.bil" .iJy (not ko.ro\8i.bil'\i.ty). 
Fr. oorroder, eorros\f corrosion ; Lat. cor [con] rOdSre, to eat away. 
Cormgate, kor'.ru.gate, to wrinkle ; cor'rugat-ed (R. xxxvi.) 
Oor'iragat-ing (R. xix.), cor'rugat-or (R. 3fixvii.) 

6omigation, kor^ .ru.gay^.i'hun, a wrinkling; cor'ragant 
(not corrugent, as many diciioiaries j^ive). 

Trencih cormgcdion ; Lat. corruffitio, corrugans -antis, corritgdre (cor • 
[con] rugo, to make into wrinkles with [frowning], ruga, a wrinkle^. 

Cormpt, kor.rupt' (not ko.rupt'). to spoil ; oorrupt'-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
eorrupt'-ing, corrupt'-er (more corrupt), oormpf-est 
(most corrupt), cormpt'-or, one who corrupts (R. xxxvii.), 
fern, corrup^tress ; corrupt -ly, corrupt '-neas, corrupt- 
ible (not -able), corruptibly, corrupt'ible-ness, corrupf - 
ibil"ity (not A;^7.rM;)'.^/6ir'/.///), corruption, kor.rup'.8hun. 

■Ft. oorruptibiliU corruptihle, c/)rrup>i'>n; Lat. corruptio, corruptor* 
fern, eorruptrix, oorrump&e, sup. -rttp <um (cor [con] rumpo, to break). 



152 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Corsair, k&r.sai'/, a pirate. Coarser, kor^^er. Courser, ko'r-ser. 

"Corsair," Fr. corsaire (fr. Ital coraa, a race). The word was first 
applied to ships of chase during war, then to the captains who 
had "letters of mark," and ultimatelf to sea-rovers and pirates. 

" Coarser/' comp. of coarse, q.v. *' Conrser," a swift horse. 

Corse, Coarse, Course, Corps, Cores, Caws, Cause. 

Corse, korse. Poetical for " corpse." (Latin corptu, a body.) 
Coarse, ko'rse. Bough, not refined. (Old Eng. gorstt rough.) 
Course, koo'rse. A race. (Latin cursuSy a race.) 
Corps, korzy plu. of corps, kor (French). Bodies of soldiers. 
Cores, korzj plu. of core. Hearts of apples, &c. (Latin cor,) 
Caws, korzj 3rd per. sing, of caw. Applied to the cry of crows. 
Cause, korz. The reason or motive. (Latin causa, a cause.) 

Corset, Cosset, Corslet, kor^set, kos'^et, kors'.let 

Corset (Fr). A bodice for women (corps, a body, and -et, dim.) 
Cosset. A pet (Old Eng. cos, a kiss, a little thing for kisses). 
Corslet. A little cuirass (Fr. corselet, corps, a body, -letj dim). 

CoTSD.edtkor' ^ned, A piece of consecrated bread used for an ordeal. 

Old English corsncede cors sruxd curse morsel The person under trial 
said, "May this morsel prove a curse if I am guilty, and torn to 
wholesome noiCrishment if I am innocent" 

Cortege, kof,taje\ A train of attendants. (French cort^e,) 

Latin corpiLS tig^re, to cover the body, a body-gaard. 
Cortes, kor^.tiz (Spanish). The parliament of Spain or Portugal. 

Spanish corte, a resident of a town, the reprei^entatives of towns. 
Coruscate, kor'.us.kate, to glisten; cor'uscat-ed (Bule xxxvi.), 
cor^uscat-ing (B. xix.); coruscation, kbr'.us.kay'*^hun. 
French carusccUuyn, ; Latin cdruscdtio, cdrttscdre, to glisten, to flash. 
Corvet or Corvette, kor.vet', A sloop of war. (French corvette,) 

Latin corhita, a hoy ; corhltdre, to freight a ship. 
CorylacesB, k^ .rLlay'' ,se.e. An order of plants, including the 
oak, beech, chestnut, and hazel. 
Latin corylus; Greek kdriUds, a hazel (-aceas denotes an " Order *7. 
Corymb, k5,rimb, a bunch or cluster ; corymbiated, k8,rim"M,~ 
d\ted (not corymbated), having btrries or blossonis in 
clusters; corjrmbiferous, k(5.r%mMf\S.ru8y bearing clus- 
ters ; corymbose, ko.rim'.hose (adj.) 

Latin e&rymhifer, a berry-bearer, like ivy, e&rymbus, a duster. 
Greek korvanboa, a cluster of fruit or flowers (kOrua, a headX 

CowMcant, ko'-8ee'\kunt. The secant of the complemental arc 
Co-sine. The sine of the complemental arc. 
Latin aicanSf gen. gifcantis, cutting. Sinus, a curve or baj. 
Cosey. Should be cosy, adv. ooai-ly, kd\zy, ko'jstly, 

(The adv. ** cosily " cannot be formed from "cosey." Rxiii) 



AND OF SPELLING. l^iS 



Cosmetic, k^sjnut.ic, A preparation for beautifylDg the face by 
remoying freckles, <&c. Also an adj. 
GJk. hOnmitikSSt a beautifyer ; Tcdsmid, to adorn ; Fr. coanutique. 
GoBmogony, Goemography, CkMsmology, Geology, Geography. 

Cosmogony, kos.mdg'.OMy, An *'a priori" theory of the 
world's origin. (Gk. kosm^s g6niy the world's generation.) 
Gen* i. is tibe Bible theory of the world's origin. 

Qeologytjeei'.dl.o.jy. An " a posteriori" view of the wrrMs 
origin. It explains from known facts, how the rockn, 
&c., of the earth have been produced. 
Greek gi graphS, a description of the earth, in detaiL 

Cosmography, kos.mbg'.ra.fy. A description of the struc- 
ture, figure, and order, of the world, the relation of its 
parts, and how to represent them on paper. 
Greek hOsmds grapM, description of the earth, as a whole. 

Cosmology, kd8.mSV.o.jy* A treatise on the elements of the 
earth, the laws of nature, and the modifications of ma- 
terial things. (Greek kosmos logSs, treatise of the world.) 

Geography, je.8g\ra.fy. A df^scription of the puiface of 

the earth, its countries, inhabitants, and productions. 
Greek gi graphs, description of the earth in detail. 

Fhysical Geography treats of climates, elevations, configu- 
rations, influence of coast, tides, winds, &c. 

Gosmog'ony (v.8.), cosmog'onist. A writer of cosmogony. 

Gosmo'graphy (v.«.), cosmog'rapher, a writer of cosmography ; 
cosmographical, kos'.mo.graf'd.kal; cosmographical-ly. 

Cosmology {see above) cosmologist, a writer of cosmology ; 
oosmological, kds.mo.ldf.i.kdl; cosmological-ly. 

Cosmopolite, kds.mdp'.o.lite. A citizen of the world. 
Cosmopolitan, k58\mo.p8V\i.tan (adj.) 

Cos'moporitan-ism. A system which regards man (regard- 
less of nationality) as a citizen of the world. 
Qteok kdsm68 pdlitSa, citizen of the world (-ism, doctrine, system). 
Cosmorama, plu. cosmoramas, kos\mo.rdh'\mdh, plu. -mds, A 
representation of the world in large panoramic pictures. 

Cosmoramic, kos^mo.rdm'* dK Pertaining to the above. 
Greek kdamds hordma, a view of the world. 
Cosmos. The world considered as a whole. The word means 
the "beauty of arrangement." and was first applied to 
creation by Pythagoras. Cos'mical, cos'mical-ly. 
Greek kdsm&s, the world ; kdsmSo, to arrange. 
Oonack, khs'.sak. One of the Cossacks; a Russian tribe. 
Goaset, a pet lamb, brought up by hand. Corset, a bodice {q.v.) 
Old English cos and -ei dim. A little thing to be kia&ed. 



i:.i ERROllS OF SPEECH 

Oost, past cost, past part. eost. Ooast, koste (of the sea). 
Costly, kSstf.ly ; costli-ness (R. xi. ), expensiveness. 

Ital. costo (n.), expense : costare (y); Lat. eonsto, to eo«l (#6 nj, 
" What did it stund you in?" [cost]; eon 5to, to stand.) 

Gestermonger, kSs'-ter.mun^-ger, Cormption of eoritortf^Mm^^r, 
a seller of " costards ;" thut is, apples. 
Old English costard, a species of apple ; monger, a d^er. 
OoAtive, kds'.tlv, contraction of "con'stip.itive"; ofMT^i^e-ly, 
cos'tive-ness, having the bowels con'stipated. 
Latin constipo, to cram close together (con riipo, to stiiff togeiherX 
Goetnme, kds.tume' (French). National slyle of dress. 

Cosy, kd\sy, snug and comfortable. Gosi-ly« 'kd'M.lyf fomgly. 
Scotch cosie. Old English cos, a kiss (not etwey). 

Got, Gote, Goat, Goot, kdt, kdte, kdte, koot. 

Cot, a cottage ; an infant's bed, &c. Gott-ar, a cottager. (R. L) 
Cote. A pen for sheep, dovei), &c., called sheepeote; Ac 
Coat. A raiment for men or boys. (Fr. cotter Ital. eottaJ) 
Ccot. A small black water fowl. (Welsh cwtiar,tk coot.) 
Old English cdt or edte, a cottage, a bed, a pen. 

Go-tangent. The tangent of the complement of an arc. (8§e Go-.) 

Gotemporary, cotemporaneoiis. (S«« Contemporary.) 

Cotillon, ko.tlV.ydn. The ''petticoat" dance, so called because 
ladies hud to hold up their gown and show their petlicoat. 
French cotillon, a i>ett.icoat ; a dance. 
Cottage, kdt'.tage a peasant's house. Cot'tag-er, ooftier, 1;^.- 
ti.eTt a squatter, an independent peasant (ObsoUte), 
Low Latin cott<igium, a cottage ; cottantu, a cottager. 
Cotton, kofMt thread made from the cotton plant, a f ibric made 
of cotton ; cotton-y, containing cot ton, feeling like cotton. 
Cottons, cotton threads, cotton fabrics. Cottoki (verb), to 
ding to a person fondly, as cotton clings to one's clothes.' 
French colon, verb coUnmer : Arabic dl goton, the cotton-plant. 

Cotyledon, kot'-i.lee''-don. The seminal leaf of plants iirhidl 
first appears above ground, and forms part of the embiyo 

Dicotyledons, di'-. Plants with two seminal leaves. 
Konocotyledons, mSn'-o-. Plants with one cotyledon. 
Acotyledons, a'-. Plants without a seminal leaf, 
Lat. coty'idon, the hollow of the huckle-bone ; Gk. UiMlHUlii, aaoelD 

Coneh, k6wch (n.), a sofa ; (v.) to hi-'e, to fix a spear in itb rer 
couched (1 syl.), couch'-ing, couch-er, conch-ant; kawe 
ant or koo'.shong (in Her.) Inug down with head raise 
Fr. cowUm, a bed ; cowker (▼.), couchant; Lat eoH [ooi|] foeAra, to 



AiYB OF SPELLING, 165 

GoiigiL,^M/(n. andv.); coughed, X^/t; coughing, hHifAng, 

There aro twentj-ifive words ending in -ough, with eight 
.distinct sounds, — viz., ok, of, uf, tfp; ow, ow, oo, rer. 
Only two (" cough" and " trough") have the sound of of. 
These are both native words, coh' and trohy guituraL 
(Not one of the twenty-Jive words have any right to the 
diphthong ** ou," and if the original vowels had been pre- 
served much of the present absurdity of pronunciation 
would have been avoided.) (Rule xliv.) 
Old English eohh*, contraction of coJutian {—koft.an), to congh. 

Gonld, kood (to rhyme with "good"), past tense of Can, "to be 
able," "to know how," never an auxiliary, but it stann^fl 
in-ve^men with other words without to between them : 
as "I could write." Here write is infinitive mood, being 
the latter of two verbs in regimen. 
Our word " could" is a blunder. The Old Eng. cunnlan] 
"to know how to do a thing," makes can in the present 
tense, and cUthe in the past; but the verb ciithlian] " to 
make known," has cUthode for the past tense, contracted 
ito eu'd our "eouM" {I interpolated). 

Council, Counsel, Connoillor, Counsellor. 

Ocfun'ciL An assembly met for consultation. (L&t.conmium.) 
Gknm'sel. Advice, a pleader. (Latin consXUum,) 
Goun^cill-or. A member of a council. (Bule iii. -il.) 
OomiBellror. One who gives advice, a barrister. (R. iii. -il.) 
Coiui''Belled (2 syL), advised ; coun'sell-ing, advising. 
Council-board, plu. council-beards. 

(E'Cumen'ical council, plu. OB'cumenloal councils. 

The distinction may be remembered thus : Council is 
concilio, con calo, to call [the board] together ; but counsel 
is consUlo, to consult. You consult a " counsellor," you 
eall together " coimcillors." 

Count, a foreign title, fern, countless. We retain the feminine, 
but have substituted our native word " earl" for count. 

Countless, plu. count'es^es, poss. countess's, plu. countesses'. 

Comt-y, plu, counties, coun'Mz. We have retained this 
word, and also our native word " shire," [a count's] share. 

IMliancotUe; Fnnoh compte; Latin ctfme«,.gen.cdmi<i«, a companion 
of the chief or leader ; cemitdhu, a county or share of the cSmes. 

OoQUt, to reckon ; counter, one who counts, base money to 
asdst in reckoniMg, a shop table where accounts are paid; 
(adv.) the wrong way, contrary to ; a prefix. 

Italian eontare; French compter; Latin computdre, to compute, con- 
tvaoted to eomp^t, and corrupted into count. 



156 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Counteract, kovm'-ter,ac1f. To frustrate, to act contrary to. 

Latin contra ago, supine actunif to act in opposition to. 
Coimterbalance, kovm'-ter.hdV-ance, (Only one { in balance.) 

Latin contra Hlanx, [balance] against balance. 

Counterfeit, kown'-ter.feet ^noun), kowvf-ter.fU (verb); 

connterfeit-er, kown-ter.fUer; coiinterfeit-ed(R.xxxvi.) 

Latin contra ficSre, supine fectum [facia], to make against Paw], to 
toTge, to imitate without authority or right. 

Counterfoil, kownf-ter.foiL Part of a check kept by the drawer. 
Latin contra fdlium, the corresponding leaf. 

CoTintermand, kown'-ter.rmnd*. To withdraw a command. 

Latin cordra mando, to command the opposite [of a command]. 
Countermarch, kownf-ter. march'. To march back again. 

Low Latin contra marchio, to march in the opposite direction. 

Countermine, kown'-ter.mine ; coun'termined" (3 syl.), 

ooun'termin"-ing, coun'termin"-er. To <Ug a gallery 
underground in search of an enemy's mine. 
Low Latin contra mvnero, to make a mine in the contrary direction. 

Counterpane, kown'-ter-pain. A bed quilt. 

A corruption of the Latin cul&Cta puncta, a quilt worked in a pattern. 
French courtepointe, a counterpane. 

Counterpoise, kown'-ter.poyz^ to counterbalance ; coun'teipoised 
(3 syl.), coun'terpois-ing (Rule xix.) 

Latin contra penso, to weigh against [a given weight] ; French eotUrt 
poise,— i.e., poids, [weights] agaiubt weights. (See AYOlrdopolBe.) 

Countersign, kown'-tersine, to sign a document in attestation 
of a signature; countersignature, kown'-ter.8i^\na,tchur: 
countersignatories, kown'-terMg''-na-t5.Hz, 
Latin contra Hgno, to alga against [another signature]. 

Countess, plu. coun'tesses, hown'.tessy hown'tess.ezy poss. sing, 
countess's, kown\tes8.iz ; poss. plu. countesses', houm',- 
tesa.ez. The wife of an earl or of a foreign count. 
Italian contessa; French comtesse; Low Latin comitissa. 

Country, plu. countries (R. xi.), kiin'.try, kun'.triz (Fr. contrfo); 
coun'tryman, fern, coun'trywom'an, plu. coun'trymeii, 
countrywomen, -wlm'.en; poss. sing, -man's, -woman's, 
po88, plu. -men's, -women's, -wim'.enz. 
(Obs. The y is not changed to i in these words. Bole xi) 

Countrify, hun.tri.fy (B. xi.), to give the air and mien of a 
rustic ; counttified, kun\tri.Jide, having the air and mien 
of a rustic. (Latin con terra^ land contiguous [to a town].) 

County, plu. counties (E. xi.), hown'.ty^ kown'.tiz, 

Norman French covmU, French comU; Latin comXtaUu, a eountj. 



AXD OF SPELLIXG. 157 

oup (Fr.), &00, a stroke. Goup6 (Fr-)» koo.pay\ part of a coach. 

Gonp d'etat, koo'.da-tar^. A sudden raid on political foes. 

Goup-de-grace, koo'd'.grds. The victor's last blow. 

Ck>np-de-inaiii, koo'd\mdh'n. A sudden attack on a fort. 

Ck>up-d'(Bil, koo\dy'*e. A comprehensive yiew of a scene. 

Conp-de-soleil, koo'd^sd-lay^'e. A sun-stroke. 

oap6 (Fr.), hoo.pay'. The first division of a stage coach, a 
private railway carriage furnished with only one bench. 
French cowper, to cut. A part cut off for travellers. 

onple, kupHy a pair, to link together; coupled, kupWd; 
conpling, kup'.ling, (Fr. couple; Lat. cDpulay a couple.) 

onpon, koo'.pone. The part of a bond presented for a dividend. 
Fr. eouper, to cut off ; because they are cut off as the claim falls due. 

oarage, kur^rage, bravery ; courageous, ko.ray'.jus ; 

coura^geous-ly, coura'geous-ness, boldness of heart 
French eouragey cotirageux; Latin cor ago, to move the heart. 
^arant. Currant, Current, koo\rdh'n, hifrant^ ku/rent. 

An courant, o koo\rdh'n. Posted up to the time being. 
Fr. itre cm cowraiU (2e . . .to be posted up in . . . (Lat. ciirro, to run.) 
Cur^rant, a fruit. (Lat. uv<e Corinthidca or Corinthia.) 
CiUTent, kur^.rentf running. (Lat. currens, gen. currentis.) 

lonrier, koo\ri.er, A special messenger sent with a dispatch. 
(This word ought to be spelt with double " r." As it now 
stands its base would be coeur, the heart ; or cura, care.) 
French cownieT: Latin corriere; Latin curro, to run. 

loiUBe, Corse, Coarse, Corps, Cause, Caws. 

Course, korse, A career, to hunt. (Lat. cursus ; Fr. cours.) 
coursed (1 syl.), cours'-ing, cours'-er, cours'-es (2 syl.) 

Corse, korse. Poetical form of corpse. (Lat. corpus, a body.) 

Coarse, ko'rse. Gross, not fine. (Old Eng. gorst, rough.) 

Corps (plu.), korz. Companies of soldiers. (French corps.) 

Cause, kawz. The reason, a plea. (Lat. causa, a cause.) 

Caws, kawz, third person sing, of caw, to cry like a crow. 

knixt. The royal palace, those attached to it, a place for trying 
criminals, &c. To woo, to strive to please, &c. 

Court (a palace), courtier, kor^dVer, one of the court. 

Oourt'-ly (adj.), fit for a court; courtli-ness (Eule xi.) 

Courteous, kor.te'v^ (not kort.tchus nor kur^.tchus)f affable ; 
cour'teous-ly, courteous-ness, hy/.tS'us.ness. 

Court-plaster, kort plas\ter (not play\ster). Black sticking 
plaster, once used by court ladies for beauty-spots. 




158 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ooortesan, koY.t^.zan {not kur^dejsan, nor kor1f,e,zan), A 
woman of immodest characteF. (French courtisane.) 
(This word meant originally a "female courtier,'* and 
tells a sad tale of the past history of courts.) 

Oonrt ( of justice), Court of Fqnity, plu. Courts of Bqvity ; 
court-martial, plu. court-martials, >es8ioD8 of the same 
court ; courts-martial, different courts {7nar^.shal)^ 

Court. A paved way. (French court, curt, a short [cut}*) 

Court-yard. A yard before a house. (Latin eohors, gen. co- 
hortiSj a yard with outhouses for poultry, cattle;, pigB, &c.) 

Court (to woo), courf-ed (R. xxxvi.), court'-ing, Gourt'- 



"Oourt" (a palace or hall of justice), Fr. cour; Ital. eorte; Lat. euria 

(from cura, care), where the " pablic cares " are attended to. 
"Court" (to woos Fr. faire la cour, to make a [love] suit, cauriisar. 

Courtesy, plu, courtesies, kor^.tesy, plu. kor^.tejiz {kur^,te^ ia 

nearly obsolete), civility. 

Courtesy, plu. courtesies, herf.sy, kerf .Ax, Woman's act 
of reverence. A man's is a bow (rhyme with now). 

Courtesy, kerf.sy (verb) ; courtesies, kert.sU ; courtesied, 
kertf.sid; oourtesy-ing, kertf^sy.ing. To make a woman's 
act of reverence by bending the knee. 
('Sy postfix, denotes an act. A "courtesy"^ is an act of 
reverence, situilar to that which is used at court.) 

Cousin, Cousin-german, Cozen. All pronounced Auz'n. 

Cousin. The children of my aunt or uncle are my first 
cousins ; the children of my great aunt or uncle are my 
second cousins; the children of my aunt or uncle by a 
second marriage are my step cousins. 
"Step" is the Old £ngli8h steop, an orphan, one parent being losl 

Cousin-german, plu. cousins-german. First cousins. 

Latin germdnus, of the same stock {germen, a branch). 

Cozen, to cheat. (Italian cotzerie, cheating. HalliwelL) 

*' Ck>uflin " French, a male cousin ; cousins, a female ooudn. Wf 
want a similar distinction ; Latin coicsofynnus, a couabi. 

Covenant, kuv\e,nant. A stipulation on stated terms. 

Covenant-er, kiiv\e.nant.er. One who joins in a coYemar 

French covenant, a contract : Latin convent%m, an agreement (m 
venio, to come together [to make teroM]). 

Cover, kuv'.er, to overspread ; cov'ered (2 syl.), oov'ez^-iBC.' 

Coverture, kUv'.er.tchur. Shelter, the state of a 
woman who is under the " cover " of her husband. 



French eouvrir, to cover : eouveriure, not in the Esglisk 
meaning a eonef for a book, &c. ' ' Coyeitore *' ia J^ack is ah 



AND OF SPELLING. 159 

O aW t i , buv'.ert, secret. Coyet, kuv\et, to desire eagerly. 
O^r^rt^ cov'ert-ly, cov'ert-ness. (French convert.) • 

Coret, kiiv.et (see above); cov'et-ed (R. xxxvi.), cov'et-ing, 
oov'etiDg.lj ; cov^et-er, one who desires wrongfully 4 
oovetoos, kuv'.it.us (not kUv'.e.tchua), greedy to obtain ; 
o^yetons-ly, kiiv'.iUus.hf ; covetons-nesa, kuv\H.ii9.nes»; 
cove4»«ble, kuv'M.d.b% worthy to be wished for. 
(Dean Alford says covetous and covetousness are ** eom- 
menly mangled by our clergy" into *'covetioas" anil 
•• covetiousnes'*." — Queen's English, p. 76. j 
Lattn eAjMus, greedy (from cOpio, to desire). 

Corey, kiiv\y, A brood of partridges, &c. (Fr. couvie, a brood.) 

Cow, plu, cavn or kine. Cow rhymes with now (not coo). 

(Of the sixty-eight words ending in " ow," ten monoRylla- 

bles and two dissyllables have the " on " sound, like *' cow/' 

and fifty-six the "o" sound like ** grow." See Rule lix. ) 

(Md English cH, plu. cy (=ky). Kine is a collective plural, Jby-cin, 
corrupted into k-ne. The plural suffix -en is seen in ox-ttt, 

Obw (to dispirit), cowed (1 syl.), cow-ing. (Danish kite, to subdue.) 

OowBxd, kSw'.ard; cow'ard-ly, cow'ardli-ness (Rule xi.), 

cowardice, kow'.ar.di8, want of sourage. {ow as in noir.) 

French couard, eounrdise, a corruption of culvard nr culvert (etUwr^ 
Old English cul/re, a pigeon). In heraldry, coward means an 
animal with its tail between its leg*. Latin cHlum vertifre. 

Oozeomb, koaf.kdmey a fop ; coxcombry, kox'.kome.ry (not eox- 
conibery) ; coxcomical, kox.kom'.i.kdl, foppish. 

The ancient licensed jesters were called coxcombs, because they wure 
a cock's comb in thf ir caps. 

Coy, shy, demure : coy'-ly, coy'-new, coy' ish (Rule xiii.), coy'isli- 

ly, ooy'ish-ness {-ish added to adj. is diminutive). 

Fr. e9i; Lat. quietus (from quies, rest ; 6k. k&, to lie down to sleep). 

Ootea, to cheat. Cousin, a relative, {See Cousin.) 

Oiabv ft crustacean, a wild apple, a machine ; crabb'ed (2 syl.), 

unamiable; crabb'-ed-ly, crabb'-ed-ness (Rule i.) 

"The crustacean," Old Eng. craJbba\ Lat. caTdb\us] ; Gk kardhds. 
" A morose person," Lat crdbro, a hornet or waspish person. 

Orack. Excellent, to boast, to split, to make a sharp noise. 

'• In a crack ** (instantly), French crae ; Latin crepltu digit&rium. 

Cracked (1 syl.), crack'-er, a small firework. 

"Crack ** (excellent), T at. crepdre. to boast : Fr. crnquer. to boast 
"Crack" (to split), Old Eng. erac[ian] ; Germ, krach (n.); Fr. crae. 

Oriokle, krak'.'l (dim. of •* crack ") ; crackled, krakWd ; crack- 
ling, krak\lingt part., also the skin of roast pork. 

^^ticknel, krak'.vel, a brittle cake. A corruption of the Freach 
eroquignole (kro.kin.yol), from croquet, crisp. 
(" Take with thee ten loaves, and cracknels.,,'' X Zgs.xxM.^,^ 



iro ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Cradle, kray\d'l, an infant's bed, to put into a cradle ; cradled, 

kray\d'ld ; cradling, kray\dling. (" Cradel " is older.) 

Old English cradel; Greek krddao, to swing. 

Graft, a trade, guile, a small ship. Crafty, kraf\ty ; craf' ti-ly 

(Rule xi.), craf 'ti-ness, skill in device, cunning. 

Old English craft. This word, like ''cunning," had originally no 
reference to underhand dealing, but referred to skill in workman- 
ship, knowledge of one's trade, contriyance, &c. 

Crag, cragg'-ed (2 syl.), rugged; cragg'-ed-ness (3 syl.), Rule i.; 
cragg'-y, of a rugged character; craggl-ness, a craggv 
state; craggl-er (more craggy); craggi-est (most craggy.) 
Welsh eraig, a crag ; Greek 7irac/i,[ia], a crag or rock. 
Cram, crammed (1 syl.), cramm'-ing, cramm'-er (Rule i.) 

Old Eng. crammtiianX to stuff ; past &rammode, past part orammod. 
Cramp, a contraction of a muscle ; v. cramped, krampU 

Crampoons^ cramp-irons for raising stones ; crampons (in 

Bot.)t the roots which serve as supports to ivy, &c. 

Old Eng. hramma, a cramp ; Fr. crampon, a crampon or crampoon. 

Cranberry, plu. cranberries, krdn\ber.riz (not cramberry), 

German kranheere. the crane-beny, so called because the fruit-stalks, 
before the blossom expands, resemble the head and neck of a crane. 

Crane (1 syl.), a bird, a lifting machine. 

Old English erdn; Welsh garan, the long-legged bird (from gar, the 
shanks, our "gaiter"). Heron or hem, is a variety of the same 
word. Greek g^rdnJs; Latin flfru*. 

Cranium, plu, crania, kray'.ni.um, plu. kray\n%.dhy the skull; 
cranial, kray'.ntal, pertaining to the skuU. 

Craniology, kray* .ni.oV\o.gy ^ now called phrenology, 
Craniologist, kray\ni.oV\o.gi8t, now called phrenologist, 
Lat. crdnium, the skull ; Gk. krdnion ("a" short in Lat., long in Gk.) 
Crank (a machine), a conceit or twist of the mind ; cran'ky, 
crank'i-ness (R. xi.), liable to be upset, crotchetinebs. 
Crankle, kran'.Vl; crankled, kran'.kld; crankling (dim.) 

"Cranky" (weak), German kranklich (krank, sick). 
"Crank" (a machine), French cran, a cog, crank, or notch. 

Cranny, a chink ; crannied, krdn.nid (adj.), full of chinks. 

French cran, a notch ; Latin crena, a notch or split. 
Grantara, krun.tdh^rdh. The fiery cross which formed the 
rallying symbol of the Scotch highlanders. 

Gaelic crean tari^fh, cross of shame ; because disobedience to tha sum- 
mons incurred certain infamy. 

Crape. A fabric. (French crSpe, from crSper, to curl or wrinkle.) 

Cratch, a rack, a manger. Scratch, a slight skin-wound. 

' ' Cratch, " Ital. craticia, a rack or crib : Fr. creiehe : Lat. er(Ue«,a hordla. 
"Scratch," German, kratze, v. kratzen, to scratch. 



J 



AKD OF SPELLING. 161 



Grater, kray'.ter. The mouth of a yolcano. 
Latin crdier; Greek kraUr, a cup or bowL 

Graimch or Gnmch, to crash with the teeth (not scrunch); 
crannched (1 syl.)* craonch'-ing; cnmched, cninch'-ing. 

Cravat, kra.vaf (not krav'.at). A necktie. 

Trench eravaU, said to be from the Crahats or Cro&U, whose linen 
and muslin neck bands were introduced into France in 1G36. We 
have, however, the Danish kravtt a collar, and hravetf a little collar. 

Crave, to long for; craved (1 syL), crav'-ing, crSv'-er (Rule xix.) 

Old English erOffiianl to implore ; Welsh or^, to crave. 

Craven, kray^-ven. A coward. 

In former times, says Blackstone, controversies were decided hj an 
appeal to battle. If one of the combatants cried out Craven (i.e., 
I crave mercj) he was deemed a coward, and held in infamy for 
not defending his claim to the utmost. 

Ciaw. The crop or first stomach of a hird. 

Norse hraaty the crop or craw ; Gkrm. kragen, the neck (our "scrag"). 
Grawffih. A corruption of icrevUse (French), a crustacean. 

Latin eardbvs; Qreek kdrdboa, a crab or lobster. 
Crayon, kray\on, a chalk for drawing. Crayons, chalks for 
drawing, drawings done in chalk. Crayoned (2 syl.) 
French crayon (from oraie, chalk ; Latin oreta). 
Craze (1 syl.), to distract ; crazed (1 syl.), craz'-ing,craz'-y (Rule 
xix.), cr^i-ly; crdzi-ness (R. xi). Fr. ecraser, to crush. 

Creak, kreek, to make a grating noise. Creek, a small bay. 
C^eak, creaked (1 syl.), creakMng. 

Welsh crech, a screech, creg, hoarse ; French criqtier, to creak. 
"Creek," Old English crecca, a bay or creek ; French criqiie. 

Cream, kreem (n.) (v. to skim) ; creamed (1 syl.), cream'-ing, 
cream'-y (adj.), creaml-ness (R. xi.), cream -faced, pale. 
Old English ream; French crime; Latin cr^mor, cream. 

Crease, krecej a mark made by a fold, to mark by a fold, <tc. ; 
ereased (1 syl.), creas'-ing, R. xix. (Welsh creithen, a scar.) 

Creasote, kre\d.sote. A liquid obtained from coal-tar. 
Greek kreas s6zd, I preserve meat (being an antiseptic). 

Create, kre.ate\ to make out of nothing ; creat'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
creat'-ing (R. xix.); creat'-or (R. xxxvii.) ; creative, kr^.- 
aWiv ; crediive-ly, credtive-ness; creation, kre.d^shun. 

Creature, kree\tchur. Every created animal or thing. 
Latin credtio, creator, crcdtwra, a creature ; credre, to create. 
Credence, kree'dence (not -dance), belief; credential, kre.den\' 
shal; credentials, -shalz, letters of testimony. Creed. 
Gredendum, plu. credenda, kre.den\dah. Articles of faith. 

Credence-table. A small table to hold the bread and wine 
before consecration. (Ital. credenzat a shelf or buffet.) 

L 



1G2 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Credible, krH\i.Vl (not -dbU), worthy of belief (Lat. eridl- 
hilis)) credlble-ness, credibly, eredUiility, krSd\%MK''i.ty, 

(Credulous, kred'.uXm; cred'ulons-ly, ered'ttlouflvnaai. 

lAtin cnMlut. (The '* e " is long in Latin.) 
Credulity, kre.du'.li.ty. Prone to belieye. (Lat. eridSUtat,) 

Fr. or^denoe, or^ibUiU, cr4d%UiU; Lat. crid/ent, eridSn, to-btliere. 

Credit, krSdf.itj trust, to trust ; cred'it-ed (R. xxxvi.), cxedlt-ing, 
credlt-or, credit-able, credltable-ness, creditably. 

Credible, worthy of belief; creditable, praiseworthy. 

Credibly, trastworthily ; creditably, praiseworthHy. 

Oredlbleness, probability ; credltablenesa, estimation. 

Fr. cridit, v. oriditer; Lat. credit, be trosts, eridUor, erido, to tmst. 

Credulous, kr^d'.u.liLs. (See Credence.) 

Creed. Articles of religious faith. (Lat. crS(2o, I believe ; Fr.or^tiai) 

Creek, kreek (not krik), a small bay. Creak, a harsh noise. 

•* Creek," Old Eng. crecea ; Pr. erique. " Creak," Welsh ertg, bo«M. 

Creep, past and p,p. crept, creep'-ing, creep'-iog-ly, creep'-er. 

Old EngUsh credp[an], past credp, pant part, cropen, to creep. 
Latin r^, to creep ; Oreek hirpd, to crawl. 

Cremation, kre.may^shun, a burning of the dead. (Lat. cr^mdUo.^ 

Cremona, kre.m^.nah. Violins made by the Amad fiimily and 
by Straduarius of Cremona (Milan). See CromornA. 

Creole, kr^.ole. A Spanish American bom of European parents. 

French Creole, a West Indian ; Spanish eriollo (cria, a brood). 
The word means a "little nurseling" (criar, to nurseX 

Crepitate, krep\i.tate, to crack ; crepitat-ed (R. xxxvi.), crepitat- 
ing, crepitation, kr^' .i.tay'' ahun, a cr&ckling noise.^ 
French cripUation; Latin crSpUare, to crackle {cripo, to raU^X 
CrepuBCule, kre.pus'.kule, twilight; crepus'cular (a^.) 

French erepuscule, orepusculaire ; Latin crgprucfUnji^ twilight (from 
cripira [luzl, doubtful light ; -culum diminutive). 

Crescendo, plu. crescendos, kre.8hen\do, plu. kre»8hen\doze (Ital.) 
A mark (•<:) in music, to denote that the force is to increase. 
The contrary word is diminuendo and the mark (:>»). 

Crescent, kres'^ent, shaped like the "homed" moon; poetical 
for Tarkey, a crescent being the national symbol; growing. 

Latin crescens, gen. orescentis, increasing. 
Cress, plu, cresses or cress. A spring vegetable. 

Old English eerse or oresM; French oresson; German hrt$m. 

Cresset, kri^,8^t. A beacon-light, so called because it. was 
originally surmounted by a little cross. 

French eroiaetU (dim. of eroix, a cross). It was bf canyiam alKrai a 
'*fleK7 croa" arniw were at one time aMemblcid In.ibMeJtliiiidi. 



AND OF SPELLING. 163 

An annorial device, & bird's comb, the cone of a helmet. 
French eruU now erHe; Latin eritttkt a erett. 

Cretaeeons, kte.tay' x^ui, chalky. (Latin crlta, chalk.) 
Crevice, Gtetis, Grevaase, hrSv\U$t kr^.vee^, krS.vasi'. 

Greyice, a chink. CreTifl, a crayfish. Crevasse, a huge 

rent in a glacier, &c. 

" Crerioe ** and *' OTOvaase ** French orertane, a cranny, a chink. 
*' CmylSt** Pr- icrevis$e, a crayfish ; Lat. edrdbus; Ok. kdrOMs. 

(keW, kroOy a ship's company ; pott tense of oiX>w. {See Crow.) 

Cre'wal, fine worsted yam. Gmel, inhuman (both krew'.el.) 

(Shakegpea/re epeaki of " cruel garters." — K. Lear, ii, 4.) 

''Crewel,'* corruption of clewd,; eUw, a ball of thread ; Old EagUsh 
^inoe, a hank or ball of wormed. *' Cmel," Latin erudHis, cmeL 

Cxib, a stall for cattle, a bed for infants, to pUfer ; cribbed (I syL)^ 
eiibb'-iag, cribb'-er (B. i.); eribV-age, a game at cards. 
Old English cri^, a stall or crib ; Welsh eribddaU, piUi^, extortion. 

Cribble, ftn6'.67, a corn-sieve ; eribbled, krih'.h'ld; cribbling. 
(The double b [as if from " crib '^ is a blunder.) 
Fr. eri&I«, a riddle ; t. eribler; Lat. eribrare, to sift ; eribeUwn,mienre. 

Crick, stiffness in the neck. Creek, a cove. Creak, a harsh noise. 

"Crick," Welsh crlg, a crick ; Old English hrase, rheumatic pain. 
" Creek," Old English orecca. ** Creak,** Welsh creg, hoarse. 

Criek'et, an insect, a game. Crick'et-er, one who plays cricket. 

"Cricket" (the insect), Welsh erieiad; Pr. criquet- Lat. a-erid-ium. 
** Cricket" (the game). Old English criCy a club, and -et diminutive. 

Crier, kri\er, one who weeps; cries (1 syl.), cried (1 syl.), cry'-ing. 

Cryer. The town-cryer or bellman. {See Cry.) 

Crime, sin ("i"long in the simple, but short in all its compounds). 

CriBiinal, kfim'.i.nal; crim'inal-ly, crim'inal'lty ; 
criminous, krim'.i.nus; crim'inous-ly. 

Criminate, krim\i.nate ; crira'inat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), crim'* 
inat-ing (Rule xix.), crim'inat-or (not -er, Rule xxxvii.) 

Criminatory, krXm'.i.na.fry. Involving crime. 

(In Latin the " cri-" is long in every instance.) 
Latin crimen, erfmlneUis, crVm/Cndtio, ertmlndtor, crlmXnosus, &e. 

Crlxn. CoA. Contraction of " Criminal Conversation," meaning 
adultery. Crim. Con. actions cannot now be brought. 

Crimp, to frizzle; a decoy ; to decoy [sailors and fleece them]. 

"Crimp" (to frixzle), Old English ge-crympi, curled; Welsh eriv^. 
"Orimp" (a decoy), the same word, meaning "to pinch or squeese." 
To "crimp" a collar is to pinch it into litUe furrows. 

Crimson, krim\z'n, a colour; orim'soned (2 syl.), crim'son-ing. 
ItalDu^ ertmt^no (from heriMS, the cochineal insect). 



1^4 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cringe, kfinj, to fawn with servility; cringed (1 syl.), czing'-ing, 
cring" er (Rule xix.). cringes, krinf.ez. 

Old English crin^anl, or crindian\ to cringe, to fawn. 
Crinkle, krin'.Kl, to run in bends. Cringle, krin^g'lf a loop. 

Danish kririkelrkrog, a place with tortuous ways. 
Crinoline, krln\o.lin (not krWodiney nor krin' .o.leen), 

French crinoline (from erin, hair : Latin crlnis llnum, hair linen). 
(An ill-formed word, which ought to mean "reddish Virun^** from 
crlnon, a reddish lily. " Crinis " cannot make crino. ) 

Cripple, krip\p% one who is lame, to maim ; crip'pled (2 sjl.) ; 
crippling, krip\pling (O. E. crepel, a creeper, v. cre6p\an]). 

Crisis, plu. crises, kri'.sist kri^seez, A decisive or turning-point. 

Latin crisis; Greek hrisis (from krlno, to judge). HTpocrfttfis said 
that all diseases had their tidal days, when physicians could 
" judge " what turn they would take. (First syllable short in Lat.) 

Crisp, brittle, to curl; crisped, krlspt; crisp'-ing, crisp^nees. 

Old English crisp; Latin crUpus, frizzled. 
Criterion, plu. criteria, krl.tee' .ri.on, kri.tee\ri.ah, A standard 
by which judgment may be formed. 

Greek kritSridn, means of judging (from kritis, a judge. Short i.) 

Critic, krif.ik; critical, krU\i,kal; crifical-ly, critlcal-nesB, 
criticise, A;ri^.t.st2;«; criticised (:3 syl.),crit'icis-ing (K.xix^), 
crit'icis-tr; criticism, krif.iMzm; critique, kri.teek^; 
criticisable, krlf.i size'\a.h% open to criticism. 
Fr. critique: Lat. critlcus; Gk. krltikds (from krind, to judge). 

Croak, kroke (like a frog). Crook, a shepherds staff. 

Croaked (1 syl.), croakMng; croak'.er, one who grumbles. 
Old Eng. cracet[an], to croak; Lat, crocio; Gk. kr6z6, to croak. 
Crochet, Crocket, Croquet, kro^sha, krok'.et. kr<y.ky. 

Crochet, krd^sha ; crocheted, krd'.shed ; orochet-ing, 
krd^.8ha.ing, fancy-work done with a hooked needle. • 
Also (a term used in fortification.) 

Crocket, krok\et (a term used in architecture.) 

Croquet, krd\ky, a game ; v. croqueted, kro'.kade^ <fec. 

"Crochet," French crochet (croc, a hook, and the dim. -e<). 
"Crocket," French crochet (in Arch.), a crocket. 
"Croquet," French baton armi d'un croc (Du Cange). 

Crock, an earthen pitcher. Crock-ery, kr6¥.e.ry, earthenware. 

Old Eng. croc, a pitcher ; Welsh crochan, a pot : croche/twi^ pottery. 

Crocket, krok'.et (in Arch.) French crochet, (See Crochet.) 

Crocodile, krok' .o.dile (not kr6kf.o.dill),tL reptile of the lizard 

kind. Crocodilea, krok\o.diV'.e.ah, the crocodile order. 

Crocodilean, krbk'.o.dil.e.an (adj. of crocodile). 

Latin crdcddlUis, crdcddllea ; Greek hri^ddeilds, a lizard. 

(" Crocodilea" not " crocodilia," which Tneans thittUs.-^PHn. 27, 41.^ 



^ AND OF SPELLING. 165 

Groeus, plu. crocuses, krd'.hus, krS'.kus.iz; croceous, krd^fte.iu. 

Lat. crdcus, plu. crdeif the saffron flower ; 6k. JbrdX^«, the crocus. 
GTomlecli, krSm\lek, A huge stone supported by uprights. 

Welsh cromlech (erom Uech^ an incumbent flag-ttone). 
Gromoma, kro.mor^.nah (not cromona). An organ stop. 

Cremona, kre.mo.nah^ a violin. {See GremOna.) 

French cromome; Italian cromomo ; (German krump-hom. 
Crone, an old woman. (Irish crion^ withered ; crionay old.) 
Crook, a shepherd's staff. Croak, kroke (like frogs). Crock iq.v.) 

Crook, to bend into a curve ; crooked, krookt ; crook'-ing. 

Crooked, krook'.ed (adj.), not straight; crooked-ly, krook\ 

ed.ly ; orooked-ness, krook\ed.ne88, 

'* Crook," Welsh croca, tortuous, croeaUj to make crooked. 
"Croak,'* Old Eng. cracet[an] : Latio crOcto, crocUo; Greek krdzd. 
*' Crock," Old Eng. croc, a pitcher ; Welsh croehan, crochenu, pottery. 

Crop, the produce of a field ; the craw of a bird ; to lop or reap. 

Crop, crept or cropped (1 syl.), cropp'-ing, cropp' er (R. i.), 
a pigeon with large craw ; crop'ful (Rule viii.) ; to crop- 
out, to shew itself on the surface ; to crop up, to reappear. 

Old English crop or crapp, a crop, a craw, a top, whence to lop or 
reap ; WeUh cropa; Low Latin oroppa, a crop of corn. 

Croquet, krS'.ka, a game. Crochet, kro'^ha, work done with a 

hooked needle. Crocket, krdk^.et (in Arch.) 

"Croquet." ordqiie, oroguebois, croouet: *'Bdton armS d*un croc, ou 

qui est recourbi" (Du Cange, viii., p. 115). 
"Crochet" and "Crocket," French crochet, dim. of croe, a hook. 

Crosier, kro\zher. A bishop's staff surmounted with a cross. 

Low Latin crocia, crodarius, one who carries a crosier. 
Cross. A gibbet, ill-tempered, to pass over, to cancel. 

Cross, plu, crosses, kro8'.8ez. A gibbet made thus (f, X +). 

Cross, ill-tempered; cross-ly, cross'-ness, cross-grained. 

Cross (v.), crost or crossed (1 syl.), cross^ing, cross'-es. 

Crossette, kr8t.8etf (in Arch.); cross'-let, a little cross. 

Crosswise (not cro88way8\ adv., transversely. 

Welsh eroes, a crucifix, transverse : Latin crux, gen. cr&cig. 
"Cross" (ill-tempered), contraction of the Fr. courrouc6, angered. 

Crotch, a hook or fork. Crutch, a staff for the lame. 

Crotch, crotched (1 syl.), hooked; crotch'-et, a note in 

Music, a whim ; crotch'et-y, full of whims ; crotch'et-ed. 

French crochet, a little hook, dim. of croe, a hook ; croehe, a note in 
muflic ; erocheter, to make "crochets" for porters. 

Gr6ton-0il. Oil expressed from the Croton Tiglium. 
Crouch, crouched (1 syl.), crouch'-ing. Crutch. {See Crotch.) 
Wdah erweoM, to bow, cryeydu, to squat. Old Eng. orue, a crook. 



1C6 EBRORS OF SPEECH ?, 

Group. loflammation of the larjnx, d^c; the buttocks of a horse. 

French tnmp (the disesse), crvupe (the huttooks). 

Gnmpier, kroc/.pX.^ or kroo\pi,a, the ns^^istaixt of a gaming 

table. Crupper, krup\per, a strap of a saddle. 

*' Croapier ** sits at the '* oroup ** or hottom ol the table. 

Grow, a bird, an iron lever, to cry like a cock, to triamph ; crow, 

past crew [crowed, 1 syl.], pant part, crowed [crown]. 

Old English crdw, a c<x)w ; Greek h)r&n4, a crow. 
** Crow-bar." 6k. Jlrur<}n^, a plough beam : Wrieh er»e»4>ar, Acrom^bar. 
''Crow" (verb). Old English erdw[a»], peat creow, p^p. crifwen. 
Latin crddfO ; Greek kr6a6, to crow. 

Crowd, krmid (to rhyme with loud)^ a throng ; a fiddle. 
Crowd (verb), crowd'-<ed (Rule xxxvi.), crowd'*ing. 
Old English crydlian\, past credd, p.p. ge-cr6den; eredd, a crowd. 
"Crowd " (a fiddle), Welsh crwth, a crouth or violin. 
Crown (to rhyme with town), crowned (1 syL), crown'-ing. 

French couronne; Latin cdrona; Greek kdrdni, agariand. 
Crucial, kru'MMl (not cru\8hejil), severe, crosswise. 

Lord Bacon says that two different diseases may run 
parallel for a time, but must ultimately cross each other. 
The point where they cross will tell their true nature. 
Hence " crucial" means that which tents. 
Crucible, kru'M.bl. A vessel for melting metals, &c. 

Low Latin cruHbulwn, the little tormentor (from crUclo, to torment), 
because the metals were "tortured" by fire to yield up tJieir secrets. 

Crucifix, krn' ,sx.jix. (Latin cruciiixuSy fixed to the cross.) 

Crucify, kntM.fyy to fix to a cross ; omcifies, kru'.8l.fiz€ ; cru- 
cified, hrv^Mjide; cru'dfi-er, hut cru'cify-ing. (R. xi.) 
Gru'cifix ; crucifixion, kru.si.Jik^ .shun, hung on a oroas. 

Latin crU&(flgo, supine erik^Jiamm (eruci figtrt, to fix to a ctom) : 
French crucifix^ cruG\ftxion, cruc\fUr, to crucify. 

Crude, krood, not complete ; crude'-ly, crude'-ness ; 

crudity, plu. crudities, kru'.dl.tiz, immaturity (Rule xi.) 

French crudiU: Latin crvdus, erUdttas; Greek kntdddM, that is» 
kruds eidds, resembling cold, henoe uncooked, raw, ^o. 

Cruel, kru'.el, inhuman. Crewel, fine worsted {see Crewel). 

Cru'el-ly; cru'el-ty, plu. cruelties, kru\el.t%z, inhumanity. 

French cruel; Latin crudelU, cruel ; orOdiliUUf cruelty. 
Cruet, kru'.et. A glass " castor." (Fr. cruche, a glass vessel, -et dim.) 

(There is no word in French for " cruet-stand/' or a " set of caston.**) 
Cruise, Cruse, Crews, all pronounced kruze. 

Cruise, to rove about the sea; cruised, kruzd; croi^ing, 
kru\zing ; cruis-er, hru\zer, a cruising ship. (Rule xix.) 

Cruse, a small cup. (French cruche, a jug.) 
Crews, plural of crew, a ship's company. 
French eroiMr, to cruise or cross ; German ItreMonitf, hnmtm 



•7 ^^^ O^ SPELLTN'O. 167 

Crumb, kruTii, a morsel. (The "b" %$ an error.) Cmmbed, 
krumd; onunb-ing, krUmf.ing, breakiDginto crumbs. 

Onuniny, krum\my, {IJ ''crumb " is accepted, this adj. ought 
to he crumb-y. Either " crumb** or " crummy " is wrong.) 

Cmmble, hrum'.h% to break into crumbs ; crumbled, 
kriimWld; crumbling, krum\bling; crum'bler. 

Old English crume, a fragment. (N.B. crumb meant "crooked.") 
Oerman krume, a cmmb ; krumen, to crumble. 

Cmmple, krum\p% to ruffle ; crumpled, krUm'.p'ld; crumpling, 
krum'.pling ; cmmpler, krum'.pler, one who crumples. 
Old English crump, wrinkled : crumb, crooked, awry. 
Cninch. To crush between the teeth. {See Crannch.) 
Cmpper. A strap which passes under the tail of a horse. 
Croupier, kroo\pi.er. An assistant at a gaming table. 
Both from French croupe, the romp, a crupper, Sm. 
Crusade, plu. crusades, krU-sade, krit-sddz, " Holy" wars. 

Crusade (v.), crusad-ed (B. xxxvi.); cru8ad-in<? (R xix); 
crusad.er ; crusado (a Portuguese coin, with a cross). 

Cruse, kruze, a small bottle. Cruise, to rove about tBe sea. 

Crews, |)2u. of crew. (Fr. cruche, a jug; creuset, a crucible.) 
Crush, to squeeze ; crushed (1 syl.), crush'-ing, crush'-er. 

Italian cro8ciOt to crush ; Latin crucio, to torment. 
Crust, the external coat; crusf-ed (R. xxxvi.), crust'-ing; 

crust-y, hard, morose; crust'i-ly, crust'i-ness (Rule xi) 

Latin crusta, crust ; verb cruMdre, to cover with a crust. 
*'ftru8ty," morose, is ari'haic erus, wrathful; c^oas, corrupted into 
curst, a contraction of the French courr(yuc4, angry 

Crustacean, plu. crustaceans, krus.tay\8S.anz, oue of tbe "crab" 

family. Crustacea, krus.tay' Jie.ah, the crustacean class. 

Crostaceous, krus.tay' .se.us (adj.); crustaceology, krus,- 

tay' -scoV -o-gy', a description of crustaceans. 

French crustacS ; Latin crusta [animals inclosed in] a shell 
('* Crustaceology ** isa vile hybrid. " Ostrftcorogy " ioould be a Greek 
compound, but "crustaceology" is haJf Latin and half Orede.) 
If Mtradan had been adopted instead of "crustacean," it would 
have been far better. 

Crutch, a staff f ^r the Jame. Crotch, a book, a fork ; cmtched- 

friais, krutcht fri' .ars (not crotchedfriar8),fneiis badged 

with a cross. (Latin crux, crucidtus). 

" Criitch," Ital. croccia, a fcrutch. "Crotch," Fr. erdchet, a hook. 

Cry, cries, krize; cried, kride; cry'-ing; cH'-er, one who weeps. 

Cry, plu. cries ( 1 syl.), street cries ; cry-er, the bellman. 

Welsh cri, a cry, a clamour; French crier, to cty. 

Crypt, kript, the underground compartment o^ a Cbureh; 

cryptic or cryptical, krip\tl.cal, secret, hidden. 

Latin erypta, a vault ; Greek krupU {kruptd, to hide). 

Crypto- (Greek prefix). Secret, concealed. 




168 ERRORS OF SPEECH '• 

. . _ * 

Cryptogamia, krip''to.gSm"-tdh (in Bot.) Plants, like mush- 
rooms, mosses, ^c, in which the stamens and pistils are 
not manifest. Crjrptogamio, krip^-to.gdm^'-ik (a(y.) 
Greek kruptos gamoa, concealed marriage. 
Cryptography, krip,tog\ra.fy. The art of writing in cypher. 
Cryptographer, krlp.tdg\ra.fer. One who writes in cypher. 
Cryptographic or crjrptographical, krip\to.grd}'\i.kdl, 
Greek hniptos grapJU, secret writing. 
Cryptology, krip.toV.o.gyy secret language ; cryptorogist. 

Greek kruptos logos^ secret language. 
Crystal, kris^taZ (not chrystal nor cristal) n, and adj. 

Latin crystaUum ; Greek krustallos; French cristal (wrong). 
Crystalline, kris^tul.Un, clear as crystal. Milton more cor- 
rectly caUs the word krls.tdV .lin, {See " Paradise Lost.") 
Latin cryatalttnv^: Greek krustaXUnoa, like crystal. 
Crystallize, krU' .tdLlize (R. xxxii.); crys'taUized (3 syl.); 
crys'talliz-ing.crys'talliz-er (R xix.); crvstalliz'-ahle,cryB- 
tallization, krW-tal-li.zay"'Shun, congelation into crystals. 
Greek krustcUlizo, to shine like crystal. 

Crystallography, J{ri8\tdl.l6g'\rd.fyyScience of crystallization; 
crystaUographer, kfU' .tdl.log'\ra,feryOne skilled in the above ; 
crsrstaUographic, krls'.tdl.lo.grdfWk; crystaUographicaL 
Greek hmstoMoa graphi, a writing about crystals. 
Crystalloid, kri8\tul.loid. (Gk. krustallos eidos, like crystaL) 

Cuh, kuhy a young fox, bear. &c.; to bring forth a cub; 

cnhhed (1 syl.), cuhh-ing (Rule i.). Cuhe, kube, q.v. 

Cube, kubcy a solid body with six equal sides. A number multi- 
plied twice into itself, as 3 x 3 x 3 = 27, whence 27 ig 
the " cube" of 3, and 3 is the " cube-root" of 27. 

Cuhed, kubed (1 syl.); cuh-ing, kube'.ing (Rule xix.) 

Cuhic, ku\b%k (adj.); cuhical, ku'M.kul ; culiiicaloly ; 
cuhiform, kU'MJorm; cuhoid, kvf.boid, or cnboid'-al, 
an imperfect cube. (Greek kubos eidos, like a cube.) 

Cuhiture, kvfM.tchur. The cubic contents of a body. 

Latin cQJbua, a solid square, a die ; Greek hObds. 
Cubit, ku'.bit, 20 inches, the length of a man's arm from the 
elbow to the end of the middle finger. Cubital,. A;a'.&{.taZ 
(adj.); cubited, ku^.blted. 
A gallows 50 cubits high {Esther vii. 9). 
A gallows of 50 cubits high (Esther v. 14). 
In the former of these sentences "which is" must be sup- 
plied: "Behold a gallows which is 60 cubits high,*' The 
latter is not good English. 

Latin cUMtum. a cubit ; Greek hOhitdn (eu5o, to recline at t4ble rwt> 
tag on the elbow, cf&btt?u8, the elbow). 



4 AND OF SPELLTXG. 169 

Cuckoo, phi. cackooB, kook'.kot kook'.kdze (Kule xlii.) 

French catusott; Latin cUcUltLSi Greek kokkux, a cnckoo. 

Cuckold, kuk'.kold. A husband whose wife is faithless to him. 

Cackoldy, kuk'Ml.dy (adj.); cnckoldom, kuk'.kdl.dum, the 
state of being a cuckold; cuckoldry, kuk'.kol.dry. 

This word is not derived from cuckoo (Latin cHlcQIus), but from cur- 
ruca, the bird which hatches the cuckoo's egg The French word 
is eocu not coucou, a cnckoo. The Old English sutUz -ol [-old] 
means "of the nature of," "Uke," "full of": so that "cuckold" 
is ciMrruc'-old, like a bird which hatches an egg not its own. 

Cacomber, ku\kum.ber (not koo'-kum.ber, nor kow\ktim.ber). 

French coiico7n&r« / Latin dtct1m«r. (Vaaro.) 
Cuddle, kud'.dl, to fondle ; cud'dled (2 syl.), cud'dling, cnd'dler. 

Welsh eueddol, fondly loving ; tuedd, fondness. 

Cud'dy. A ship's cabin. (Welsh cauedig, an inclosure.) 

Cudgel, kUd'.j^y a knobbed stick, to beat ; oud'gelled (3 sjl.) ; 
cud^gell-ing, cud'gell-er. (Rule iii., -el.) 
Welsh cv)g, a knob ; cwgyn, a knuckle ; with -d dim. 

Caff^ a wristband, to box ; oafEed, kuft ; cofT-ing, cufT-er. 
(For rrumosyllahlea in /, f, «, see Rule v.) 

Welsh Cfwf, something put over another thing, hence cwji, a hood. 
**Guff " (to strike); Greek koptd, to strike ; kop6, a striking. 

Ciri bono, ki ho', no (Lat.) What's the good of it ? Who will be 
the better for it? Literally, " For what good ?" 

Cniiafis, kwe.rds' (not ku.ra8'). A metal breastplate. 

French cuirasae (from c^cir, leather, of which breastplates were origi- 
nally made) ; Latin corium, a skin or hide. 

Cuifline, kwe.zeen'. The cooking department. (French.) 

Col de sao, plu. cols de sac (not cul de sacs), ku'd sdk (French). 
A blind alley. " The bottom of a bag." 

-cole, -de, -kle (dim. Lat. suffix -cul[u8']\ added to nouns. 

Culinary, kvf .ll.na.ry (not kuV.i.ner'ry nor ku'.ntler'ry). Per- 
taining to the cooking department 
Latin ciUlTUi, a kitchen ; dllindrivs, culinary. 

Cull, to pluck ; culled (1 syl.), cull'-ing, cull'-er (Hule v.) 

Ft. eueUlir, to pluck ; Lat. colllgo (con fcol] ligo, to gather together). 

Cnlleiider better colander, kuV.an.der. A strainer. 

Latin colana, strahiing; c6lum, a strainer. "Cullender" is quite 
indefensible, it is wrong in three places. 

Cnllifl (bad French, for coulis). Strained gravy. (See above.) 
Culm, kiilm. Stalk of corn, anthrScite shale. 

" Colm ** (stalk of com), Lat. culrmu, straw ; Gk. kdldmds, a reed. 
«< Calm " (shale) ; Welsh cwlm; Old English c6l, coaL 



170 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Culminate, kuV,mtnate, To reach the highest point. 

Cul'minat-ed (Bule xxxvi.), cul'minat-ing (Bule xix.) 

Culmination, kul\mi.nay"^hun. The highest point. 
French ctUminationf ctdminer; Ijatin eulmen, the veitex. 

Culpable, kul'.pd.b% blamable ; oul'pably, cul'pable-iu 
culpability, kul\pa.biV\i.ty, blame-worthiness. 
Latin culpSMlia (from culpa, fault, blame); French culpdbiHU. 

Culprit, kul.prit. One guilty of a crime. 
Latin culpa redtiu, one accused of a crime. 

Cultivate, kiiV.ttvdte, to till ; cui'tivat-ed (Rule xxxvi), cul'ti- 
vat-ing (R. xix.), cul'tivat-or (not -«r, R. xxxvii.) ; coltii- 
vable, kuV.ti.va.b'le (Fr. cuUivery cultivable); cultiTa- 
tion, kuV -t\.vay" 'ShuUi tillage, refinement. 

French eultiver; Italian coUivare, coltivazione, coUivatore; LatSn 
eulttu, tillage. "Cultivation" ia one of the few words In -Hen 
which is not French. 

Culver, a pigeon. (Old English culfre; Latin c^urnba, a dove.) 

Culverin, kuV.vS.rin. A long slender gun. (Fr. eouleuvine.) 

From couleuvret a snake; Latin dfliXber; Italian oolvbrina. The 
resemblance of this word to " culver " is merely accidentid. 

Culvert, kiiV.vert, An arched passage under a road, dte. 
French convert, formerly culvert, v. coumrir, to cover. 

CumHser, to overload; cumbered, kUm'.berd; cum'ber-ing, cmn'- 
ber-«r; cumbersome, kum\ber.8um (-some, Old Eng. suf. 
fix meaning "full of"); cuml)erBome-nefl8, Gumbxoua, 
kUm'.brus ; cum^brous-ly, cum^brous-ness. 
French enoomhre, v. enctymhrer ; Latin cUm/Sklare, to beiq» up. 

Cumbrian, kum\bri.an (adj.), applied in Oeol. to a system of 
slaty rocks developed in ** Cumbria," that is Cumberland. 

Ouml>erland, properly Comhra-land or ComharUmd, the land of val- 
leys ; comba, valleys or coombs (Celtic). Welsh curm. 

Cumulus, kitmf.it.lus (not ku' .mu.lus), applied to clouds when 
they look like mountains. (Latin cumulus, a pile.) 

Cumulo-stratus, kiim'.u.lo atrd'.tUs (not ku'.mu.to $trdh',» 
tfUe'), the cumulus cloud flattened. 

Cirro-cumulus, sl/ro kumf.u.lus, small camulous clouds. 

If e&milblus is from the Greek kHma, a wave, the length of the u mm 
changed when the word was adopted in the Latin language. 

^nind (a Latin termination denoting " fulness : '' as fo-eund, fall 
of speech ("faii," to speak); fe-cund, fiill of ifruit ("fee," 
a foetus); jocund, full of joy ("Jove," "juvo," to delight); 
v«r«-cun(2, bashful ("vSrSor," to fear); fuM-tftiiMi, Aill of 
redness ("ruber," red). 



AND OF SPELLIXG. 171 

Cnntnl, hu^.nSMy wedge-formed; ooneate, W.ni.ate (adj.) 

dmeated, ku\nS.dXed, tapering like a wedge ; caneiform, 
ku'.neXform, applied to certain letters made like wedges. 
Thej are found in old Babylonian and Persian inscrip- 
tions. (Latin euneuSf a wedge ; French euniiform,) 

0«n''iibig, artful ; caii'ning-47, ean'ning-nesB. Originally these 
words denoted ** skill derived from knowledge." 
Old Eng. «unn[a»], to know how and be aUe to do. (Ken and can.) 

Cap, kup^ a drinking vessel, part of a flower, to scarify ; cupped, 
kupt; cupp'*mg, cupp'-er (R. i.); cupboard, kub'.b'rd: 
cnpfnl, plu. cupfnlB (not eupsful). Two **cupB full" 
would mean two cups filled full; but two ^'cupfuls'* 
would mean a cupful repeated twice. 
Old English euppa ; Latin cupa or cup^, a enp or tab. 

Cupidity, k^.pidf.i.tyy greed. (Lat. cUpiMtM ; Fr. cupidiU.) 

Cupola, pUt. cupolas, ku'.pd.lah, ku\p5.ldhz (not ku.po'.lah nor 
eupulo), Italian cupola^ from cupo, deep. 

CupreuB, ka'.prif.tu (not eupritu), coppery ; cuprite, ku\prit, red 
oxide of copper ; cuprifezous, /ete.|wi/'.«.ri&,yielding copper. 

Latin eupreus, from cuprum, copper. 

Cur, kur, a degenerate dog ; curr'-iBh (Rale i.), like a cur (-ish 
added to nouns means '* like/' but added to adj. it is dim,) 
Welsh eor, a dwarf ; Irish gyr, a dog ; Dntch, horre, a housedog. 
Curable, ku'.ra.Vl; curability, ku'.ra.hW.i,ty. {See Cure.) 

Cura^oa, ku\ra.8o'y a liqueur. Curassoe or Curaasow, ku.ras^io, 
a South American bird, like a turkey. 

dm^oa is made from Curofoa oranges. The Curofoa Islands are 
near Veneznela. French eurapao. 

Curate, ku'.rate. A clergyman's licensed clerical assistant. 

Curacy, plu. curacies, ku\rajs%z. The parish, &c,, of a curate. 

Curator, ku,ray'.tor. One who has the charge of something. 

Latin cw&tar, euratio (from cfiro, care). 
Curb, kurb ; curbed (1 syl.), curb'-ing, curb-stone. 

French courhe, a curb ; cowber, to bend ; Latin eunnis, crooked. 
Curd, kurd ; curd'-ed (R. xxxvi.), curd'-ing, curd'-y. 

Curdle, kut'-dH; curdled, kuf.d'ld; curdling, kurd'. ling. 

Welsh crwd, a round lump; archaic crvd and erudle. The old 
form is the more correct. (Latin crudus, crude. ) 

Cure, kure; cured (1 syl.), cur-ing, kur^.ing; cur-er, kure\er ; 
onr-able, ku'.rd.b'l; curable-ness ; curability, fcfi'.ra.- 
hiV\i.ty, possibility of being cured ; curatiye, ku'.ra.tiv. 
French cure, cwrcMft ewer (v.) ; Latin eO^ra, eUraMlii. 



172 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

• -• - — I- 

Curfew, kur^.fu. A bell rung in former times at 8 o'clock p.m., 
to announce that it was bed-time. 

French couvre-feu [time to] cover-fire. Where wood is burnt the. 
ashes at bed-time are thrown over the logs ; and nelt morning the 
whole is easily rekindled by drawihg the blower down. In some 
places a sort uf meat-cover iis put over the logs. 

Curious, ku'.H.ti8. inquisitive, remarkable ; ca'rious-ly, ca'rions- 
nesfl; curiosity, plu. ooiiOBities, ku.r%.d8\i.tU, a rarity, 
&c. ; curioso, plu. coriosos, ku.ri.d^so, ku»ri.d' .soze, one 
fond of collecting curiosities. (Rule xlii.) 
(In the sing. num. " curiosity'* ':neans also "inquisitivene$8.** ) 
Latin curiosus, c&ridsitas; Italian cwrioso (from cv/ra, care). 

Curl, curled, kurld ; curl'-ing, making curls, a game ; cnrr-er, 
plu. curl'-ers, a pLiyer at the game called "curling," 
curling-ly; curl'-y; curli-ness (Rule xi.) 

Welsh cwr, a circle, with -{ dim. ; Latin circfOXtLS^ a little circle ; 
Welsh cwr; Old Eng. circul; Lat. drcHlus; Gk. Mrkds, a circle. 

Curlew, kw/.lu. A sort of snipe. (French eourlieu.) 

Curmudgeon, kur.mud'.jun. A churlish fellow, a miser. 
Old English ceorl-mddigan, churl-minded or tempered. 

Currant, kw/.rantt a fruit. Current, hut'. rent, a stream. 

" Currant," a corruption of Corinth, the ** Corinthian grape. 
" Current," Latin cwrrens, gen. currentis, running [water, &c.J 

Currency, kui^ren-sy, current coin ; current, kur'rent, v.s. 
Curricle, kur^ri.l^l. An open ciuriage, with two wheels. 

Curriculum, kur rik'M.lum. A course of study. 
Latin curriculvm, a race course (curro, to' run, and dim. -eulumy, 

Curry, kur^ry, to dress leather; curried, kur'rid; cttiries, 
kur'riz ; cur'ri-er, one who dresses leather (R. xi.), hvt 
courier, koo\ri.er, an expi'ess messenger. (Fr. courrier.\ 

Curry, to clean a horse ; to curry favour, a corruption of 
curry fawoel, to clean the bay-horse ; currycomb. 
(** Curry" ought to be spelt cory. "Currier'* ought to 
have only one r (corier), and "courier" ought to kaoe 
double r (courrier). Latin " ciurro,'' to run. ) 
French corroger, to curry; corrogeur; Latin cdrium, a hide. 

Curry, a condiment, a food prepared with curry ; cnzried, 
kur' rid; curry-ing, hwi^ry.ing ; curry-powder. 
The mixture invented by James Curry. 

Curse, hirse; cursed (1 syl.) or curst, curs'-ing. (Bule xix.) 
The adjective is curst (yr cursed, kuj^-sed; cni^sed-ly 
(3 syl.), cur'sed-ness (3 syl.) 
Old English cwrs (noun), cttr^ian], to corse ; curaod, cursed. 



AXD OF SPELLrXG. 173 

CaniTe, kur^sfv, flaent ; omsive-ly, cimiYe-nesB. (Rule xvii.) 

CiUfBory, kur^^S.ty (adj.), snperficia]; canoii-ly (adv.) R. xi. ; 

ciUBori-neflB; omsitOT, kuf'M.tor, a chancerr otlicer. 
Trench ewsim; Latin euraoritts (from curao, to run aboutX 
Cnit, angry, a corruption of cun^ cross, whence " crusty." 

" Cunt" cows [angry cows] have curt horns [short horns]. 

Trench eourroueer, to anger : eourrouXj angrj, cross {c'rouct cross, 
ftnd e*uree eur» corrapted into curti). 

Curt, hurt, short, abrupt ; curf-ly, oort'-ness. (Latin curtus.) 

Curt* A contraction of currenty meaning the •• present [month]." 
The month past is ultimo^ the month to come is proximo. 
" Ultimo * and ** proximo " are nouns. We say the btk 
uUimo or proximo ; but " cum^nt " is an ai^j. and mu^t 
have the word "month" expre^seil : as tJie current month. 

Cozxente calamo (Lat.) kur.ren'.te kuV.a.mo. Off hand (apptied 
to composition). Literally " with h running pen." 

Curtail, kur.tail\ to cut short; curtailed' (3 syl.), ourtail'-ing, 
cortail'-er (French court taller, to cut short). 

Cnrtain, kur^.fn; curtained, kur^.fnd; cur|»dn-ing, kur't'n.intj, 

French oourUne; Latin Cortina^ a curtain. 
Curtsy, plu. curtsies, kur1f.sy, kurt'.sxz ; curtsied, kurt^s^d ; 
ciurfsy-ing, curfsi-er, one who makes a curtsy. Alo 
spelt, but less correctiy, curtsey, plu. curtseys, curtseyed 
(2 syl.), curtsey-ing, curtsey-er. {See Courtesy,) 
French courtoisie, courtesy, the nianners of the court. 
Curve, a bend, to bend; curved, kurvd; curv'-ing (Rule xix.); 
curvature, kur^.va.tchur ; curvated, kur'.va.ted. 
Latin cwrvdrt, to curve ; cwrvatura, curvdtus, bent. 
Curvet, kw/.vet; cur'vet-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; cur'vet-ing. 

French courhette: Latin cttrpdre, to bend. In a '• curvet," the horse 
bends his body together and springs out. 

CoBhlon, koosKn (not JcusKn), a pad to sit on ; cushioned (2 syl.), 
cushion-ing; cushiouret, a little cushion. 
French covMin, a cu&hion ; caussinet; German kissen, a cushion. 
Custard, kus'.trd. A food, a slap on the hand with a stick. 

" Custard " (the food), derivation uncertain, cus is a cow and may 

acC' unt for the first syllable. 
** Custard" (a slap) is a.corruption of custid, Latin custia^ a dub. 

Custody, kits'. t^.dy, protection, keeping ; custodian, kuH.t(/.d%.any 
one who has the custody of something ; custos, kus^tos, 
as custos rdtiUdrum, keeper of the rolls. 
Latin custodiaf custody ; custos, a custodian. 

Custom, kus^.tdm; custom-er, one who frequents a shop; cus- 
tomary, kus\t6m.d.ry, usual; cus'tomari-ly (adv.) 
Italian coiiuiiM, ooHumare, customary ; Spanish costimbre. ^ 



174 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Cut, past cut, paxt fart, oat.' Cut, a wound, ta wound, a print, 
a make-up in dress, to divide a pack of cards ; cutt'-er, 
one who cuts, a boat, a vessel with one mast; catf-ing, 
dividing, sarcastic ; cutting-ly (Rule i.) 

Derivation oncertain. Perhaps a corruption of curi, Latin etirtuc, 
short ; cwrto^ to shorten. There is the Welsh word cwtan, to tiiattem. 

CutaneuB, ku.tay\ne.u8. Pertaining to the skin. 

Cuticle, hu'.tLk% the scarf-skin; cuticular, kudW M.lar, 

French cutaiU, cutaneous; cuticule, the cuticle. Latin OHtis, the 
skin ; c&tlciiia, the cuticle ; cuticuldria, cuticular. 

CutLasB, kilif.la8. A sword. (French coutelas; Latin cuUelhu.) 

Cutler, a maker of knives, <fec» ; cufler-y, kSi\le,ry, 

French coutelier, a cutler : coutellerie (3 syL), cutlery. Latin cuUer, 
a knife ; cultelltis, a little knife. 

Cutlet, kiif.let, (French cdtelette ; Latin cultello, to cut small.) 

Cuttle-fish, a molusc. (Old Eng. cttdele [Jise] ; Germ. JsutteUJUeh,) 
(From kuttel (guts), referring to the bladder under the throat) 

Cwt., that is C (100) wt. {weight)^ pronounced hundred-weight, 

" C " is the initial letter of the Latin eentvtm^ a hundreds 
-cy (French suffix -cie), added to abstract nouns. 
-cy (Lat. suffix -c[tt8] or -t[i«]), denoting "office, state, condition." 
Cyanate, cyanide, cyanite, cyanosite, 

Cyanate, si'.d.natey a salt (cyanic acid and a base. If 
potash is the base, the " salt" is cyanate of potash). 
(-ate denotes a " salt" from the union of a/n acid and a bas€,) 

Cyanide, sWd.nidey a compound of cyan'ogen and a base. 
Thus, if iron is the base, the compound is " cyanide of 
iron." {-ide, Greek eidos^ resembling kuanos,) 

Cyanite, sl'.a.nite, au azure bine garnet. 
(-ite, in Geol., denotes a stone^ or something resembling a 
stone, as ammon-ite, cyan-ite.) 

Cyanosite, si.an\5.8itethhie vitriol, native sulphate of copper. 
Greek kudnoa-iUy a blue stone-like substance. 
Cyanogen, si.an\o,jen, a gas which burns with a deep blue 
flame (Gk. kHiunos gennao, I produce a deep-blue [flame]). 

Cyanosis, si.an'.S,8^, a disease characterized by blneness of 
the skin. (Greek kudnos niisos, the blue disease.) 

Cjranometer, sud,nom\e.ter, an instrument for measuring 
how blue the sky or sea is. (Greek mi^trdn^ a measure.) 

Cyanotype, 8i.an\8.type, photographs in Prussian blue. 
(Greek kudnos tupos, deep-blue type). 

Latin cydnus, a blue garnet, cydnetu, deep blue ; Ghreek kudnos^ a 
deep-blue substance, kuanios (adJX 



AND OF SPELLING. 176 

Cyebunen, «{&^2a.9?i^ (not ii.hlay' .meftC), The plant " sow-bread." 
(This word ought to he'* cyclamine/' ail^.ld.min.) 

Latin eydaminus; Greek kuklamlnos (from hukloa^ a circle, the root 
being globular^ The chief food of the wild 1x>arB of Italj. 

Cycde, si'.k'h an erer-recurring period ; eydical, 8ik\Vl.kdl (adj.) 
French cycle ; Latin cydus; Ghreek huJdos, a circle [of phenomena]. 

Cydoid, si'.kloidy a geometrical cnrve; cydoidal, 8l.kloy\ddl; 
cycloidean, plu. cycloideans, 8i.kloy\de.am, the fourth 
order of fishes (Agassiz), inclading salmon, herrings, &c. 

Greek kuJeld-eidis, like a circle. Imagine a nail in the circnmferenee 
of a wheel. Let the wheel revolve and move on in a stndght line. 
The nail would describe in tlie air that doable motion, and the 
figure thus described would be a cjcloid. 

Gydoae, phi. eydones, sV.klone, 8i.klonz. A rotatory storm. 
Latin cydua; Qreek kukHoSt a circle, and -9ne augmentative. 

Cydopean, 8i.kl5\p^.an (not 8i.klo.pee\an). Huge, the work of 
the fabled Cyclops. 

Latin cydopeSf cyclopitu; Greek huJddps, huMGpeios. 

Cydopodia, plu. cydopiBdias, si' .klo.pee" .di.ah, plu. -dz, or 
en-cydopfedia, a dictionary of general information. 

Greek kuklda paideia^ a circle of instruction. 
CSydopterifl, 8i.kl5p\te.ri8. A genus of fern-like plants. 

Greek kuldds pUria, circle [shaped] fern ; the leaflets are round. 
Cygnet^ sig'.nit (not cignet). A young swan. 

Latin cygnua or cycnus, a swan ; Greek huknds (-and -et dim.) 

Cylinder, siV.in.der, a drum-shaped article ; cylindrical, stlln'.- 
drukal, shaped like a cylinder ; cylin'drical-ly. 
Latin cylindrus, a roller, &c. ; Greek kiUindd, to roU. 
Cymbal, sim'.bdl, a musical instrument. Symbd, a sign or type. 

" cymbal," Lat. eymbdlum; Gk. kvmbdlon (from kumhoa, hollow). 
" Symbol," Lat. aymMla: Gk. aumbdUn, a mark or token. 

Cynic, plu. cynics, 8^\ik, sW.iks^ a misanthrope; cynical, 
«{n^iA;aZ, snarling; cyn'ical-ly, cynlcal-ness ; cynicism, 
tlin\iMzmy churlishness, the manners, <&c., of a cynic. 

These words are formed from the ancient sect called '* Cynics," who 
snarled at every article of luxury [kunihOa^ dog-like). 

Csrnosnie, 8i\n5.8hure. The pole-star, an object of attraction. 

Latin cyndaura; Greek kundaoitra (from kunda ovra, the dog's tail), 
meaidng the star in the tail of Ursa Minor. 

CypresBi sV.press, a tree. Cypris, Cyprus (see below) ; cyprine, 
iip'.rin, adj. of cypress. (Properly the &dj. of Cypris.) 
Latin eypdriaaiu; Greek k&pdriaada, kiipdriaainda (adj.) 

Cypris, sip^ris, one of the cyprididsB, stprid'.i.dee, a genus of 
minute biviJyes of great beauty (Greek Kuprii^ Venus). 




176 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Cyprus, 8i\pru8. An island in the Levant', sacred to Kuprit. 

Cyprian, 8ip\H.iin. A woman of immodest habits. . 

Cypriot, slp.i^M, An inhabitant of C3rprus. 

Cyst, a bag containing morbid matter. Cist, a stone box for 
books or other valuables ; a stone coffin. 

Cystic, 8i8\tik, adj. of cyst; cysticle, 8l8\ti.k% a little cyst; 
cystidisB, 8l8.tid'.i.e, little bladder-like animals; cystidia, 
sis.tid'.i.ah (in Bot.) sacs containing spores (1 syl,) 
*' Cyst/* Greek kustis, a bladder. ** Cist," Iiatin cista, a chest. 
Cytherean, 8Uh\e.ree^\an, pertaining to Venus or love. So 
called from the island Gytbera, sacred to Venus. 
Latin CytMrelus (adj.), CytMrea, Venus. 
Czar, zar, the emperor of Russia ; Czarina, za.ree'.nahj the 
empress of Bussia. Czarowitch, zar^ro.vitZy the eldest son 
of the Czar; Czarevna, zd.rev\nahyvnfe of the Czarowitch. 
Czar is the Polish form of the Bussian kaiser (Csesar or emperor). 

Da capo, da kah\po (in Mu8ic), from the beginning. 

Italian da capo, [repeat] from the beginning [to the end]. 
Dab, a ti>it fish, a slap, a small lump; to slap, to wet, <bc.; 
dabbed (1 syl.), dabb'-ing, dabb'-er. (Rule i.) 

Dabble, da6'.67, to play with water, to do in a small way; 
dabbled, dah'.h'ld ; dabbling, daVMing; dabbler. 
" Dab," Fr. dauber, to beat with the fist ; "Dabble" dim, of dad. 
Dace, a fresh -water fish ; Dais, da\i8, a raised floor. 
" Dace," Dutch daas. *' Dais," French dais, a canopy. 
Dactyl, dak\tll, three syllables, the first being long and the other 
two short ; dactylic, dakf.til.lk (adj.) 

Latin dactylus, dactylicus ; Greek, daktiUds, a finger (which consists 
of one long juint and two short ones ; daktiilikds). 

Dad or daddy. A word for father used by the infant children of 
the peiisantry. (Welsh tad, father.) 

Dado, pill, dadoes, da\dOy da\doze, (Italian.) A panel round the 
base of a room, just above the skirting board. (R. xlii.) 

Dffidalian, better dsedalean, de.dal.e.an. Cunningly contrived, 
like the works of Diedalus. 
Latin daddUiU ; Greek daildU6s, skilfully made. 
Daffodil, daf.d.dil. The Lent lily, a pseudo-narcissus. 

Latin asphddiliis; Greek aspMdiflds, the da€fodil. 
Dagger. A short sword, a mark in printing if). 

Low Latin daggeriiLs, a da^er ; Italian daga; French dagut, a dirk. 
Daggle or draggle, dag\g'l or drag'.g'l, to trail in the wet; 
daggle-tailed or dmggle-tailed, having the skirt of the 
gown bedabbled with wet and dirt. 
Old English ddg, to dangle or hang in a slovenly manner. 



AND OF SPELLING, 111 

Daguerreotype, da.gai'/ro.tipe, A process of taking likenesses 
by sunlight, discovered by M. Daguerre. (1841.) 

Dahlia, plu. dahlias, generally pronounced day\ltdh, but ddh\- 
llMh is more correct. A genus of plants. 
So named from Andrew Dahl, the Swedish botanist. 

Daily. Becurring every day. {Daily and gaily are exceptionB to 
a very general rule. B. xiii.) See Day. 

Dainty, plu. dainties, dain\t%Zy something " toothsome " ; dain'ti- 

ly, dain'ti-ness, dain'ti-er (comp.), dain'ti-est (super.) 

Welsh danteiddiol, dainty (from dant, a tooth); Latin dens, or 
French daintier, a venison pasty (from daine, a deer). 

Dairy, plu. dairies, dai'/ry, dair^Hz, the place where milk, 
butter, and cheese, are made and kept in store ; dair3rman, 
dairymaid, dairywoman (with y), (When man, maid, 
woman; hood, like, ship; ish, ing, ism, are added, the 
" y " final is not changed. Rule xi.) Chaucer uses the 
word dey for a servant who has charge of a dairy ; Sir 
Walter Scott speaks of "the dey or farm-servant"; and 
Junius says dey means " milk." 
** Dairy " is the cley's ric ; that is, the farm woman's room. 

Dais, {2a^M. That part of a banqueting ball which has a canopy, 

the part for honoured guests, generally raised. Days 

(1 syl.), plu- of day. Deys, plu. of dey (of Algiers). 

French data, a canopy ; sous le dais, in the midst of grandeur : doffiis 
Low Lat. (" a panni genere dcUt dicto "), chief table in a monastery. 

Daisy, plu. daisies, da\zy, da\z%z ; dasied, da\zed, covered with 

daisies. A corruption of day's-eye. (Rule xi.) 

Old English dasges-edge, a daisy or day's-eye. 

Dale, a valley ; dalesman, -woman, one who lives in a dale. 

Old English dedgel, obscure; dedgelnes, a solitude. Low Latin 
dahu, a dale ; German thdl; Norse dal. 

Dally, dally, to toy; dallies, ddV.Uz; dallied, daV.Ud; dally- 
ing ; dalli-er, one who dallies ; dalli-ance. (Rule xi.) 
German ddhlen, to dally. 
Dam, damn, dame. 

Dam, a maternal quadruped ; a mole to confine water ; to 
stop the flow of water ; dammed (1 syl.), damm-ing (R. i.) 
Damn, dam. To condemn. (Latin damndre, to condemn.) 
Dame, ddim. (French dame ; Latin domina, mistress.) 

" Dam " (mother of a young beast), Fr. davM : Ital. dama, a lady. 
A mill [dam], Danish daTn, a pond or dike. 
German damm, a dam ; verb dammen, to dam. 

Damage, ddm'.idge, injury, to injure ; damaged (3 syl.), dam'ag- 
ing (R. xix.); damages, dam'.a.jez (-s added to -ce or -ge 
forms a distinct syl., R. xxxiv.); dam'age-able (words 
ending in -ce or -ge retain the " e " before the suflBx -able). 

Old English dem, hurt ; French dommage; Latin damnvm, loss. 

M 



178> ' EMii<mS Of SPEECH 



Bajnaak, dam'. ask, cloth with flowers wioiight ka it; Viorb 
damiwked, dam^asht; d^Qifuak-iAg. 

Da^joasJ^een, dam\&i,keen\ to inlay steel witik gold or silver ; 

dam'askeeQed' (3 syl.)) da«^'a«keeQ,'-iag. 
Bamaskii^ dam\as.kihiz, Damascus blades. 

Dan^son, a corruption of " damascene " (dam':a.seen'), A 

plum. (AU from Damascus^ in Syria.) 
Fr. diim(uqu.i(MT, to damaskeen ; damoMer, to damask, damat (n.) 
Dame (1 jsyl.), fem. of baronet or knight, now called " lady." 
Thie word is still used in the compound dame's-iBchool, 
a school for poor chilc^ren kept by an elderly woman. 
French dame (Madame) ; Latin d&mina (from ddmtu, the honse). 
Damn, to condemn. Bam, the mother of a young quadruped. 

Dam^ied, damd; di^mairing, dokta'-rimg (not damping like 
the pres. part, of danif q.y., stopping the flow of water.) 

Damnable, dam'.nd.h'l (not d&m\d.Vl) ; damnably. 

Damnation, dammay'^hun; damnatory, dam\nd.Vry. 

Latin danvnart, to condemn, damndtio, damndtoriut. 
French damnable, damnation, damTier (verb.) 

Damnify, ddm'.nM.fy, to injure. Indemmfy, to insure against 
injury, to repair an injury. 

Damnifies, dam'.ni.fize; Indemnifies. 
Damnified, dam\ni.fide ; XnAemnified. 
Di^mntfication, dchm'-nUfi'Caitf'ihiu.n; IndemnlQcaticm. 
Latin dam.'oXS'icSxe (danvMimfa/sw, to cause loss.) 

Damp, moist, to make moist; damped, dampt; damp^-iog; 
damp'-er, a contrivance to abate a draught or sound, one 
who damps; damp'-er (n;iore damp), damp'-est (most 
damp), damp'-ness ; damp^-ish, rather damp {-u^ added 
to adj. is dim.) ; dampish-Iy, dampish-ness. 

Dampen, to make damp ; dampen,ed, damp\end ; daa^n- 

ing, damp'-ning ; dampen-er, damp'.ner. 
German damp/, damp ; damp/en, to damp ; dampfer, &c. 

Damsel, ddm\zel^ a girl (Low Lat. damisella, Old Fr« daaoUeUe 
(ma-demoiselle), dim. of darne and maddTM, onginally 
damoisel was applied to the sons of noblemen ajad kings. 
" Pages " were so styled (from Latin dSminw). 

Damson, ddm\z'n, a plum. Corruption of" damascene** {ddm\ 
d8.8een). From Damascus, in Syria. 

Dance, danced (1 syl.), danc'-ing, danse'-ing; d^i^c-er, dmse'^er 
(Rule xix.) (French, darvsery to dance). 

Dandelion, dan* -d^.U-^y a flower. (Fr. dent de lion, lion's tooth). 
Its leaves 4ro suppose4 to resemble the teeth, of Uo^^ 



AND OF SPELLING. 179 



Bftndla, 4tei^d% to fbndle; dandled, dcm'.dld; dftndliniTf 
dan'Ming ; dandier, dam^dUrt one who fondles. 
ItaHan dmdola, a child's doU, 4imMar$, to to« MMltwteg aboat 
Dandriff or DandmfiE. Scurf on the head. 

Old Eng. tdnede dr^, one diseased with dirtf or troublesome tetter. 
Dandy, plu, dEmdies, dSn\dftz, a fop ; dandy-ish, dandy-inn. 

French dand/y, dandin, a ninny ; dandiner, to "tndpse " about. 
Dane or Dansker, a natiye of Denmark. Deign, to Youchiafs. 
Danish, day^nish (adjective and noan)^ Bule zix. 

DaiMigrM. da/ne^geld (not danegelt), Danish tribute. 

Old Bogliflh dane-gdd ('^geld ** is Uibute, but '^gelt " is giU). 

Danger, dain^j^, peril ; danger-ooa, dam\jifr.u» ; dan^gerons- 
ly, dan''gexous»nes8. (Freneh. danger, dangereiuc.) 

Dangle, dan\g% to hang. so as to swing about; dangled, ddn\- 
g'ld; dangling, dun\gling ; dangler, dan'.gler. 

Dank, dank'-ish, rather dank (-ish added to adj, is dim., added 
to nouns it means " like **) ; dankish-ness. 
Same word as dampf with " k " diminutive. 

Dannbian, da.nu\M.Snt ac^ectiye of Danube. 

Daphne, ddf\ne. The spurge laurel. Daphne the daughter of 
Peneus (Pe,nee\us) was changed into a laurel. 

Dapper. Natty in dress and manners, smart. (Dutch.) 

Dapple, (Zop'.p'Z, spotted, to spot; dappled, d^j/.p'ld; dappling, 
da^.]BSmg {double p), {Qermaa apfsl^rcm,) 

Dare. To yenture ; to defy or challenge. 

Dare (to Tenture, to haye courage), past durst. 

Dare (to defy), past dared (1 syl.), past pofrt. dared. 

He dare not is strictly correct, but he dares not is more 

usuaL Sir Walter Scott (Waverley) says: "A bard to 

sing of deeds he dare not imitate." 61 Old Eng. the verb 

was [I] dear, [thou] dearest, pie] dear, ** You dare not so 

have tempted him, should be You durst not so.,, 

** Dare " (to hare courage). Old English dear, past donte. 
" Dared " (provoked, defied) is more modem. 

Dark (noun) ; darken, dark'n, to make dark; dark'ened ('2 syl.), 

darkan-ing, (2arii<.ntn^ ; dark'^ness, dark'-ly; dark'-ish, 

cather dark {-ish added to acy. is dim.) darknling {-ling. 

Old Eng. means " offspring of," or is simply a diminutive). 

Old Engiish dears, v^ deardiian], past dtaroode, past part dearood. 

Darling, noun and adjective, dear-one, dearly beloved. 

Old EngUsh deorling, litUe dear-one {-Hng, dim. or " offspring of.") 
Dam, to mend; darned, (1 syl.), dam'-ing, dam'-er. 

WeLdi dam, a patdi ; v. da/mio, to patch ; damiad, a piecing. 



180 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dart, noun and verb ; darf -ed (R. xxxvi.), dart'-ing, darf-er. 

French dard, ▼. da/rder; Low Latin dardus, a dart 
Dash, noun and verb; dashed (1 sjL), dash'-ing, dash'-er, 
dash'-board, a defence in carriages against splashes. 
Danish dcuk, a tHa^ ; ▼. daeike, to slap or dash. 
Dastard, das^tardy a coward ; dastard-ly, dastard-ness. 

Old English a-dattrigany to terrify. 
Date, a fruit, the tiijie of an event, to give the date ; dat-ed 
(Rule xxxyi.), dat-ing (Rule xix), date-less (Rule xvii.) 
French, date, ▼. dater; Danish datere, to date. 
Datum, plu. data, day'.tdh (Latin). Things admitted as facts. 
Daub, a coarse painting, to smear; daubed (1 syl.), dauV-ing, 
daub'-er; daub'-y, adj. (Welsh dwbio, to daub, dwb.) 

Daughter, daw'.tery a female offspring of human parents; a 

male offspring is the Son of his parents. 

Daughter-in-law, plu. daughtenp-in-law. 

Step-daughter, plu. step-daughters. (Old English stepcm, 

to bereave : a daughter " bereaved of one parent.") 

Old Eng. dShier: German tocMer; Danish daUer; Greek, thugdtir. 

Daunt (rhyme with aunt), to dismay ; daunf -ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

daunt'-ing, daunt^-less, dauntless-ly, dauntless-ness. 

French dompter, to tame (animals) ; Latin ddmitare (from ddmdre). 

Dauphin, fern, dauphiness, daw'.finy daw'.fin.ess. Dauphin 

the eldest son of the king of France (1349-1830); 

" dauphiness," the wife of the dauphin. 

So called fjrom Dauphin4, an old province of France, given to the 
crown by Humbert II., on condition that the eldest son of the 
king assumed the word ** dauphin " as a title. 

Davy-lamp, day\vy lamp. A miner's safety-lamp. 

Invented by Sir Humphrey Davy, and called by his name. 

Dawdle, daw'.d'l, a loiterer, to fritter away time; dawdled, 
daw\dld; di^wdling, dawd'.ling ; dawdler, dawd.ler. 

Dawn, day-break, to begin to grow light; dawned (1 syl.), 
dawn'-ing. (Old Eng. dagung, dawn ; dag[ian], to dawn.) 

Day, plu. days (R. xlv.); daily (not dayly, as it ought to be, 
R. xiii.), adj. and adv.; day by day, every day (here by 
means after, succeeding -to); to day, this day (Old Eng. 
to-dceg, this day ; to-afen, this evening) ; daybreak, day- 
spring, dawn ; to win the day, to gain the victory. 

Dey. The title of the governor of Algiers, before its con- 
quest by the French. 

Old English dceg, day ; d(eg-tima, day-time ; dag-candelf the sun. 
" Dey," Turkish ddi, a title similar to senior, father, &c 

Daysman. An umpire, mediator. (Job ix. 33.) 

A corruption of daxs-man, a man who sits on the daU to Judge. 

Day>-work, work by the day. Day^s-work, tbe work of a day. 



AND OF SPELLING. 181 

Daze (1 syl.), to stupefy; dazed (1 syl.), daz'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Old Englteh dy«, seen in dysig, foolish : dyngiian\ to be a fool. 

Dazzle, daz'ji\ to overpower with light; dazzled, ddz'.z'ld; 
dazzling, dafding; dazzling-ly, dazzle-ment. 
Old English dyrignes, dizziness ; dysitflicm], to make diuy. 

Be- (Latin prefix), motion down or hack, hence " the reverse." 

** D£ " (preflxt) denotes privation, 
Diminution, and negation. 
Motion from or downward states, 
Reverses and extenuates. 

Deacon, fern, deaconesa, deef .kon-ess ; deaoonHship, office of... 

Latin dAacdnua: Greek diaJednos (from didk&nio, to serve.) 

Dead, ded, lifeless ; dead'-ness, dead'-ly, dead'li-ness (B. xi.) ; 

deaden, d^d^n, to numh, to ahate force ; deadened, dSd\n"d ; 

deaden-ing, ded'.ning ; deaden-er, death (g.v.) 

Old English dedd, deddiian}, past deddode, p.p. deddod. 

Deaf, dSf (R. vi.), without " hearing ; " deaf -ly, deaf-neas ; 

deieifen, dSfn, to make deaf; deafened, defnd; deafen-ing, 

def.ning. (Old Eng. deaf (adj.), deafe (noun)*) 

Deal, deelt a large part, fir or pine wood ; to distribute cards, 
to traffic ; past and p.p. dealt, delt ; dear-ing, deal'-er. 

To deal with A. B., to treat with A. B. 

To deal hy A. B., to treat A. B. well or ill. 

To deal to A. B., to give the next card to A. B. 

A great deal hetter ; i.e., better by a great deak 

Deal now means a large portion, bat ddkl formerly meant a portion 

or lot (v. dd1\(m\ to distribute) ; past ddlde, past part. dMed. 
** Deal" (wood), German dieU, a plank or board. 

Dean, deen» Title, The Very Reverend; Address, Mr. Dean. 

Dean^-ery, the office, revenue, house, or jurisdiction of a 
dean ; mral-dean, plu, rural-deans. Dene, a down, q.v. 

Dean and chapter, the bishop's council, including the d ean. 

French doy^n. ; Latin decanus, leader of a file of soldiers ten deep : 
the head of the bishop's council, which originally consisted of ten 
canons and prebendaries (from Greek di(ka, ten.) 

Dear, beloved, expensive. Deer, a stag. (Both deer.) 

Dear, dear-ness ; dear'-ly, fondly, high in price. 

He i>aid dearly for his folly (not he paid dear...) 

Dear me ! a corruption of dio mio (Ital.) 

Old English de&r^ beloved, ejq>ensive ; also " a deer." 

Dearth, derth, scarcity. 

French dear^ as "length" from long, &o. So in German tfteuer, 
dear : theure zeit, dearth (dear time). 

Death, df^th ; death'-less, death'-like, &q. (See Dead.) 

Old English doeth or dedlh. 



182 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Debar, disbar; -barred, -hard; -barr^-ing (Bulel) 

Debar', to deprive, to forbid. (The Fr. debarrer is nn-bar.) 

Disl)ar^. To take from a barrister his right to plead. 

Debase' (2 syl.)* to degrade; debased' (3 8yl.),deba8''-iiig (R. xix.), 
debas-er (one who debases), debase'-meat 

Debate' (3 syl.). to argue ; debaf -ed (Rule xxxvi.), deb&f -ing, 
debating-ly, d^at'-er (Rule xix.), one who debates. 
French d^at, v. debattre (battre, to beat) ; Spanish debate. 

Debauch, de.hortch\ intemperance, to corrupt, to vitiate; 
debauched' (2 syl.). debauGh'-ing; debaach'-er, one who 
debrtuches; debauchery, de.&ortc/i^^.r^ ; debauch'-ment ; 
debauchee, deh\o.8he'\ a man of intemperate habits. 

Debenture, de.hSn'.tchnry an acknowledgment of debt bearing 
interest to the holder; debentured, de.hSn'.tchurd, per- 
taining to goods on which debentures have been drawn. 
French dibeiUwe (from the Latin d(^>eo, to owe [money]). 

Debilitate, deMV.i.tate, to weaken ; debil'itat-ed (Rule xxxvi.); 

debilltat-ing (R. xix.) ; debilitation, de hiV .Ltay" .shun, 

state of weakness ; debility, de.biV.i.ty, weakness of health. 

French dibilU&r. debilitation ; Latin debttitdre (to weaken), debilitae, 
debilia, weak (de fioMlis not futbiUf or of sound constitution.) 

Debit, deb\it (n. and v.), an entry (or) to enter a customer's 
name on the debtors' side of a ledger ; deb'it-ed, deb'it-ing. 
Latin debSre, supine dSbUum^ to owe. (In LaUn d^ Lb long.) 
Debonair, d^&'.o.natr", gentle and courteous ; debonair'ly. 

French dSbonnaire; that is, de hon air, of good air or mien. 
Debouch, 'de-hoo8h\ to march out of a defile ; debouched' (3 syl.) ; 
debouch'-ing, de.hoosKdng (not de.bootch'.ing); debouch- 
chure, dib\oo.8hure\ the mouth of a river. 
French d4b(yuch4, v. dSbotkcher, d^boudiment {de bouche, from the mouth. ) 
Debris, da.bree'. Rubbish, fragments of rocks, <fec. 

French dibris, plural noun (from de bris, out of the wreck). 
Debt, dSt, something due ; debt-or (not -er\ dif.-Sr (6 mute). 

Latin dSbttum, debitor (from deb^^ to owe). 
Debut, da.boo\ First appearance as a public character. 
Debutant, fem, debutante, deb'.oodaKn, deb\oo.tant, 
French d^it, d^bviant, d^nUante, v. d^buter {de but, from the goalX 
Deca-, deka (Greek prefix meaning ten). 

Deca-chord. A musical instrument with ten strings. 
Deca-gon. A plane figure with ten angles (^dnto, an an^e.) 
Deca-gjm'ia. Plants with ten pistils (Gk. gunS, females). 
Doca-hed'ron. A solid figure with ten sides {?iedra, a base). 
Deca-litre, -lee'tr. A measure often "litres" (quarts). 



AND OF SPELLWO, 183 

Deca-logne, -Jog^ The commandments (2o^i», [God's] word). 

Deoa-metre, -mee^fT, A measure of ten " metres " (yards). 

Dec-an'dHa. Plants with ten stamens (Gk. andres, males). 

Beca-pdd, plural decapods or de^^ioda, de,kap\d.dSh, 
Crustaceatls with ten legs (Gk. podes, feet). 

Beca-Btich, dek\a.8tKk. A poem With ten lines (Gk. itikos), 
BecaHityle, dek^,a.8tile, A porch with ten pillars (Gk. tfulos). 
Decade, d^k\ade, a batch of ten. l)ecayed, de.kade\ rotten. 
Hecad-al, d^VfM.duil (not d^.kay\ddl), a^j. of "decacle." 
Latin dieas, gen. d^eddis^ a decade (Greek d^fha, ten). 
Decadence, de.kay^dense ; decadenby, de.kay\den.9y, state of 
decay (-cy denotes "state"); decadent, de.kay\dent, 
Fr. dSeadence; Lat. decAdens, gen. -dentis {de cadifre^ to fall off). 
Decalconianiie, da^.kaV.ko.mah'.nee, The art of tran5^tTing the 
surface of coloured prints, &c., for decorative purposes. 
IVench dicalquer^ to reyttrse the trading of a drawing or engraving. 
Decamp"*, to remove from a camp, to depart hastily ; decamped' 
(d syl.); decamp'-ing; decamp'-ment, departure... 
Fr. dicamper, decampment (de camper, to break np an encampment). 
Deea&t, de.kanf, to draw off wine, <fec. (not to decdnter); 
decant'-ed (R. xxxvi.), decant^ -ing ; decant'-er, a bottle, 
one who decants. Descant, des.kanf, to prate about. 

"Decant," French dwxnUr: de <»nttn«, [to draw] ttom. a oahteen. 
*' Descant," Latin dKanJUkns to prate abont. 

Decapitate, de.c&p\K.tdtey to behead ; decap'it&t-ed (R. xxrvi.) ; 
decapltat-ing (R. xix.) ; decapitation, de' .cap.l.tay*\8hun, 
Lat. deedpltdre (from de eajntt, gen. capttie, [to take] off the heid). 
Decatbonise, de\kar^'.h5.nizet to deprive of carbon (R. xxxi.); 
decar'bonised (4 syl.) ; decar'bonis-ing (R. xix.) ; decat'- 
foon!B-er, decarboi]dsation, de\ka'/-ho.ni.zay*'^hun. 
Latin de cwrho, [to deprive] of carbon. 
Deoay', to rot ; decayed' (2 syl.), decay'-ing, decay'-er (R. xiii.) 

Latin de cado, to fall awa7 from. (An ill-formed word.) 
Decease, de.sese', death, to die. Disease, diz.eez\ sickness; 
decease', deceaaed' (2 syl.), deceas -ing (Rule xix.) 
Latin deceeeus, departure ; de eedo, sup. eestum, to go awa7 ftom. 
Deceire, de.8eev\ to impose on one; deceived, de.seevd' ; 
deceiv'-ing, deceiV-er (R. xix.), deceiv'-^ble (R. xxiii.), 
deceiv'ably, deceiv'able^iess. 

DiBiMit, de^eef; deceif-fnl (R. viii.), deceif fol-ly, deceif- 
Itdness; deception, de.8^'.8hun; deceptive, de.8^\Vlv; 
decep'tive-ly, decep'tive-ness, decep'tible (not -able); 
deceptibility, de, 8^p\ VL hiV. 1 ty, 

iTrench deceptif, deception : Latin deeeptio, dScXp&re, supine dteeptum, 
to entrap (from de oapio, to take in>. 



184 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

December, de.sem\ber. The tenth month, beginning with March. 

Lat. decemJ)er (from decern^ ten ; and -ber. ** Bar" (PeTS.)> period). 
Decemvir, plu. decemvirs or decemviri, de.8em\vir, de.8em\- 
vi.ri. Ten magistrates, " decemvir," one of the ten. 

Latin decemvir, pin decemviri {decern viri, ten men). 
Decency, plu. decencies, de\8en.8y, de\8en.8iz, {See Decent.) 

Decennary, de.8en\na,ry (double n), a period of ten years; 

decennial, de.8en\ni.dl, once in ten years ; decen'nial-ly. 

Latin difcennium, the space of ten years ; dicenndlis. 
("Annual" becomes ennial in the compounds, bi-ennial, tri-ennial, 
dec-ennial, per-ennial, &c. Latin decennisj 

Decent, d€f.8ent, decorous. Descent, d^.senf, lineage, &c. 

descent, de'cently ; de'cency, plu. de'cencies, de'.8«n.«fo ; 

de'centness. (Fr. decent, decence ; Lat. decency becoming). 

"Descent "is the Latin de«cendo, to descend (detcando, to climbdown). 

Deception, de.8ep' .8hun ; deceptive, de.8ep\tlv, (See Deceive.) 

Decern, de.zem\ to judge. Discern, di8,8em\ to distinguish. 

Latin deeemo, to decree ; but discemo, to distingoish. 
Decide, de.8ide\ to determine ; decided, deM\ ded. (Rule xxxvi.); 
deci'ded-ly, decid'-ing, decid'-er. (Eule xix). 
Decision, de.8%z\8hun, determination ; decisive, de,8i'Mv ; 
decisive-ly, decisive-ness. (Note the c in these words). 
(Observe. — Verbs in -de and -dadd " sion" not '* tion".) 

French decider, dicisif, decision ; Latin di<AdSre : sup. detHsum, to 
decide (from de ccedo, to cut away [what is irrelevant]). 

Decidnons, de.8\d\u.u8 [plants not evergreen], which shed their 

leaves [in autumn], decid'nous-ness. 

Latin dBfAdnius, subject to decay (&om de cddo, to fall off). 

Decimal, des^tmaly numbered by tens ; dec'imally (adv.) 

Decimate, des'.tmate, to pick out every tenth ; dec'imat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.; dec'imat-ing (R. xix.) ; dec'ima-tor (R. xxxvii.); 
decimation, des'-Lmay'^shun, selection of every tenth. 
French decimation, v. d4cimer; Latin didLm&re, dgdimus, the tenth. 
Decipher, dejuWjer, to unravel obscure writings ; deci'phered 
(2 syl.); deci'pher-ing, deci'pher-er, deci'pher-able, 
that which may be deciphered. 
Fr. ddchiffrer, to decipher ; Low Lat. de ciphra ; Ital deeiferart. 
Decision, deMz*.8hun ; decisive, de^'Mv. (See Decide.) 

Deck (of a ship), to adorn; decked (1 syl.), deck'-ing; deck'er, 
a ship having decks, one who adorns. 
Old Eng. decan, to cover ; Germ, decke, a covering, v. decken, decker. 

Declaim% to inveigh; declaimed' (2 syl.), dedaim'^-ing, 
dedaim'-er; declamation, deltf .la.may'* shun ; declam- 
atory, de.klum'.a.to.ry, bombastic. 

French declamation, d4clamatoire ; Latin dMdmdtio, dedamdtor, 
dedamdtorius, decldmdre (from de elamo, to speak aloud). 



AND OF SPELL1XG, 1^5 

Declare, dexlavi^, to assert; declared' (3 syl.), dedar'-ing, 
declax'-er (R. xix.), declar'-able (R. xx.), declaredly, 
dexlai"/ .ed.ly ; dedaration, dik\la.ray'\shun ; declara- 
tive, de.clar'ry.tlv ; declar'ative-ly ; declarator, de.- 
clar'ra.tor; declar'ator-y, declar'atori-ly (Rule xi.) 

French dSdaratif, dSelaration, deelaratoire, verb declarer. 

Lat. declarator, declardiio, decldrdre (de clardrCf to make quite clear). 

Declensioii, deMWi'^hun, A grammatical form of nouns, a 

falling off. (An informed word.) S^^ Decline. 

Decline'', consummation, to lean, to refuse, &c. ; declined' (2 syl.), 
declin'-ing (R. xix.), declin'-able (1st Lat. conj.) 

Declination, d^-lLnay'^-shun, Deviation. 

Declension, d«.X;2^'.«^un (of a noun). A falling off. (v.8.) 

Declinator, d^k'-l%.nay''-tor. An astronomical instrument. 

Decliner, de.klinef.er. One who declines a noun, &c. 

French d^elin, declinable, d^clinaison ; t. decliner, to decline. 
Latin declinatio, a deviation, a declension ; y. decllndre. 
(The supine of " dedlno" is deellnatmn, and it is quite impossible to 
obtain declension ther^om.) 

Declivity, plu. declivities, de.cliv^i.ty, de.cUv\i.tiz (not declev- 
ity)t an inclination downwards. An inclination upwards 
is an acclivity, ak.ktlv'.i.ty. 
Declivitous, de.kllv'.i.tuSf adQ. (not declivatous). 
French didiviU; Latin deelivitas {de cllvtts, a downward slope). 
Decoction, de.kSk^ .shun. The liquor containing the virtues of 
something which has been boiled in it. 
Latin decdquo, snpine decoctum, to boil down. 
Decompose, de'kdm.poze. Discompose, di8\k6m.poze!^. 
Decompose. To analyse, to reduce to elements. 
Discompose. To disturb, to ruffle, to agitate. 
De'compose', de'composed' (3 syl.), de'composing. (R. xix.) 
de'compos'-er, de'compos'-able (R. xxiii.), decom'posite. 
Decomposition. de'-kom.po.zi8h''-on. Analysis, decay, &c. 

French dScomposaible, v. decomposer, decomposition: Latin de com 
[con] p6nere, to do the reverse of putting together. 

Decompound, de.kom'.pound (noun), de\kdm.pound' (verb.) A de- 

com'pound leaf or flower (Bof.), is a compound-compound 

leaf or flower; that is, each part of each leaf is compound. 

De'compound,' to make a compound of different compounds; 

de'compoiind'-ed(R.xxxvi.),de'compound'-able. (R.xxiii.) 

JH Ib for dis (Greek), twice. It is a wretched hybrid, and ought to 
\m bicompound. (Latin &i [bis] compdTio.) 

Decorate, dShf.o.rate, to adorn ; dec'orat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

dec'orat-ing (R. xix.), dec'orat-or, one who decorates; 

decoration, dek' .o.ray'' .shun ; decorative, dek\o,ra*tlv. 

French dieoration, v. dicortr; Latin di^orare (from decus^ bean^). 



186 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DecoroQB, de.kdr^nu (not d^\o.m8\ befitting, seemly; deoor'- 
ous-ly, decor'ous-neBg ; deoorani) de.k^rom, 

Vr. dSoorum, propriet7 ; Lst. deeOrUm, deeOnu (from deeuSf beaiit7). 

Decoy', to allnre ; a lure, a place for catching wild-fowls ; 
decoyed' (3 eyl.), deooy'-inK (Rule xiii.), dewsoy'-er; 
deooy'-dtick, a duck employed to lure wild dueka into a 
net or place for catching them. 
A coiruptioQ of duck-coy, a duck lure ; Gertnan kdder, a Inre. 

Decrease, de'krese (noun), de.krese' (yerb). Eule L 

De'crease. diminution ; decIea8e^ to diminish ; decreased' (2 syl.)* 
decreas'-ing (B. xix.), decreas'ing-^ly, decres'cent. 
Lat. decreseo, to grow less and less (de craco^to increase ; -w- inoeptive). 

Decree', an edict, to deteiTnine by edict; decreed', decree'-ing; 
decreer, de.kreef.ery one who decrees : decre'tal (one e\ 
a decree, a book of decrees (also adj)\ decre'tive, 
de.kree'.tXv, having the force of a decree; decretory, 
de.kree\to,ry, judicial, decided by a decree. 

French d4cret, dicretale, yerb dicreter; Latin deergtdlii, decrilOriiu, 
deerHum (from decemo, supine decr^um, to decree). 

Decrepit, de.krep^.lt (not decrepHd), Infirm fironl age. 

Decrepitude, de.hrSp\l.tude, Infirmity from age» 

Fr. dScr4pit, decrepitude ; Lat. decripUus (from diorepOt to craeUe 
like burning salt ; de cH(po, to crack, hence " to break down "). 

Decrepitate, de.krep'.ttate, to crackle like burning salt; 
decrep'itat-ed (Rule xzxvi.), decrep'itat-ing (Rule zix.) ; 
decrepitation, de,kr^\i.tay'' .shun, a crackling. 

French d&cripitation, t. decripiter; Latin deergpltdre (frequeBtatfre 
of crgpo, to rattle or crack). 

Decrescent, de.kr^^sent (adj.) Becoming smaUer and smaller. 

(-8C- is inceptive. Latin decreacens.) See DeCteaSe. 

Decre'tal, decre'tive, decre'tory. (See Decree.) 

Decry', decries' (2 syl.), decried' (2 pyl.); decri'-al, a daaiorous 
censure; decri'-er (R. xi.), one who decries; detery'-ing 
(with a y, R. xi) French dicrier, to cry down. 

Dedicate, d^dr.Lkate, to devote ; ded'icat-ed (R. xxxvi.), ded'i- 
oat-ing (R. xix.), ded'ic§t-or, ded'icatory; dedication, 
ded' .i.kay'\8hun, the act of devoting or conseomting, a 
complimentary address prefixed to a book, Ac 
Latin dedicdtio, v. dSdicdre, to devote (from de diedre, td ▼©# to). 

Deduce, de-ditae', to infer; deduced' (2 syl.), deduo'-ing 
(R. xix.), deduc'-ible (not -able. Not of the 1st Latin con- 
jugation) ; dedu'cible-ness, deduoe'-ment (R. xvit, xviii.) 
Latin deduc^fre, (to draw down from) henoe, " to infer." 



AND OF SPELLING, 187 

BsAaot', to Bnbtraot, to take from; dedvot^'^d (K. zxxvi.), 
dediict'-iiig ; dednotiye, de.duk\tiv ; deduotive-ly ; 
deduction, de^dnk' jBhun^ subtraction, infereooe. 
French d6dMti(m; L«lia dBdiKtio, dtdSM^ tap. iIedMc(iim(T.8.) 

Deed, an action (Old Eng. ddd, a deed; d4dla^ a doer). 
Indeed, in fact ; In very deed, in very fact, in reality. 

Deem, to be of opinion ; deemed (1 syl.), deem'-ing. 

Deem^ster. A Judge in the Isle of Man and in Jersey. 

OM English dSma, a Judge : ▼. 4&m!iwC\, to deem or judge ; past 
rf^iMfe ( 2 sfl.); past part, dimed, deemed, {-ster both genders.) 

Deep, far to the bottom, cunning; (noun) the sea; deep'-er 
(comp.)^ deep'-est (««pO> deep'4y, deep'-ness. 

Deep'- en, deep'% to make deeper; deep'-ened (2 syl); 
deep'en-ing, deep'-ning ( 2 syl). 

Old English dedp, deep, i»:ofoimd, ; dedpnea, doppetan, to sink. 
Deer, iing, uid plu.^ the stag, (fro. Dear, beloved, expensive. 

" Deer," Old English dedr; "Dear," Old EngUsh deiir-e, v. deihian]. 
f** Deer,** *'aheep," and "noitie,** are both singular and plural.) 

De&oe' (2 syl.), to disfigure; defaced' (2 syl.), defax}'-ing (Rule 
xix.), defacing-ly ; def ac'-er, one who defaces ; deface'- 
ment (Eule xviii. %.\ ii^jury to the surface. 
IH faett to destroy the face or surface. (Latin fogies, the face.) 

DefiUoation, de\fal.kay'\8hufn (not <26'./t!)^Aat/"'.8/mn), fraudulent 
deficiency; defalcator, de\fdLka/y'\tor. 
French dSfalcation; Latin defalcalio (de /ate, a pruning knife). 

Defame' (2 syl.), to slander; defamed' (2 syl.), defam'-ing, 
defim'ing-ly; defam'-er (Rule xix.), one who defames. 

Defamation, dSf'-^.Tnay^'-shunj slander; defamatory, de.- 

fdm\a.td.ryf slanderously. 

{The first syU of the^e words in Fr. and Lat. is dif-.) 

French diffiamation, diffamatcire^ verb diffamer; Latin diffdmatiOf 
diffamdre (d^[de]/ama, to deprive one of his fame). 

Defaulter, de.foV.ter. A peculator. 

Old French defiiulU, now difaut, defect ; Low Latin d^altiMi. 
Defeasible, de.fee'M.Vl, alienable. Indefeasible, inalienable. 

Low Latin d^eigiMlis (Latin d^ficiOf to undo ; de /ado). 

Defeat, de.feet\ to frustrate, to vanquish, a frustration, an 
overthrow ; defeaf -ed (Rule xxxvi. ), defeat'-ing. 
(The -ea- of these words is indefensible.) 
French dSfaite {dAfaire, to undo; Latin de /actus, undone). 

Defecf, a fault; defection, de./^^hun, a revolt; defective, 
de^f^Jiiv, imperfect; defec'tive-ly (R. xi.). defeo'tive- 
nees, defecf-ible; defectibility, de.fSk\ti.hU'\i,ty. 
Latin di/eebns, d^eetio^ d^ectimu {de/acio, to undo). 



188 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Defence^ (2 eyl.) a protection, a vindicatioD ; defence'-lesB, 

defenceless-nesB ; defences, de.fen\8^z, (Rule xxxiv.) 

(This is one of the worst anomalies of the language. The 

" c " ought to have been an 8, and has been preserved in 

the compounds. See Defensive.) See also Condense, note, 

French dA/ense ; Latin d</en«tM, d^endo^ supine d^enswn, and alao 
df/enso (from de/endo, to driye away). 

I>efend^ to protect, to vindicate; defend'-ed (Rtile xxxyI.), 

defend'-ing, defend'-er, defend'-able (Kule xxiii.), 

defend'-ant (Rule xxy.), the person who defends or 

replies to a charge in a law-suit. The person who 

makes the charge is called the plaintiff. 

French d^fendre, dAfendcMe, d^endewr ; Latin defendiHrt, 
(As usual the wrong conjunction defendable is French. J 

Defensive, de.fSn\slVy the side or posture of defence; ddfen'- 
sive-ly ; defensiblis, de.f^\s\.b% what may be defended: 
defensibility, de.fin'MMV\i.ty. (See Defend ) 
French dSfeneive ; Latin dtfmdo^ snpine defrnxuim, to defend. 

Defer', to postpone, to submit; deferred, de.ferd' ; defer'zing; 
deferr'-er, one "^ho postpones, one who submits in opinion. 

Deference, def.e.rense, respect to another ; deferential, 

def .e.ren" .shal, respectful ; deferen'tial4y. 

{In Latin these two verbs are not identical : To "postpone " 

is diflferre, to " submit*' is deferre. We have bprrowed owr 

words from the Frefich d6f6rer, to ** postpone** and to 

" submit" and to the sam£ source we oioe the ahnormal 

spelling of the last four words.) 

French difirer (both verbs), dSfirence, ddfSrent^ deferentiaL 
Latin d^(^o, to defer ; part, d^irens, gen. d^ereniU; diffiro, to 
submit ; part, diff^ens, gen. diffirentis. 

Defiance, defi'Mnse, menace. {See Defy.) 

Deficient, de.JisK.entt not perfect ; deficient-ly (adverb). 

Deficiency, plu. deficiencies, de.fish\en.siz (Rule zliv.' 
stHte of imperfection, {-cy denotes state^ &c.) 

Deficit, de\fi.sit. Deficiency in a money balance. 

French deficient, deficit; Latin d^fuAens^ genitive d^/leienM«, va 
d^do {de fado, to reverse of " making complete "). 

Defile (noun), de\file, a narrow pass; (verb) de.file^ (Role ' 
to pollute, to march with a narrow iiront or in single f 

Deffle', deffled' (3 syl.), deffl'-ing (both meaning 
def il'-er ( H. xix.), one who pollutes ; defile'-ment, pollut 

♦* Defile" (to pollute), Old Eng. g<^iil{anl 

** DefUe " (to march in single fllej. Fr. d^filer ; Lat. fUum, a thre 

Define' (2 syl.), to explain, to circumscribe; defined (3 
defin'-ing (R. xix.), defin'-er, defin'-able (R. x: 
def In'-ably ; definition, def'.tnish'\unfmesanng explii 



AND OF SPELLING. 189 

Definite, d^f'.inlt (not def\\,nxte\ precise, exact; def'i- 
nite-ly; def'inite-nees (Kule zyii.)» exactness. 

Definitive, deJln'AMv, positive; definltive-ly ; defin'i- 
tive-ness, preciseness, exactitude. 

French d^/nir, d4ftnitif, dSftnition ; Latin definite, definitely ; d^- 
nUiOj d^niiivtu, d^nire, to define (from Jlnu, a limit). 

Deflect^, to torn aside ; deflecf-ed (Rule xxxyI), deflect'-ing. 

Deflection, better deflexion, de.fl^^hun. Aberration. 

Deflexed, de.flexf (Bot.) Bent down in a continuous curve. 

French deJUxUm ; Latin d^flexus, d^cto, supine d^flextvm {de JUctOt 
to bend downwards, to bend away from). 

Deform^ to distort; deformed' (3 syl.), deform'-ing, defonn'-er; 
deformation, de' .for.may'' uthurif disfigurement. 

Mial-formation. Abnormal formation, misformed. 

Deformity, plu, deformities, de.for^.mttiz. Distortion. 

French deformation, verb deformer. Latin diformdtio, dgformitas; 
ditormdre, to disfigure {de forma, the reverse of beauty or form). 

Defrand^ to cheat; defraud'-ed (Rule xxxvi.)» de£raud'-ing ; 
d^Eraud'-er, one who defrauds. 
Latin d^T(mddxe (de firaudo, to cheat thoroughly ; firatts, fraud). 

Defray', to bear the expenses; defrayed' (3 syl.), defray'ing 
(R. xiii.), defray'-er ; 4efray'-ment, payment. 
Fr. d^ayer (defrais, [to cancel] a charge) ; Low Lat. fredum, charge. 
Defdnct, de.funkf, dead. (Lat. defuncttu, discharged [from life].) 

Defy, to dare, to challenge; defies, de.fize; defied' (9 syl.), 
defi'-er (not defy-er), defi'-ance, defi'-ant, hut defy'-ing. 
French d4fl, d^fianee, defiant ; v. d^evy to defy or challenge. 

Degenerate, d€.gen\e,ratey to grow worse; degen'erated (Rule 
xxxvi.), degen'erat-ing ; de^^eneration, de,gen',e.ray".' 
shun; degeneracy, de.gen\e.ra.8y {-cy denotes a "state"); 
degen'erate-ly ; degen'erate-ness, degenerate condition. 

French d4u4n4ration, v. dig^nirer; Latin diggn&rdre (from deginer, 
unlike his ancestors ; de gens, to fall away from one's race). 

Degrade', to disgrace; degrad'-ed (Rule xxxyi.), degrad'-ing, 
degpradation, deg\ra.day'\8hunj dishonour, loss of rank ; 
degrad'-er, one who degrees another ; degra'ding-ly. 
Fr. degradati4m, ddgrader. Lat. de gradus^ [to reduce] from grade. 
Degree'. A measure applied to circles, rank, relationship, <&c. 
By de^^rees. Little by little, gradually. (French degri,) 

Deify, de\i.fy, to exalt to the gods; deifies, de\l.JUie; deified, 
de'.tjide; deifi-er, de\l.fi.er, one who deifies; deifica- 
tion, de\i.fifkay'\8hun, exaltation to divine honours. 

DeisnjL, (ie'.um, belief ixi ^ creator but not in revelation: 



190 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

deist, de\lBt, one whose (steeA. is deism; deistical, 
de.isf.tkal; deistical-ly, deXsfJCkShly, 
Bnty, p£u. dftitiea,. deXPiz. (Biile zi.) 

(Dei- is pronounced di-, except m this $et of words and in 
the word ** deign" where it has the sotmd of "Bh ") 
French d^^ioaUon, ▼. dSifter, dManu, dHsU, d4itS; Lttftin deltas. 
Deign, dain't to voachsafe. BEUie, a natiye of Denmark. 

Deign, deigned (1 8jl.)» deign'-lng. IHs^daia, to oontemn. 
(" Deign " and " disdain " shoftUA be spelt in one way ; 
both are from the Lat, dignns, Fr, daigner.) 
French daigner, to deign ; dd-daigneTf to disdabi. Latin dignus. 
Deino^ di.nO' (Greek prefix meaning terrible from hugeDdss of 
size, marvellously great in bulk). 

DeinomJB, di.nor^.fds, A huge fossil bird. (Gk. omis, a bird.) 

DeinoHUUiroB or deinoHsanriaii) plu. deinoHsanriansy eB^no.- 
saw".rti8 di'.no^aw'\riMn, di*M0.8aw'\ri.anz. A huge 
foBsil lizard. (Greek sauros^ a lizard.) 

DeiBO-therinm, phi, delno-theria, di' .no.rhee'' .riMn^ plo. 

di\no.Thee^\rtah. A huge fossil animal with a trunk. 
Greek deirwa tMriont a terribly-hnge beast. 
{These words are sometimes spelt di- instead of dei-.) 

Deject', to dishearten ;' dejecf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dejec'ted-ly, 
dejee'ted-ness, deject'-ing; d^ection, de.jeyf.skwn. 
Fr. direction; Lat. de^iegn, sup. dtjeetuin (de jado, to throw dkiwBX 

Delay', to defer; delayed' (2 etyl.) not delaid. (It ia not a oom- 

pound of lay, B. xiv«, but the supine of diff^o^ Lat.) 

delay'-ing, delay'-er (R. xiil), one who delays. 

French dilai; Latin diffiro, supine dildtum, to defer. 

*' Defer " is from the root and " delay " from the sup. of the same ▼erh. 

Delectable, de.Uk\ta.VL (See Delight.) 

Delegate, deV.e.gate, a representatiye, to send a representative ; 

* del'egat-ed (K. xxxvi.), delegat-ing (R. xix.), intrusting 

a commission to another ; delegation, del* -e. gay". shun, 

French dAUQoiion, v. dMigvy&r; Lat. deUgatio, v. d&ig&re Qi$ ijgHn^ 
to send away as ambassador or legate). 

Delendum, plu. delenda, de.len'.ddh (Lat), to be erased. In 
printers' proofs written del or d. 

DeleteiionB, dM\S.tee'' .ri.iis, hurtful; delete'rious-ly, delete'- 
riouB-ness. (The de-y in Greek, is long. ) 
Greek diUtirios, diUtir, a destroyer ; diledmai, to destroy. 
Delf. Coarse earthenware, originally made at Delft (HoUtBd^ 

Deliberate, de.lW.i*rate, slow to determine, to weigh in the 
mind the pros and cons ; deliberate-ly, deliberate-aeei 
delib'erat*^ (R. xxxvi.), delib'erat-ing (R. xix.), delib'- 



A}fD OF SPELLING, 191 

erat-0r; ctoUbeiatioii^ de.}Xb\e.ray^'a)mn; deMberal-iye, 
<l0.2i6^«.m.ttv; MiVQi!ati¥e47, with deliberation. 

diliberativus, dUiUrdltfir, w, delG>eTtbre. 

IMobacj^ jpttt. dtUo*eM«» diV.i.ha^, ^V.i.kcLsU, A dainty, 
weaJmess, tenderness, consideration for otbarSk 

Delicate, diV.i.het; del'iaate-ly, delleftte-HMB. 
French dilicaJt; Latin dOitMut, delicate, fine, dainty. 
BelidoBS, deMih'Mty delightful to the taste; delidoiu-ly, 
deUeionfr-Jiesa. (Fr. d4licieuz ; Lat. dellciai, delights.) 

JkUigkV, pleasore, to please; delight'-e4 (R. xxxvi.), delight'- 
io«;, Oelighr-fnl (R. viu.). d«lighrfal-ly, delighrfia. 
ness; delight'-vBomd, full of delight {^somet Old English 
sui&x, "full of"); delig^t'8one-ncifl8» agreeableness. 

Be^ootable, deMW.ta,Vl; deLec'table-aeaB; deleotability, 
de.leW.taMV\%.ty ; de&ectfttio9« de.UW ,tay" ^hun, 

French dilectabU, dSUctation, ▼. dSleder. Latin dileddbiUi,' dike- 
tdtio, y. dcUcto, to delight ; lacto, to allure, to charm. 

Delineate, de.Un\S.ate, to draw, to design; delin'eat-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), deHn'eat-ing (R. xix.), delin'eat-or (R. xxxvii.); 
delineation, de^Vin' .i.a'* ^hurh^ a drawing in Unes or wx}rdB. 
French dilitUaUon; Latin dUiM&Uo, dettnedtor (de llnaa, aline). 
Delinquent, de,V(n\quent. One who commits a fault. 

Delinqnenoy, plu. delinqnendes, de.lfn\qtten.siz. Misdeeds. 

French diUnquant (wrong conj.); Latin dilinquena, gen. -querUis, to 
fail in one's duty (de linqudre, to leave behind). 

pelirimwi, de.Ur'rLus, wandering in mind from illness ; deliri- 
onBely, delizioas-ness; delirium, de,lir^ri.um^ temporary 
aberration of mind ; delirium tremens, deMr^ri.um tree\- 
ment, insanity accompanied with a trembling of the 
^mbs, generally brought on by drunkenness. 
Lat. delirium, dotage {de lira, [to get] out of the furrow in ploughing). 

Delittante (no such word). See Dilettante. 

Deliver, de.Uv\er, to set free, to save, to hand over, to disbuiden, 
to utter ; delivered, de.liv\erd ; deliv'er-ing, deliv^er-er, 
deliv^er-able, deliv'er-^ance, deliv^ery. 

To deliver up, to surrender. To deliver over, to transfer. 

French d^Kveranoe, v. diliverer, d^Unerewr; Latin de liMraa^e, to 
liberate from [bondage] {liber, freeX 

QftD (R, v.), a valley. (Old Eng. ddl, a dale; Welsh twU, a pit) 

Delphian, deU.fl^an, Ddphine, del'.fin, 

Delphian. Pertaining to the oracle of Belphi, in (Greece. 

Belphine. A Freneh edition of the Latin classics for the 
use of the '* Grand Dauphin " (son of Louis XIY.) 



102 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



BelphinidiB, dSl.fln*.tdee. The dolphin genus. 

Delphinium, del.fln\tum. The larkspur species of plants. 
Called delphinium^ from a fancied resemblance of tiie un. 
opened flowers to an heraldic dolphin. 
Called larkspur from a fancied resemblance of the homed 
nectary to a lark's spur. 

" Delphian," Greek Delphinios, adj. of Ddphoi (or&cle of Delphi). 
" Delphine," Greek delphin or ddphis, a dolphin ; Old Eng. delfin. 
** Delphin-idss," -idee, a Greek patronymic, denotes a family or gioap. 
*' Delphin-ium," -ium, a Latin termination, denotes a species. 

Deltft, deV.tdhy a triangular tract of land at the mouth of certain 
rivers, as the Nile, so called from the Greek A {d or delta), 
Deltic, deV,tlkf a^j. ; deltoid, diV.toidy somewhat resem- 
bling a delta. (Greek delta eidos, delta like.) 

Delude' (2 syl.), to deceive; delud'-ed (3 syl., R. xxxvi); 
delud'-ing (R. xix.); delud'-er, one who deludes; 
delud'-ahle (B. xxiii.), easily deceived, gullible. 

Delusion, Illusion, de.lu'jshun, ildu\zhun. 

Delusion is deception from want of knowledge. 

Illusion is deception from mprbid imagiDation. 

Delusion (B. xxxiii.); delusive, deM\ziv; delu'aiye-ly, 

delusive-ness ; delu'sory, de.luze\5.ry. 
Latin delucUfret to cheat {de Ivdo, to play on [ope's credulity]). 

Delve (1 syl.), to dig; delved (1 syl.), delv'-ing (Bule xix); 
delv'-er, one who delves. 
Old English d«(f [anj, to dig ; past deaTf^ past part, ddven. 

Demagnetise, de.7nag\ne.tize^ to undo magnetic influence; 
demagnetised, de.inag' me.tlzd ; demagnetlB-ing, de,- 
mag'.nS.tize.ing (B.xix); d^magnetis-er, de.mag',nS.tize,er. 

"Magnetise" is to affect with magnetism, or to make magnetio; 
de- reverses ; and "de-magnetise ' Is to undo the former processes. 

Demagogue, d^'.a.g5g. Demigod, dem\i.gSd. 

Demagogue. A factious mob orator. 

Demigod. A man who has rank with the gods. 

"Demagogue," French dAmagogue: Greek d6m-dLg6gdt^ a popular 

leader {ddmds, the people) ; Latin dem&gdgtis. 
"Demigod," French cCfmi, half, and our native word "God." The 

word healf or half is the native word for demi, as hea^f-dyfieHd, 

a semi-vowel, healf-tryndel, a hemi- sphere. 

Demand^ a request, to claim or seek with authority ; demand'-ed 
(B. xxxvi.), demand'-ing, demand'-er, demands-able 
(not -ihle); demand'ant, the plaintiff in a law-suit 
French demande^ ▼. drntander; Latin demandofn {mando, to order). 

Demarcation, de'.mar. hay** .shun. A line of separation. 

French dimarcation ; Old English mtaxct a mark, a boundaiy. 



AXD OF SPELLING. 103 

I>enieaii% to bebave, to debase ; demeaned' (3 syl.), demean'- 
ing; demeanour, de.mean'.or, behavionr. 

'* Demean " (to deport oneself X ' ' De-port " is Latin de porta, to carry : 

and '* demean " ii French de merier, to lead or cany. 
"Demean" (to debase oneself) is Old English ge-nutiu, common. 

Demi-, dem'-i- (Frencb prefix), half. Demy, de-mf [p&P^i']* 9-t^* 
Qreek himi-f Latin aimi- (from Greek Admints, Latin »imi$, half). 

Demi-god. A deified man. 
This hybrid word is partly French and partly Anglo-Saxon. 

Demi-lime. A term in ^or^ (French d^mt^un^, half moon.) 

Demi-Bemiqnaver, dihn'.i sSm^i-qua^ver, Half a semi- 

quaver, the shortest musical note. 
This is French dttni; Latin aSmi; Spanish quiebro, a trill 1 1 
Demi-yolt (Fr.) One of the seven movements in fnanige. 

Demise, de.mize'y death, to bequeath ; demised' (2 syl.), demis'- 
ing (Bule xix.), demis'-able (Rule xxiii.) 

Latin dimitUref snpine dimissumt to send down [to the grave], hence 
''death"; to send down [to heirs], hence '* to bequeath." 

Democracy, plu. democracies, de.mdl^.rd,8y, de.mdk\ra.siz, a 
republic; democratize, de.m5k'.ra.tize, to make demo- 
cratic; democratized" (4 syl.), democratiz'-ing (R. xix.) 

Democrat, dim'.o.kratf a favourer of democracy; demo- 
cratic, dem\o,krdf'Mt or democratical, dem\o.krdf\i.kal 
pdj.) ; democratical-ly, in a democratic manner. 

Greek d6mdkratia {d£m6s kraUfOt to govern by the people), dSmohra- 

tizOy ddmokratikds. 
(The Uut syllable is -cy, "statCy office, rtUe**' not -sy. Similarly 

"aristocracy,'^ "autocracy,*' and the hybrid "mobocraey") 

Demobilise, de.mo'Ml.ize, To "mobilise" troops is to render 
them liable to be moved out of their quarters to serve 
against an enemy. To "demobilise" them is to send 
them home, as not required for active service. 

Demo'bilise, demo^bilised (4 syl.), demo'bills-ing (R. xix.); 
demobilisation, de.mo* Ml.i.zay'\8hun. 
(These words came into popular use in the Franco-Prussian 
war, hut have not yet found their way into dictionaries.) 

Demolish, de.m8l.ish, to pull down; demorished (2 syl.), 
demoFish-ing, demol'lsh-er; demolition, de\in5l.ish'\on. 

French demolition, v. dimolir : Latin dem^lUio, v. dSmSliri {mdlier 
is to heap up, de molior is the reverse of "heaping up"). 

Demon, d^.mSn, a fiend ; demonism, de'.mi^.izm, belief in the 
active agency of demons ; demonology, de'.mo.ndV^o.gy, 
a systematic treatise on demons (Gk. logos, discourse, &g.), 
demonolatry, dt.mo.nbV',atry,the worship of demons (Gk. 
latreia, worship), demoniac, de\md\ni.ak, one possessed t^ 
demoniacal, <2«^mo.n^^cI.iba^adj.); demoni'acal-ly; demo- 

N 



194 ERRORS OF SPEECJI 

nize, de\m8.nize^ to make one like a demon ; de'moniaecl 

(3 syL), de'monlz-ing (Rule zix.)i de'mon!z-er. 

French dimon^ ddmcniaque, dimonograjthe, dimonologit; Latin 
damon, damUfnidcua; Greek dainuJn, daimOnidkds, davmOnizdmai. 

Demonstrate, de,mon' Mrate (not dSm/(m.8trate\ to prove; 

demon'strated (Rule xxxvi), demon'strat-or (not -er. Role 

xxxvii); demonstrat-ive, de.mon\8tra.t%v ; demon'stra- 

tive-Iy, demon'strative-ness; demonstrable, dejawn'- 

8tra.Vl; demon'strable-ness, demon'strably (Ist Latin 

coi^.) Role xix. demonstration, dem\on.8tray''8hun. 

French dSmonstratif, demonstration; Latin dSmonstratio, eUiium- 
ttraMvus, dBmonatrdtor, dimonstrdre {monstrOf " to point out "). 

Demoralise, de.mor'ral.ize, to injnre the morals, to disorganize ; 

demor'alLsed (4 Kyi.), demor'alte-ing (R. xix.), deimor'- 

alis-er ; demoralisation, de.rruy/ral.i.zay'\8hun. 

French dSm&ralizationf v. ddmoralisoer ; Latin de mores, 

Dempster. A judge in the Channel Isles, and in the Isle of Man. 

Old English ddma, a judge ; d4m[an]^ to judge ; [-<ter is not a 
feminine suffix, but is used in both genders). 

Demulcent, de,muV.8ent. Soothing. (Lat. demulcenSt gen. -centU,) 

Demur', to hesitate from doubt; demurred' (2 syl.), demurr'-ing, 
demurr'-er (EL i.), in Law^ an issue raised on some legal 
question in a suit, one who demurs; demurr'-able ; 
demurr'-age, a fixed charge for the detention of trucks, 
&c., belonging to another railway company ; an allowance 
made to the owners of a ship by the freighters for deten- 
tion in port beyond time. 
French demeure, v. demewer; Latin dSmordri (mdra, delay). 

Demure, de.meur^, coy ; demure'-ly, demure'-ness. 

French dea moeurs {avoir des mceurs, to have proper morals). 

Demy, plu. demies, dejml\ de,mize\ Dem'i. Demise' (2 syl.) 

Demy', a size (in paper) between " royal " and " crown", 
a " scholnrship " in Magdalen College, Oxford ; demyahip, 
de.my^^hip^ the possession of a demy scholarship (-«/iip, 
Old Eng. affix, " tenure of," *' state", "jurisdiction,'' &c.) 

Demi, dem\i (Fr. prefix), half; Lat. 8emi ; Gk. himi. 

Demise, de.mize', <death. 

" Demy " [paper], that is, demirroyal 20 in. by 16, instead of 24 by 1ft. 
"Demy " [Oxford], is a demi or inferior fellowship. 

Den- (Old Eng. postfix) a valley, a wooded place : as TeDtet-den. 

Den, a cage for wild beasts, &g. (Old Eng. den or denu, a den.) 

'DeDAiionBMBe,de.na8h\on.dl.ize. To deprive of nationality. The 
Poles are denationalised, being incorporated into Russia, 
&c.; denationalised, de.na8h',(m,aXdzed; denaf loiiaiis-ing. 

Dene (1 syl.), a valley. Dean, » church dignitary. 
' ' D«ne/' Old Bngliah defw. " Dean," Latin decdmm. 



AXD OF SPELLING, 105 

Denial, de,ni^.dL {Ste Deny.) 

Denizen, d^A.zSii, A naturalised citizen. 

Denizen is one made a citizen ex donatione regit (hy 
royal gift or charter). A denizen was a trader within 
the walls of a town ; a forein was a trader without the 
walls (Lat. /oris, abroad). 
Low Latin dermenus; Old French donaiaon (Latin donum, a gift). 

Denominate, de.nSm\i.nate^ to designate; denom'inat-ed (R. 
xxxvi), denom'inat-ing (R. xix.); dencmi'inat-er, one 
who denominates ; denom'inat-Or, in fractiom^ the figure 
below the line, as \ (here "2" is the denominator because 
it " designates" into how many parts the unit is divided. 

Denomination, de.nhm'.unay".8hun, name, a society (chiefly 

applied to religious sects); denominational, de.ndm\i.- 

nay*\8)mn,&U sectarian ; denonmia'tioinal-ly ; denomi- 

na^ye, de.nom\i.na.ttv, 

French dSnominatenrf a denominator, dinlnnina^f, dAnonUnation ; 
Latin denomindtio, denOnUndtlvibs, dindmindtor, that which gives 
the name [to a fraction], denOmindre (from nomen, a name). 

Denote' (2 syl.), to indicate ; denof-ed (K. xxxvi.), denot'-ing 

(B. xix.), denot-able; denotation, de\no.tay'\8hun ; 

denotative, do.no'.ta.tlVj having the power to denote. 

Fr. dinotaticUt r. dfinoter; Lat. dendtdUo, den&tdre (ndia, a mark). 

Denouement (French), da^.nou.mah'n (not da.nou\e.m(mg), the 
winding up or final catastrophe of a drama, &c. 

Denounce, de.nounse', to inform against ; denounced' (2 syl.), 
denoonc'-ing (R. xix.), denounc'-er, denounoe-ment. 
(Five words drop the final e before -ment, viz., acknowledg- 
ment, abridgment, argu-ment, lodg-ment, judg-ment.) 

Denunciation, de,nun\8e.a" .shun, a public denouncement ; 
denunciator (not -ter), one who denounces ; denuncia- 
tory, de.nvmf.she.a.Vry y containing a denouncement. 

French dinoncer, ddnondation; Latin denuncidtiOf denuncidre, to 
dmotmce (de nuncio, to inform against). 

Dense, dence, thick. Dens, denz, plu. of den; dense'-ly, 
closely ; dense'-ness, den'sity. (Rule xix.) 
French dense, densvU; Latin densus, denslteLs, v. densdre. 

Dent, a notch. Dint, force, power. 

" There is a dent in the [teapot]," not dint. 

** He did it by dint of [kindness], by the power or force of. . . 

Dent (verb), denf-ed (R. xxxvi.), dent'-ing. The more 

usualformsof this verb are indent', indented, indent'-ing; 

indentation, in\den.tay'''8hun (has no simple form). 
Denf-al, pertaining to the teeth; denKist; den'tistry, 

the art and profession of a dentist; dentition, d^.tith\unf 

the '* cutting" of teeth. 



1U6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dentate, d^'.tate (in BoU\ toothed [applied to leayes]; 
dentated, dm'.ta\ted (B. xxxtI.) ; dent'ate-ly. 

Bentelle, dahn\tell. Lace, lace-work. 

Penticle, den',ti.k% a small projecting point like a tooth ; 
denticnlate, d^.tW.u-late (in Bot,), finely toothed; 
dentic'olate-ly ; denticnlation, d^,tWM.lay"^?mn. 

])^ntiflice, dinfM.fri8. Tooth-powder. 

Latin denies frleo, to rub the teeth. 

Dentine, den'.tine (not den\teen). The tissue which 
forms the hody of a tooth, (-in^ Lat. " substance.") 

Dentils, d^^.tUz (in Arch.) Little square projections in 
the bed-mouldings of cornices, &c. 

French dent, a tooth ; dental, dentelle, deniicuU, dentifrice^ dentiste, 
dentition; Lat. dens, gen. dentis, dentic&ku, dent^^fricium, dcntitio. 

Denude' (2 syl), to strip ; denud'-ed (R. xxxvi.), denud'-ing (Rule 

xix.),denM'-er, denudation, d6.nu^da^''.8?iun, divestment. 

French dinudaiion, y. d4nv4er; Latin dinuddtio, v. ddnuddre, to 
make entirely naked (from ntidus, naked). 

Denunciation, de,nv>n\ie,a" shim. (See Denounce.) 

Deny', to refuse, to contradict ; denies, de.niz^; denied, de.nide'; 
denf-er, denl'rable, denf-ai, but deny'-ing (Rule xi.) 
French dinier, to deny ; 4ini, a denial ; Latin denigdre^ to refiue. 

^eodand, de\o.dand, A fine on the master, when one of his 
chattels has caused the death of a human creature. 

Latin dec dandue, given to .(}od. As the person thus killed died 
.without absolution, the money was given for "masses for the 
dead." Abolibhed in 1846. 

Deodorise, de.o'.do.rize, to disinfect, to neutralise bad odours ; 
deo'dorised (4 syl.), deo'dorls-ing (R. xix.) ; deo'doris-er, 
a disinfectant ; deodorisation, de.o'.do,ri.zay'\8kun. 
Latixi de ddeo, i.e. dleo, to stink (de reverses). 

Deoxidate, de.ox'.i.date, to deprive of oxygen ; deoxldat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), deox'idat-ing ^Rule xix.), deoxidation, 
de.ox\iJ^y*'.8hwn, deprivation of oxygen. 

Deoxidise, /dl.occf .i.dize, to deprive of oxygen ; deoz'idiaed 
(4 syl.), c^eoz'idis-ing, deoxldis-er, that which deoxidises. 

Deozigemite, de.ox.if ,e.Tuite^ to deprive of oxygen; deox- 
ig'enat-edf'dcozigpenat^ing, deoz;ig'enat-er, that which 
deprives of oxygen ; deoxigenation, d^,ox.if.e.nay"jihun, 
(It is usual to spell these words with -xi-, hut €u 
"oxygen" is spelt with a >*y," the change should never 
have been made.) 

French de -oxydahle, -oxydation, -oxyder, to deoxidise, -oosygtfnoHon, 
V. -oxyg^fier; Greek oxiu gend, to generate sour or acid [compounds]. 



AXD OF SPELLTXn, lf>7 

Deparf, to leave ; depart'-ed (B. xxxvi.), depart^ ing, departure, 
de.par'.tctmr, a going away, death. 

Department, a specitic branch of a business; depart- 
mental, de.part.men'.talf limited to a department. 

French dSpart, ▼. dipartir, dipartement, dipartenuntal : 
Latin de paaiire or -irif to separate from [others]. 

Depend", to rely on; depend'-ed (Bule xxxvi.), depend'-ing, 
depend'-ent (not dependant), dependent-ly, depend'-ence 
(not dependance); depend'ency, plu. dependencies, 
de.p^',den'Mz; depehd'able (R. xxiii). Independence, in'- 
depend'ency, in'depend'ent, in'depend'endy (in-, neg.) 

Dependent on [another]; Independent of [all others]. 

Pendent /rom [the ceiling], t.«., hanging down from. 

French dipendomee, dependant (wrong conj.) ; Lat. cUpendens, gen. 
depandentis, r. depvndere (de pendeo, to huig on or from). 

Depicf , to paint, to describe ; depicf ed (Rule xxxvi), depicfing ; 
depicfer, one who depicis. (Latin depicttis, painted.) 

Depilatory, de.ptV.a.to.ry, an ointment or lotion for removing 
hair [from the face and arms]. 

French dipUatoire; Latin d^ldre, to remove the hair (pfliw, hairX 
Depletion, ds.plee' .shun, exhaustion ; depletive, dt.plee\tiv, 

Latin deplere (pUo, to fill, de reverses). 

Deplore' (2 syl.), to lament; deplored' (3 syL), deplor'-ing 
(R. xix.), deploring-ly (adv.); deplor'-er, r)ne who deplnr.s ; 
deplor'-able, deplor'ably, de-plor'ableness ; deplora- 
biiity, de.plor^ .a.blV'.i.ty , deplorable state. 
French d6plora3bUy v. ddplorer; Latin depWrdre (pldro, to wail). 

Depolarise, de.pd\lar.ize, to deprive of polnrity; depolarised 
(4 syL), depolans-ing (R. xix.); depolarisation, de.po,- 
lar,i,zay'\8hun. To polarise light is to split each undu- 
lation into two, each split undulation is " polarised light." 

Polarity, po.lafri,ty, the " state of being polarised." 
French polariscUion, polarUet, poUvriU; Latin polarU, polar. 

Depopulate, de.p6p\u.late, to lay waste, to deprive of inhabit- 
ants; depop'ulat-ed (R. xxxvi.), depop'ulat-ing (R. xix.), 
depop'uiat-or (R. xxxvii.); depop'ulation, -Uiy'^shun. 

Frendi dApopulaiien; Latin depdpiUdtio, depdpiUdtor, depdpHldre 
(pdpHittSj people), to deprive of people, de privative. 

Deporf, to behave; deporf-ed(R. xxxvi.), deporf-ing; deport- 
ment, behaviour. The verb deport [to behave] must be 
followed by a reciprocal pronoun, as oneself, himself my- 
ielf herself, themselves, yourself, yourselves. &c. 

French diporter, to banish; Latin deportart, to carry away (por^o, 
to bear or carry). We talk of a man's hearing [way of conducting 
himself], his carriage [figure and bearing], &c. 



108 EURORS OF SPEECH 

Depose, de.poz^, to degrade from office {$ between two vowels 
= z); deposed' (2 syl.), depSs'-ing (Bnlexix); deposT-er. 

Deposit, de.pSz\it^ somethlDg intmsted to another, a pawn, 
to give something as a pledge, to lay by mcmej in the 
bank; deposlt-ed (R. zxxiri.), depos'it-ing, depoB'it-or 
(R. xxxvii.); depository, de.poz^.i.to.ry^ place for deposits. 

(This word €U(ftd to be depositaiy ; Fr. dSpositaire: Lat. depdHtarius.) 
Deposition, de'.pojsish'.tm. Statement made on oath. 

FreDch diposer, dipomiion; lAtin depdsitio^ depdsitor, depdHtutt 
depOngre, supine depdsltum {de p<mo, to lay [scHuething] do¥m). 

Depdt, plu. depots, da.pd'j dd.pdze* (Fr.), not day'po, nor 
dep\po, a place where stores of a specific sort are kept. 

Deprave' (2 syl.), to corrupt; depraved' (2 syl.), deprav'-ing 
(R. xix.), deprav'-er ; depravity, plu. depravities, de.- 
prdv'.i.tiZt moral turpitude; depravedness, de.prdvd^ness. 

Depravation, de.pray,vay\8hun. State of moral turpitude. 

Deprivation, de,pry.vay\8hun. Divestment. 

French depravation, v. depra/ver; Latin deprdvdtio, deprdvdre (trom 

promts, crooked ; de-pravo, to dis-tort). 
"Deprivation/* is Latin deprivatio (from privdre, to take awayX 

Deprecate, dep'.re.kate, to blame, to curse ; dep'recat-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), dep'recat-ing (Rule xix.), dep'recating-ly, dep'- 
recat-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.); deprecatory, dep\re.ka.try ; 
deprecative, dep'.re.ka.tlVj dep'recntive-ly. 

Deprecation, dep'.re.kay*' .shun. A cursing, a blaming. 
Depreciation, de.pree' M.d.8hyn. Detraction of value. 
French dipricatwn., ddpricatif; Latin de preedri, to pray agaixut. 

Depreciate, dS.pree* M.ate, to lessen in value; depse'ciat-ed 
(K. xxxvi.), depre'ciat-ing (R. xix.), depreciat-or (not -«r, 
R. xxxvii.) ; depreciation, dS.pree' .8i.a''^hun, detraction 
of value; depreciative, <2e.2'7^««'.sLa.tiv; depre'ciatiTO-ly; 
depreciatory, de.pree" J8\.a.t6.ry, 
Rr. depreciation, ▼. deprider; Latin deprgddre {prMum, the pricpX 

Depredate, dep' .re.date, to plunder ; dep'redat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dep'redat-ing (Rule xix.). dep'redat-or (Rule xxxvii.); 
depredatory, dep" .re.da\t'ry (adj.), plundering; 
depredation, dep\re.day'\8hunj spoliation. 

French depredation; Latin d»- prvedaiio, proeddtor, pnedaUifitu 
(from prceda^ W^7* booty). 

Depress', to lower in spirit or in value ; depressed' (2 syl.), de- 
press'-ing, depress'ing-ly, depress'-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.), 
depression, de.presh'.mn, lowness, dejection, concavity. 

French divresnon; Latin depressio, deprestor, y. deprimo, 8uiiin« 
depressum (de premo, to press down). 



AND OF SPELLIXG. 199 

I>eprive% to take away, to lose ; deprived', depriv^-ing (R.xxxyiO> 
depriv'-er, depriv'-able, deprivatioii, dS.pri\vay" ^hun. 
Lfttin d6- privSn^ to Uke away from ; frivatiA, 

Depth. Observe these four words, Length, breadth, depth, 
and height (not heighth, as it is often pronounced). 
De^; -thf Old Eng. postfix, converts adj. to abstract nouas. 

Separate, de.p-u' .rate, to free from impurities ; depu'rat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), depu'rat-ing (R. xix.) ; depoiation, de.pn*, 
ray^'^kun; depuiatiye, dejm'.raMv, 
(The accent of these words is often thrown en the first 
syllable, hut the way given is the more correct) 
French dipwrer, dSptvraiion ; Latin depurdtio fpurus, pure, dean). 

Depute' (2 syl.), to appoint; depuf-ed (R. xxxvi.), depuf-ing 
(R. xix), deput'-er; deputy, plu, deputies, dep'.uMz, 
persons deputed ; deputaticm, dep\u,tay'^^hun. 

French deputation, v. diputer ; Latin depiUdre, to lop off ^pAto, to 
prune). A "deputy " is one cut offtrom others for a given object. 

Derange, de.rainf (not de.rdnj), to disorder; deranged' (2 Ryl.), 

derang'-ing (R. xix.), derang'-er, derange'ment (only 

five words di-op the e final before -ment. Rule xviii. %). 

French d&rangement, v. d4ranger (ranger to put in rank, de reversesX 

Derqptis, dh^^^Xis. A fossil eel-like fish in the chalk formation. 

Greek VerhiStiaj a Syrian goddess, like a mermaid, similar to Da^jon, 

Derelict, d^ry.VUtt, abandoned, goods forsaken by the owner; 
dereliction [of duty], det'ry.lik'\shun (not derelectian), 
neglect [of duty] involving guilt. 
Latin dirSlictiOt dir^ictus (de relinquor, relictus, to leave). 

Deride' (2 syl), to laugh at ; dei^d'-ed (R. xxxvi.), derld'-ing 
(R. xix.), derid'-er, one who derides. 

Derision, de.rizj'.un, ridicule; derisive, de,ri',8ltj ; deii'- 
give-ly, derifiiye-ness (Rule xxxiii.) 

French ddrider, dirinan; Latin deridire supine dirisum, to laugh 
at ; derisio. 

Derive' (2 syl.), to acquire, receive, draw from a source ; de- 
rived' (2 syl.), deriv'-ing (R. xix.), deriv'-er, derivable. 

Derivation, dei^ry.vay*\shun, tracing to the root, descent. 

Derivative, dejr^',a.tiv, a word formed from another, not 
fundamental; derivative-ly. Rule(xvrL.) 

French dirivatif, derivation, v. d^river; Latin diriv&tio, dirivdtimu, 
dirivdre [de rivo [to draw] from the river or source). 

Dernier ressort, den^.nca res'-sor (French). The last expedient 
or resource. (Not dernier resort, which is one word 
French and one English, and ought not to be tolerated. 
Either say dernier ressor or the last resource.) 



200 EliRORS OF SPEECH 



Derogate, de/ro.gate, to disparage ; der'ogat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dero'gat-ing; derogation, der^ro.gay'^tlmn, 
Derogator, de.rSg\a,tor, a detractor; derog^atory, derog'- 
atori-ly (Bule xi.), derog'atori-ness (Rule xi). 

French dAroQationy dirogatoire, v. diroger ; Latin derdgdtio^ derdgdior, 
ddrogdtlviUt derpgaUyrius^ derdgaid/re (frequentative', derifgare. 
{*' Bogare" is bring in a bill or propose a law ; ** de-rogare " is the 
reverse, i.e., to repeal a law.) 

Der'rick. A temporary crane for removing goods irom a vessel. 

So called from Derrick, the Tyburn hangman (17th centuryX 

Dervish or dervise, der^.vU. A Mohammedan '' monk" of great 

austerity. (Persian, derwesch, poor.) 

Descant, des.kdnif, to comment, to talk to oneself; deecant'-ed 

(R. xxxvi.), descant'-ing, descant^-er. 

{Tfie Jirgt syllable should be dis. T?ie word is " dis-cant.") 
Spanish discantar, to descant : Latin dis eantofre^ to sing apart. 
Descend, de.send' (not des.send\ The word is compounded of 

de and scando^ to climb down) ; descend-ed, defend'. ed 

(R. xxxvi.), descend-ing, defend*. ing. 

Descendant. One proceeding from an ancestor. (This 
word should be "descendent;" but, as usual, we owe 
our error to the French.) Descendent (in A8tr.\ is the 
opposite of ascendant. (Here again is a marvellous 
confusion. It should be '* The star is in the ascwident 
or descendent; '* but if the French error is preferred, then 
take the French words ascendant and descendant, and 
not one right and one wrong.) 

Descend'-ihle (not -able) ; descendibility, de.send'.%.hW\i.ty. 

Descension, desen'.shun, a falling, hence a quarrel or 
falling out (verbs in -d and -de, add -sion instead of 
-tion, R. xxxiii.) ; descensional, de^en' ^hun.al (adj.) 

Descent, de,sen1f (not dissent), slope, progress down; but 

Dissent, dissenf, a disagreement, to differ. 

French dMcefndami, verb dMcendre^ descents : Latin deseemdens, gvn. 

descendentiSf descensio, descendire (de scando, to climb down). 
"Dissent" is Latin dissentio, i.e., dis sentio, to think differentlj. 

Describe, desknbe' (not des.kribe). (The word is compounded 
of de and scribo, to write down, not des-cribo.) 
Described, de.skribd'; describ-ing, de.skribe.ing (Rule xix.); 
describ-er, de,8kribef,er, one who describes ; describaUe, 
deskribe\a.ble (Rule xxiii.) The negative is indesorib* 
able, that which cannot be described. 

Description, deskfip\shun (not dis. skrip'. shun) ; deserip- 

tive, deskr\p\t%v (not dis.skHp\tlv)', descriptiTe-ly ; 

descriptiye-ness, de.skrip\tiv,7iess, 

French descriptsf, description ; Latin descrlh^re, descriptio {de sorlbo, 
to write down, to limit or define). 



AXD OF SPELUXG, 201 

, to espy. Decry, to cry down. 

Descry, des.hry' (not de.8kry\ nor yet dU.hry')', descries, 

des.krize' (not dis.krize), B. zi.; descried, des.kride^ (not 

dis.kride); descri-er (not descry er, R. xi.). de8.cri.er. 

(Thefint syl. ought to he dis- cLsitU usttally pronounced. ) 

"JDesciy" is a conniption of the Norman discrivtr,- Latin diteemOt 

supine diserHum^ to discern. 
*' Deciy " is the French d4 crier, to cry down. 

Desecrate, d^\e,1crdte^ to profane what is sacred, the opposite 
of consecrate ; des'ecrat-ed (B. xxxvi.), des'ecrat-ing (R. 
xix.); des'ecrat-er, one who desecrates; desecration, 
dSs\e.hray'* .shuny profanation. (One of the few words 
in -Uon which is not French.) 

(This word must not be confounded with execrate, '^to 
detest" " to curse") 
Latin dlseerdre, dlaecrdtus (saerdre, is to hallow, de revemes). 
Desert, dez\ert; desert, de.zertf; dessert, detjserf. 
{Desert, d&s\ert (noun); dez.erf (verb). Rule L 

Desert, dez'.ert^ a wilderness, a solitude; di.zert^ to aban- 
don; deserf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), desert'-ing, deserf-er 
(should be deserter); desertion, dS.ze7^.shun. 

{Desert, dejiert'. That which deserves reward or punishment. 

{Dessert (with double s). The course of firuit at dinner. 

I ''Desert" (a wilderness, to abandon); French dAsert, verb deserter, 

' d^serteu/r, desertion ; Latin desertum, a des'ert ; desertor, desertio, 

de^rtdre (frequentative of «^ro, to knit together, and (2e- which 
reverses, hence to unbind, forsake, abandon). 
"Desert" (merit j, Latin deservire, supine desermtum, contracted to 

, deserHum^ something deserved. 

I ''Dessert" (of fruit), French dessgrt, what is brought on after the 

table is cleared (desservir, to clear the table). 

i: Deserve, deaerve\ to merit; deserved, dczervd'; deserv-ing, 
deae/.ving (Rule xix.); deserv-er, de.zer'.ver C's" be- 
tween two vowels SB z). 

I ' Beserfvdly, de,zervd\ly, more often de.zer'.ved.ly. 

Deser'ving-ly (only in a good sense). 

Latin deservio, to merit for service {servio, to do a service). 

Deshabille, properly pronounced days'-a.bee'-ya, but generally 
called dis\a.beel, undress. (French.) 

Desiccate, des'Ak.kate, to dry up; des'iocat-ed (Rule xxxvi.) 
dM^iccat-ing (Rule xix.); desiccant, des'.lk.kant, a 
medicine to dry a running sore ; desiccation, des\ik.kay*\- 
skun, the act of making dry, or sta^ of being dry. 
Desiocatiye, de.sW.ka.tXv (adj.). Drying or tending to dry. 
C'DesiccatifM" is one of the few words in -tion rwt French.) 
Latin dtaicedtio, desiceare (sieeo, to dry ; siccus, dry). 



202 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Desiderate, de.8id\e.Tate, to want ; deaid'erat-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; 
desid'era-ting ; desiderative, dc.sld^ ,e.ra.t^, (These 
words are not much used.) 

Desideratum, plu, desiderata, deM^ .ejray^ .twn, plu. de.- 
8id'^.ray'\tdh. Something needed to supply a deficiency. 

Desideration, de^ld\e.ray"^kun. Something required to 

supply a deficiency. 
Latin dlHdirdtio, desWfratlims^ dMfdifriltus, dislderSre, to crave for. 

Design, de.zine't a scheme, a plau, to intend, to pkn, <fec. ; 
designed, de.zined'; design-ing, de.zine\ing; design-er, 
de.zlne'.er ; design^ed-ly, dejiine\ed.ly^ intentionally ; 
design-ahle, de.zine' .aJb'l ; design4eeB, dejum^Xets ; 
designless-ly ; design-ment, deju'vne^ment, 
(In all the examples given above the " g " t« silent, but is 
pronounced hard in the following derivatives, and **b" is 
no longer = z,) 

Designate, des'sig.nate, to point out, to name; des'ignat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.) ; des'ignat-ing, des'ignat-or. (R. xxxvii.) 

Deaig^nation, des'sig.nay^'^hun. A name, <feo. (Rule Ix.) 

French designer, cUsignaiion; Latin diaign&tio, disignator, diiign[o\ 
to mark out [signum, a sign or diatinguishing mark). 

Desire, de.zire', to wish for ("s** between two vowel8=z); 
desired' (2 syl.), deslr'-ing (R. xix.), desir'-.er, desDr-able, 
desirably, desirable-ness. 

Desirous, de.zire\vs, wishful ; desir'oiis-ly. 

Fr. dSsir, disirdhle, v. disirer, disireux. Lat. disld^re, which fnmishea 
the verb dielder&re, to crave for ; diaidMum, desire, craving for. 

Desist, de-sist', to leave off (Rule Ix.); deaisf-ed (Rule xxxvi); 
desist'-ing; desistance, de,zis\tance, a ceasing to act. 
(The first "s" in ''desist" is pronounced between a and 
z; but in *' resist" it is decidedly ^z.) 

French ddaister; Latin desist^re, dssiatens (sisto, to contbrae). 
Desk, a sloping table. (Old Eng. disc, a table, a beard, a dish.) 

Desolate, des'.o.late, lonesome, in a ruinous state, to lay waste ; 
des'olat-ed (R. xxxvi.), des'olat-ing (R. xix.); desTdlat-er, 
one who lays waste ; des'olat-ly ; desolatory, detl'.oMWry. 

Desolation, d^\o.lay" .shun, a state of ruin and gloom. 

French diaolaiefwr, dSaolation, verb dUoUr; Latin diOUlkks, dtaH- 

Idtua, desoldre (from sClus, alone). 

Despair' (not dispair), hopelessness, to be withoat hope; 
despaired' (2 syl.),despaar'-ing,despair'ing4y»deBpair-er. 

Desperate, dSs'.pe.rate, reckless, without hope ; despewte-ly, 
des'perate-ness (Rule xvii) 

Desperation, des\pe.ray".8kun. Recklessness, hopelessness. 



AND OF .SPELLING. 805 



Besperado, phi. deiqiendoee (Rule xlii.), de$\pi.ray'\doze 

(Dot de8\pe.rdh.doze\ a bravo. (Spanish.) 

Latin despAtttlo, diapirHtvMy deapirSr* {dt'apUy wifcbovt hope). 

DeqMtcih' (not <2wpa£cA). Haste, a special message, to send on 

special business. Despatches (phi,), written documents 

sent to or from a public servant on business of state, 

(B. liii.), deq[)atched (2 syL), despatdi'-ing. 

Spanish deapachar verb, dtspacha noun ; Latin de spdtior, to travel 
from [one person or plaoe to another]. 

Despicable, dei'.pl.kd.h'l (not des.plk'.d.bl). See below. 

i' (2 syL), not dispize, to contemn; despised' (2 syl.), 
despls'-ing, despls'-er; despis-able, contemptible; des- 
picable, des* .pi.ka.Vl (not des.piV.a.Vl), worthless, vile; 
despis'ing-ly, with disdain ; des'picably, contemptibly ; 
despicable-ness, des" .pi.ha.Vtness (not des.pHW .aJt'ljoess). 

Latin desplcSbilMy despMo {de spieu), to look down on one). 
Despite, dSs.pite". An act of malice, notwithstanding. 
(It is never used as a verb^ the verb w " to spite.") 

Latin despicio, supine despectum {de apeeio, to look down on one). 

Despoil' (2 syl.), to plunder ; despoiled' (2 syl.), despoil'-ing ; 
despoil^-er, one who despoils. 

Despoliation, dS,8pd\li.a'* .shun (not despoiliation). 

(This noun is very little used, spoliation is used instead.) 
Latin despdlidre^ to pillage ; gpolidre, gpoliAtio, &c. 
Despond', to fail in hope ; despond'-ed (R. xxxvi.), despond'- 
ing, despond'ing-ly; despond'-er, one who desponds; 
despond'-ent (not -ant), low spirited ; despond'ent-ly, 
despond'-ence, despondency, des.pon'.den.cy. 

X«atin despondens, gen. despondentia, despondere (spondeo is "to an- 
swer [one's expectation]," de reverses, hence de-spondeo is to dis- 
appoint one's hope, " to lose hope." 

Despot, d^\pot, a tyrant, an autocrat; despotic, d^.potWk, 
absolute; despot'ical, despot'io-ly, despot'ical-ly; des- 
potigm, des^.po.tizm, autocracy. 

French despote, deapotique, despotism; Greek dispdUs, d^spdtikds, 
verb dtSpozd, to obtain mastery. 

Dessert, dizjsert'; desert, de.zert'; desert, dez'.ert. 

Dessert, dez.zertf. A course of fruit after dinner. 
Desert, de.zerf. What is deserved (good or ill). 
Desert, dez'.ert, A solitude, a wilderness. 
Desert, de.zerf. To abandon (q.v.) 

* ' Dessert, " French dessert, the coarse served after the table Is cleared ; 

desservw, to clear the table. 
"Desert" (what is deserved), Latin diservio, sup. dSservltum, to do 

one a service, hence '* to deserve [payment] " 
"Desert" (a wildemess), French desert; Latin desertum. 
"Desert" (to abandon), the saine. (Sero is to join, as de reverses 

de-sero is to disjoin, and hence "to forsake.") 



204 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

, - , - ^ — — 

Destiiie, d^\tln (not des.tlne), to design or purpose; destmed^ 
(2 syl:) ; destining, des'tln-ing (Bule xix.) 

Destination, d^' .ti.nay" .ihwn. The ultimate goaL 

Destiny, plu, destinies, dSs*M.ny, d&\t1.nU. Fate, doom. 

French destiruUion, destinie, y. destiner; Latin destindtio, detUndre. 
(Greek at&no to bind fast) 

Destitute, dSa^MMte. Friendless, needy, without. 

Destitution, d&s\ti.tu''^hun. Utter want, distress. 
French destitution, destitud ; Latin destUutio, destXtiUus, de8tUair4 

(stdttu) is to erect, as de reverses de-stdtuo is to poll dolHL A 
*' dtetitute" person is one *' poUdd down.") 

Destroy' (not distroy), to demolish ; destroyed' (2 syL), dtetroy'- 
ing (Rule xiii.), destroy'-er, one who destroys. 

Destruction, desitruk^shun (not distruction), demolition; 
destructive, des.truk'Mv ; destruc'tive-ly, destmc'tiYe- 
ness; destructible, des.truk^.ti.b'l (not -able\ liable to...; 
destrnctibility, des.truk'MMV'.i.ty, capable of destruction. 

French destruciibilitd, destructible, destruct\f, destruction; Latin 
destructiOy destruire (struo is to pue up, de reverses). 

Desuetude, des'awe.tude. Disuse, discontinuance. 

{It aught to be pronounced in four syllables^ des'su.e.tnde.) 
Fr. ddsuitude; Lat. disuStudo. (Sueo is "to be in use,'* d0 reverses.) 

Desultory, des'uldo.ry, unconnected ; des'ultori-ly (R. xi.), des'- 
ultori-ness (B. xi.), running &om one subject to another- 

Latin desuUorius, (desUio, de sdlio, to leap from one thing to another)* 
" Desultor" was a rider who leaped from one horse to another, as a 
rider in a circus. An InstUter is one who leaps on jon. 

Detach, de.tatch\ to separate ; detached' (3 syL), detach'-ing, 
detacV-^ment, ships or troops sent to the main body. 

French ddta/ahment, y. d4tcu:her ; Italian de staocare, staeoato in 
music is ivhen each note is isolated. 

Detail, de'tail (noun), de.taiV (verb), Rule 1. 

De'taiL Minute particulars [of a narrative]. 

Detail', to narrate particulars, to deal out f^eoelneal; 

detailed' (2 syl.), detail'^ing, detail'-er. 
French ditaU, y. ddtaiUer {taiUer, to cut ; German <^Iei», to divide). 

Detain', to keep back ; detained' (2 syL), detain'-ing; detain'-er, 
one who detains, a writ to a warder to continue to keep 
a prisoner in prison. 

Detention, de.t&i'jthun (-titm not sion. Rule xxxiii) 

Detineo (Latin), maJces '* detehtum" not detensum, in the «tq». 
French ditevUion, v. ditenir ; Latin d^Kneo (de teneo^ to hcdd badL 
(The pseudo diphthong -ai- is indefensible. Probably it arises from 
■ome confused notion that tain is a contraction of taken (ta*en.) 



AND OF SPELLING. ?05 

Beteof, to discoyer; detecf-ed (Bnle xxxvi.), detecf-ing, 
detect'-er (should be detect-or) ; detectiye, de.t^'.tlv ; 
detection, deMhf^shun; detect-ible. 

Latin deteetoTf dBUetio, ditSgirt supine detedwn {Ugo is " to cover," 
de reverses, hence de tego is " to uncover"). 

D^ter', to hinder by fefur, &c.; deterred' (2 syL), deterr^-ing 
(Bule L), deterr-er, deterr'-ent (ac|j.)> det^r'-me9t (one r> 
because -ment does not begin with a yowel). 

Latin diUrrire (de terreo, to frighten from [doing a thing]). 
(** Peter" <yught to he speU with double " r." It ie not from the verb 
det&K>, to bruise, biUfrom deterreo, tofrighienj. 

Detergent, de.tS/,gent (n. and adj.), that which cleans, cleansing: ; 
detersiye, de.t^Mv^ having the power to cleanse ; deter- 
don (not detertum), de.t^'^hun, the act of cleansing. 

French ditergent, ▼. ddterger, ditersif; Latin dHergene, gen. deter- 
g^ie, deterg^re, sap. -teirsum (de tergo to scour out [a stain]). 

Deteriorate, de.t^ri.o.rate (not de,tee\ri.o.rate), to degenerate ; 
deteriorated, de.ti^ri,o,rat€.ed (Rule xxxvi,) ; deter'io- 
rat-ing (Bule xix.) ; deterioration, de.te/re,o.ray^\8hun. 

French ddtSrioration, v. d^tiriorer ; Latin deUHiu (adv.) worse. 
Not a derivative of ''de terreo,** but of di USro, to wear awaj. 

Determine, de.th^.mln, to decide ; deter'mined (3 syl.), deter'- 
min<-ing (Bule xix.), deter'min-er, deter'min-able. 

Determinate, deMr^ »mln,ate (verb and adj.), to limit, limited ; 
deter'minate4 (Bule ]^xvi.), deter'minat-ing (Bule xix.), 
deter'minat-or (Bule xxxvii.); determinatiye, de.t^\- 
n0n.a,Viv ; deter'minatiye-ly, specifically. 

Determination, de.te/ .mi.nay'^shun. A fixed resolution. 

French dStermvnaiif^ ditermination, v. determiner; Latin diter- 
minaiiio, ditermindre {termXnus, a bound&iy). 

Detersiye, de.tifMv, &c, [See Detergent.) 

Detest', to hate ; detest'-ed (B. xxxvi.), detest" -ing, detest'-er, 
deteiiTj-able (not -ible, Ist Lat. conj.), detestably, detest'- 
able-ness; detestation, de^tfis.tay/'shun, abhorrence. 

Tnnda^^ditestahle, detestation, v. ditester : Latin detestdhUis, detettd- 
tio, detestdri {de testor, to bear witness against one). 

Dethrone' (2 syL), to drive from a throne ,* dethroned' (3 syl.), 
dethron'-ing (Bule xix.), dethron'-er, dethrone'-ment. 
Latin de fhromiUf [to remove] from a throne. 

Detcmate, de\to.nate, to explode; de'tonatf-ed (Bule xxxvi.), 
de^tonftt-ing (Bule xix.) ; detonation, de\to,nay".8hun, 
(Very often pronounced dSt-; but the "e** is long.) 
French d6tonaiion,T. ditoner; Latin de-t&ndre, to thunder mightily. 
Detour (Fr.), da,toor^. A roundabout or circuitous way. 



206 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Detract, de.trdkf (not de.tr&W), to depreciate ; detraot'-ed (Bole 
xxxvi.), detracf-ing, detraet'-or (not -er, Bnle xxxvii.), 
detract'ing-ly ; detract'-iTO, d€.trak\tiVy depreciative ; 
detractioii, de.trak^shun, depreciation. 

French y. dStracter, dStraetion : Latin detractor, detraetio, d»4rahire, 
supine de-tracUtm, to draw off, hence, to lessen. There is » Low 
Latin verb de trocto,. meaning *^to tear limb from Umb with hoisoib'* 

Detriment, dSLri,ment, injury; detrimental, def.ri.men'\tal, 

French ddtriment : Latin ditrimentam (detiro, snp. tritum, to brniae.) 

Detritus (should be detri'tus, but generally called d^,tfLtus), 
debris ; detrition, deXrisU.un, the act of wearing away. 
( We perversely disregard Latin quantiUetj Bale lyii.) 
French ditritUm, d^trihu; Latin de- Ufm, snp. trltum, to wear down. 

Detrude' (2 syL), to thrust down ; detrud'-ed (B. xxxvi.), de- 
trud'-ing ; detrusion, de.tru\zhun {-sion not -tion,B> zxxiii.) 

('* De-trude" is to thrust down; '* intrude," to thrust oruseff iait.) 
Latin dt imdiref supine trtLawn^ to Uirust down or away. 

Detruncate, de.trun\kate, to lop off the limbs ; detnm'cat-ed 
(Bale xxxvi.), detrun'cat-ing (Bule xix.) ; detmncation, 
de.trun^kay^'.shun, mutilation. ■ 

(** Detmncation'* is one of the few words in **-tion ** not Fr.) 
Latin ddrune&tiOy deirunc&re, sup. detrttnedtum, to lop off. 

Deuce, duse^ two of cards or dice, the devil ; deuced, du'jedt 
devilish, very ; deuced-ly, du\sed.lyy devilishly, very. 

** Deuce" (two), French deux ; Latin duo, two. 
"Deuce" (the devil), "quosdam daemones quos 'dusios' Oalli nun- 
ctLpant" (St. Aug. zv. 23) ; Danish dwaSy tiie deuce. 

Deutero-, du\tS,ro- (Greek prefix meaning "second"). 

Deutero-gamy, du\te.rog'\a.my. A second marriage on the 
death of the first husband or wife. (Gk. gdmoSy marriage.) 

Deutero-nomy,<2u'.fe.r5?i".o.my. The second giving of thelaw 
by Moses, the 5th book of the Bible. (Gk.noTOO«,thelaw.) 

Deut - (contraction of deutero- , see above). In Chen^ it indicates 
two equivalents of oxjgen to one of the metal named: as 

Deutozide, dtu.tdx\ide [of copper, &c.], two eqpiivalents of 
oxygen to one of copper (deuto oxide). 

Devastate, de'.vas.tate, to lay waste ; de'vastat-ed (Bule xxxvi), 
de'vastat-ing, de'vastat-or (not -er, Bule xxxvii.); 
devastation, de*vas.tay" .slmn, a state of ruin, havoa 
( The first syl. is often pronounced dev- , but the " e ** w long.) 

French divastation, v. dSvaster ; Latin divastcUio, dSmtJMn, dHa*- 
tare (de vasto, to lay thoroughly waste). 

Develop, de.v^.op, to disclose. EnveFop, to inclose. 

( The noun envelope [for letters] has a final - e ;** "detelop'' 
has no noun. Bear in mind the two verbs.) 



AND OF SPELLlXa, 507 



JkiweLofpeAtde,v^.Spt; deverop-ing, devel'op-ment (R.iii. b), 

Vr. dSvelovpemeatf y. divelopper ; Ital. vUuppOy a bundle^ or intri- 
cacy ; ait reverses, hence de-vetop is to nndo a bundle or intricacy. 

Deviate, de\vi.atej to vary, to tnm firom the right way; 
deM§t-ed (R. xxxvi.), de'viat-ing (R xix.) de'viat-er; 
deviation, de'.vi.af'.ahuriy a difference ; devious, d^.vi.us ; 
de'vions-ly, de'vions-neBs. 
French dMaiiUmt ▼. divier; Latin dMu» [da via, oat of the way). 

Device' (3 ayi.) A contrivance, a motto, a symbol. {See Devise.) 

Devil, dJSif.il^ Satan; dev'il-ish, maliciously wicked, very; 
dev'ilif^-ly, maliciously, exceedingly; dev^ilish-ness ; 
devil-ism, d^\iUizm, devilish conduct ; dev'il-ment, 
dev'il^-ry, mischief and malice fit for a devil. 

Dev'il, to grill with cayenne pepper; dev^iled (3 syl.), 
dev'il^-ing. (Old Eng. deoul, dedfol or dedjij dedjllc.) 

Devions, de'.vi.us, (See Deviate.) 

Devise, de-vize*, to scheme; device, de.vice^ a scheme (R. li.); 
devised'{3 syl.), devis'-ing, devis'-er, devis'-able (R.x xiii.) ; ' 
devisee, d^.vuzee% the person to whom " real estate " in 
devised ; devisor, de.vi.zoj^, the person who bequeaths or 
leaves by will. Divisor, dLvi^zSr, the figure by which a 
sum is divided. 
Fr. devise, a motto. ItaL ditisa, a coat of arms ; divisare, to devise. 

Devoid' (3 syL), empty, destitute. (Lat. de viduiis, wholly void.) 

Devolve' (3 syl.), to become the duty of, to pass over from one 
to another; devolved' (2 syl.), devolv'-ing (Rule xix.), 
devolv'-ment ; devolution, de\vo.Vuf\8hun. 
{** Devolve'' is followed by on: " The duty devolves on vie." ) 

Trench devolution, the falling of property to relations in default of 
proper heirs. Latin devolve, to roll down ; devdlutue, devolved. 

Devonian. d«,t;o'.m.an. The Old Red Sandstone formation; so 
caltG4 from Devonshire, where it is largely developed. 

Devonite, dev'M.nlte. A mineral found at Bai^staple in 
Devonshire ("-ite" in Geo. means a "stone" or "fossil"). 

Old English D^ene, a Devonshire man ; DefencL-scir, Devonshire. 
Latin Dumrumii, BritlBh DyvnonU, the glen people. 

Devote' (3 syl.), to consecrate; devof-ed (R. xxxvi.), devof-ing 
(R.xix.); devotion, de.ro'.s/iwTi; devo'tion-ist,devo'tion-al, 
devo'tional-ly; devo'lional-ist, a devotee ; devested (3 
1^), strongly attached ; devo'ted-ly, devo'ted-ness. 

Devotee, d^\o.tee\ One abandoned to religious exercises. 

Devout,' pious ; devonf-ly, devout'-ness. 

Frendi dSvot, divotion. Latin divdtio, devdtus, dgvdtdre whence 
" devote :** div&vSre, supine devOtwn, whence devont. 



208 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Devour', to eat up ; devoured' (2 syL), devour'-inig:, devour'ing- 
ly, devour'-er. Devoirs, d'voirs (French), respects. 
("I pay my devoirs to you** U a jocose civility,) 
French ddvorer; Latin denord/re {v6ro: v&raXt TomdonB). 

Dew, a deposition of the moisture of the air. Due, owing (q. v.) ; 
dewed (1 syl.), dew'-ing, dew'-y (acli.), dew-less, dew- 
drop, dew'i-ness (with t, B. xi). Germ, thau; Dan. dug. 

Dexter (in Her.) The right side of a shield or coat of arms (to a 
person standing behind it, not to one in front of it). 

Dexterity, dex,tefri.ty , expertness; dexterous, dea^,te.rus (not 

deaf,trui) ; dex'terous-]y, dex'terous-ness. 

It meaps "right-handed" (Latin dexter, the rigi^t band); '*lefi- 
handed is awkvowrd {moke, the left hand), nniisUr (Laiin), and 
gauche = gosh (French), the left hiand. 

Dextrine, dex\trin, British gum made from starch. 

Latin dexter, the right hand ("-ine," in Ctiem. denotes "a aimple 
substance"). Dextrine is so called, becaiise it turns the plane in 
polarised light to the right hand. 

Dey, the native title of the governor of Algiers. Day [time]. 
" Dey," Turkish AM, seignior ; " Day," Old English dag. 

Di- (contraction of the Greek prefix dis-, "asunder"; and 8ome> 
times of dia-, "through"). The ordinary meaning of di- 
in composition is "two," "twice," "double," especially 
when it forms a distinct syllable : as 

Di-an'drian, ^aving two stamens. 

Di-ceph'alous. Having two heads. 

Di-d3«'tylous. Having two fingers or toes. 

Di-gynlan. Having two styles or pistils. 

Di-hed'ral. Having two surfaces. 

Di-lac'erate. To tear in two. 

Di-pet'alous. Having two petals. 

Di-sper'mous. Having two seeds. 

Di-theist. A believer in two gods, one good kdA one eviL 

IT In a few cases it bears the force of di*-, " asunder": as 

Di-gress'. To walk asunder or wide of the path. 

Di-var'icate. To stretch the legs asunder. 

Di-verf • To turn the mind asunder or aside. 

IT The original idea of " asunder " or separation, gives the 
meaning above {two), and also the negative font of the 
prefix, one example of which is 

Di-vest'. To unclothe. 

1[ In a few examples di- represents the Greek preposition dui, 
" through," " throughout," " thorough": as 



AND OF SPELLING. 200 



])l-«coii8tiGB. That part of acoustics which treats of sound 
pcuiing through different mediums, 

Bi-elec'trics. Substances which allow electricity to pass 
through them, and not over their surface. 

Di-optrioB. That part of optics which treats of the refrac- 
tion of light in passing through glass. 

Bi-rect Bight throughout, 

IT In Chemistry Bi- denotes a double equivalent of the hose, and 
Bi- a double equivalent of the gas : as " Di-sulphate of 
silver," s two equivalents of the base (silver) to one of 
Bulphu'ric acid ; but " Bi-sulphate of silver '* would be 
two equivalents of sulphuric acid to one of the base 
(silver). See DiB-. 

IT DIb-. The force of dis- is almost always privative. Before 
" U* dis- becomes dif-. 

lUa- (€hreek preposition, meaning through). In composition it 
means " through," " throughout," " thorough." 

Diabetes, di'ui-bee''teez, A disease in which saccharine urine 

flows too freely. 
Latin diaJbites; Greek dia h€iin6, to go through one. 
IMaboliCt di\a,b8V\ik; diabolical, di\aMV\ukal, devilish; 

diaborical-ly ; diabolism, di\db'\o.lizm. 

French diaholicpu; Latin diaJb6licu8; Greek diaX)iSlih6s (diaholds, 
tibe devil, from dia baUd, to fling-out at you, i.e., to slander). 

Diachylon, di.dk^.i,ldn (not diaehilum). An adhesive plaster 
made of oil and the oxide of lead. 

French diachylon; Greek dia chiUos, through i.e. by means of a 
juice. It was originally made of the juices of herbs. 

Diaconal, di,dkf,o,nalf pertaining to the office of deacon ; 
diaconate, di.dk\o,nate, the office of deacon (q, v.) 
French diaeonal^ diaconat; Latin dia^c6nu8, a deacon. 
Diadem. di',a.dem, a royal crown ; di'ademed (3 syL) 

French diadime; Latin diadima; Greek d^d, to bind. 
DiflBreoB, plu, diiereses, di.e\rS,si8, di.B\r^,seez. Separation of 
two contiguous vowels. The mark (••) is placed over the 
latter vowel : as atrial (not arial). 
Latin diasriais; Greek di-air^sis (di-aire6, to divide.) 

DfagnoeiB, plu. diagnoses, di.ag.no'.sis, dl.ag.nd^.seez. The art 
of distinguishing one disease from another. Many use 
the word for " symptom," which is an error ; thus " What 
are the * diagnoses' of the case?" is nonsense. A medical 
man may say '* My diagnosis informs me the disease is 
not so and so;" and also that " The diagnostic symptoms 
of the case are those of [measles]." 

Diagnostic, d%.ag.n6s\tlk, distinguishing [applied to symp- 



210 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

toms of diseases] ; diagnoetioB, dLagMsWiha^ tbe acknce 
of disease-symptoms. 

Diagnosticate, d%,ag.n68' .tLTzaU, to determine a disease by 
its symptoms ; diagnos'ticat-ed (B. xxxvi.), diagnoa'ti- 
cat-ing. The verb diagnoee, dWckg.nasey di'agziosed (3 
syl.), di'agn58-ing, is sometimes used. 
Greek diagTiAaiSf discriminating ; y. dia-gigndskd, to Hiariwgni^ii 

Diagonal, diMg'.o.ndlf a straight line drawn through a figure 
with not less than four sides. The line must run from 
any angle to the opposite one. Dlag'onal-ly. 
(The "o" w omega in Qreek and long in Latin,) 
French diagonal; Latin diagOnios; Greek dia gdnia, an angle. 

Diagram, di\a,grdm, A plan or figure shown by lines. 

Diagraph, di\a.graf, an instrument used in perspeetive 

drawing; diagraphio, di.a.graflk. 

Fren(di diagramme; Latin diagramma; Greek dia gramma, tbat 
which is marked cat by lines, t. dUi-graphd. 

Dial, di/dl. An instrument for measuring time. 

Dialing, dWalAng. The art of constructing diali. 
Latin diaUa, pertaining to day (dU»^ a day). 
Dialect, dWaMltty provincial speech; dialectic, di,a,W^.txkt 
provincial, subtle. Dialectics, duaX^tikSf the science 
of arguing on ideal subjects where word-fencing is more 
important than physical facts. Dialectician, duiMk\' 
tlsk^anj a skilled arguer ; dialec'tical ; dialec'tical-ly. 

French diakete, diaJ-ecHnen, didlectique; Latin didlecHea. didleetkui, 
diaUctoi; Greek dia-UktikS, dkirU!kUia», dia-Ufktd* (dia Ug6). 

Dialogue, di\a.log ; plu. dialogues, di\a.logs, generally applied 

to the conversations of a drama. 

(The Fr, termination -ue is useless and out of character.) 

Fr. dialogue; Lat. diaUfgtu; Gk. dia-ldgoM, dlsconrse between [persons]. 

Diameter, di.am\e.t^rt a straight line running through the centre 

of a circle, and bounded each end by the circumference ; 

diametrical, di\a,m4lf^.ri.kdl; diamet^rical.>ly» 

Latin diameter, diamitro [oppoOta], directly [opposite] ; Gnek dith 
mStrda (a measure through [a circle]). 

Diamond, di\a.mund (not di^-mun), 

French diamant; Latin Odamas; Greek a-damas, miooaanitrable. 
The diamond cannot be cut or overcome by other materiajs, ^^ 

Diana, Di.dn\ah (not Dua\nah). A Boman goddess. ] 

Diandria, duan\dri,a (in Botamy). Haring two stamenSk 

The ** stamens" belong to male plants (Greek anir/ Miale). 
The " pistil," or seed-bearing organ, belongs to femnli-plsnts. 
Diandrian (ac^.) Pertaining to plants with two stai^flns. 

French diandrie; Greek di [dis] andrea, two men. 
(The Greek anir means man as opposed to toomon.) 



AND OF SPELLING. %\\ 

L, di^,ti,pay'\zSn (in Muiie), aa ootave, the whole com- 
pass of a musical instrument ; an instrument for tuning 
organ pipes. (In Philosophy) the universe, which Py- 
thagoras conceived to be a complete musical octave 
beginning from Deity and ending with man. The eight 
notes are Deity, the planets, and 'man ; man touches 
earth and Deity, and as the planets intervene, they in- 
fluence his lot. (Greek dia pdta, through all things.) 

Diaper, di^M.p^, a figured linen cloth; diapered, di'.a.perd, 
FTench diaprS, diM>er work ; (jilinge] d'Ypres, in FlAnden). 

Diaphanous, di.S.f ,a.nus. Translucent but not transparent. 

Greek dia %havnAy [light] shows through. 

Diaphragm, di'.a.frdm. The midriff. 

French diapturagme; Greek diaphragmaf a partition wall (dia 
j)hras9d, to enclose throughout). 

Diarrhcsa, d^.ar.ree^.ahy a violent flux ; diarrhoetio, di' .arjree*'.* 
fiky purgative. Diuret'io, a medicine to increase the 
discharge of urine. 

liatili diofrrhoea; Greek ddar-roia (from dia rMo\ the "r" is doubled 
to compensate for the aspirate whioh cannot be expressed is 
Greek, Stdppoia (not didfi^oia). 
Diary, plu. diaries, di\a.ry, di\a.riz. A journal. 

L*tin didrifwn, a register of daily events {diest a dayX 

Diastase, di',a8.td8e (not di.a8.tdze'). A substance which con- 
verts starch into dextrine and grape sugar. 

French diastase (Greek dia hift&mi, I stand apart, or separate, as 
yeast from new beer). 

Diaftole, d%,S$\to.le (not di\a.8tole^). The lengthening of a 
syllable naturally short, the dilatation of the heart, <fec. 

French dioMole; Latin diastdle; Greek diastdU, dilatation (gtdld, to 
take in sail, hence to contract. In this example dia reverses, and 
diorsUUd is to open or dilate the heart after contraction). 

Diathermal, di\a.Ther^\mal, transmitting radiant heat, as glass 
transmits light ; diathermanous, di\a.TheT^\md,nu8, adj. 
Greek dia thermS, [allowing the passage of] heat through. 

Diatom, plu. diatoms, di'.d.tom, di\<t.tdmz (not di.dt\omt di.af.- 
omz, it has nothing to do with the word "atom"). A 
sub-order of algae ; a diatom is a single specimen. 

DJatomaceaB, di'-dt-S.may^^-te-e, The order whioh contains 
^e above sub-order. 

Greek dia Ufmds, a cutting through (not di^aUfmos, a double atom). 
Xhese algse are called di'atoms, because they increase by division. 

TWatlWlIf*! di.a.tdn\ik (in Music). By tones. , 

We diatonic scale is the ordinary musical scale, the chro- 
matic scale proceeds by half-tones. The *' diatonic 
scale" does not, strictly spealdng, proceed by tones 



212 ERRORS OF SPEECS 

throughout, for the intervals between E and F, B and C 

are only half of those between C and D, F and G, A and 

B, but they are all called tones in ordinary speech. 

Greek didtdnihda {dia tdnds, [proceeding] by tones). 

Diatribe, di'.a.tribey a tedious disputation, an acrimonious 

harfingue; diatribist, di.a.tri\bi8t, one who... 

(In Gk. and Lat. the second "i" w short. French error.) 

French diatri^ ; Latin diatribe; Oreek dia trfMy a wearing away [of 
time or patience], (dia triM) to wear thoroughly away. 

Dibble, dlb\b% an instrument used by gardeners for making 
holes iu the earth ; dibl)led (2 syl.), dib'Uing, dibni)ler. 
Welsh tip, a point ; Dntch tip; German zipfd. 

Dice, plu^ of die {di\ a small cube used in play ; dic-infp, ^e- 
ing, pla^ying at djce. 
French dd, corruption of "ta*;** Latin tdhUf a die or solid cube. 
Dicotyledon, di\cot-y.lee''.don, plu. dicotyledons or dicotylMSna. 
Plants with two seed lobes for their embryo, " ezSgens." 

Dicotyledonous, di\cot-y.lee''do-nu8 (adj.) 
G:k. di [dis] hOUdSddn, two sockets, or lobes {see Aoo^ddOn). 
Dictate, dik'.tate (noun), dik,tate^ (verb). Bule 1« 

Dictate, dW.taie. A bidding, telling another what to write. 

Dictate'. To order imperiously, to tell another what to write ; 
dictaf-ed (Rule xxxvi), dictat'-ing (Rule xix.) 

Dictation, dik,tay'ahun. The act of dictating. 

Dictat'-or, fern, dicta'trix; dictator-ship, the office of 
dictator (-ship, O. E. postfix, "tenure of office or state") ; 
dictatoried, dik\ta.tdf^^ri.dlf imperious; dictator^lal-ly. 

Diction, dlk'shun. Way of expressing oneself. 

Dictionary, plu. diotionariea, dik'.8hunjSr.rif plu. d/lk'.shun.- 
er.riz, A lexicon. 

Dictum, plu. dicta, dXk\tum, dW.tdK A positive or dog. 
matic assertion. 

Ipse dixit, ip\8e dix\U. Dogmatic assertion. Used in all 

persons as a noun (Latin). 

French dictatorial, diction, dictum; Latin dictator, dictdirioD, didd- 
toritLS, dictio, gen. dictidnis, dicti&ndrium, v. dikdre, supine die- 
tdtum (frequentative of dico, to say), dictum. 

Did, past tense of Do. Old Eng. present tense ic dd, past ie 

dyde, past part, geddn. Modem Eng. I'do, I did, dont. 

As an auxiliary it is chiefly used in asking questidns, in 

which case it stands before the noun or pronoun, mdj^ 

• [you] speak? In common speech it is used to ad^^Bi- 

phasis or force, as "I do very much wish it,*' *1 did 

indeed love him." In poetry it is used without any special 

purpose beyond helping out the metre or rhyme. 



AXn OF SPELLING. 213 

Didactic, dLdSkWik^ designed to teach ; didactical, di.daW.- 
ti.kdl; didac'tical-ly, in a didactic manner. 
Fr. didactiqw; G^ dtdaJaikda, fit for teaching (didcukd, to teach). 
Didactylons, duddk^.ttliis, having two toes ; didaotyl, di.ddk\til, 
an animal with two toes. 
Greek di [dis] daJetHlds, two flngera or toes. 
Biddphys, di^iV.fU, a generic name for such animals as have 
two womhs, like the opossum family ; didelphidiB, di.dil\- 
fl.dey same as didelphys; didelphoid, dudiV.foid, ani- 
mals with an ahdorriinal pouch less perfect than tliat of 
the true opossum. (Gk. eidoSf resembling the didelphys.) 
Gk«ek di [dis] di^tu, doable womb. 
Die, a stamp, to expire ; dye, tincture, to tincture (both di). 
Die (to expire), dies, dize ; died (1 syL), dy'-ing ; dl-er, one 
likely to die soon (Rule xix.) ; dead, dSd, lifeless, q.v. ; 
death, dethy q.v. Die of disease (not /rom nor with). 
Die, jplu, dice (1 syL) A cube with six faces marked with 
spots from one to six. 

The die is cast. The last chance is ventured. 

Die (a stamp), ptu. dies, dize (1 syl.) 

Dye, tincture, {verb) to tincture; dyes, dize; dyed (1 syl.), 
dy'-ingf (Rule xix.), dy'-er, one who dies. 
(It is a pity that the original vowels have been changed 
in the verb " die" thereby causing confusion between words 
toholly different; the anomalous spelling of die, dead, 
death; and the necessity of breaking Rule xix. in ayeing 
to distinguish it from dying.) 

** JAe ** (to expire). Old Eng. dedd[ian\, past deddode, past part, deddod: 

deddf defuQct ; dedth, death. 
"Die" (a cube with six faces), French dS = day; Latin talus, a die, 

strictly, with four faces only. Our spellilig of this word is foolish 

and indefensible. 
"Dye" (tincture), Old Eng. dedg, v. dedg[ian], past dedgode, past 

part, dedgod. 

Dieloctric di' ui.m'\tfik. Dialectic, di\a.Wt'\t%k. 

Dielectric is a body that admits the force of electricity to 
act through it. (Greek di [dia] with the word electric). 

Dialectic is the adj. of dialect, provincial. 

Dielectrics, df.e.Uk'\triks. The plural of dielectric. 

Dialectics, di\a.lik^.t%k8. The art of word-fencing, or ar- 
guing with words rather than with solid proofs ; it has 
no scope in experimental philosophy, but its true pro- 
vince is in a priori or speculative reasoning. 

''Dielectric." Electric adj. from the Greek SUctrdn, amber, the root 
of our word "electricity," q.v.,- di [Greek dia] through 

"Dialectics" is from the verb diaUgo, which gives our word dialogue, 
and means to converse. In Platonic philosophy it means the 
highest kind of speculative reasoning ; Aristotle uses the word to 
signify that reasoning which leads to probabUiiy bat falia &liioi\ 
€i proqf. 



214 JBRROnS OF SPEECH 



Diet, dV,et, Food, to feed by regimen. A German pariiament. 

Diet (verb), di'et-ed (Rule xxxvi.); di'et-ing, di'et-er; 
dietary, di'.S.terry^ rules of diet, allowance of food; 
dietetic or dieteticid, dLedStXh^ di.e.tHf .iJk&l (a4j.)> 
X)ertaining to diet ; dietgtlcal-ly (adv.) 

Dietetics, rales of diet, that branch of medical science 
-which treats of diet. (All sciences £rom the Greek -ika 
[except five] terminate in English in -ic9. The five ex- 
captions are " logic," " magic," ** music," " physic," and 
" rhetoric," which come to us through the French. R. Ixi.) 

"Diet" (food), Freneh di^fe, diSUtique; Latin diosta, dicetarUu, 
diceteiica, diceUticiu ; Greek diaiia (diaitadmai, to lire). 

"Diet" (a parliament), French ditte (from Latin dies indieta [repre- 
sentatives which meet on] appointed days). 

Dif- the prefix dis- before the letter " f." 

Differ, diff^^ to disagree. Defer, de^fer^, to i)08tpone. 

Differ, dif fezed (3 syl.). differ.ing, diTfer-ence, differ- 
ent, dif ferent-»ly ; differentiid, dif\f^'hi.''^hdl (a^j. 
and noun), a quantity too small to be represented by 
figures, but which nevertheless constitutes a difference ; 
adj. measuring minute differences; differential-ly. 
(The French form " differentiel " U better. We torite 
correctly differ-ence and differ- ent.) 
Observe the difference in the verb "Defer'," which 
makes deferred' (2 syL), deferr'-ing (Eule i.) See Defer. 

Differ from or with t 

One person differs " with " another in opinion, bat 
One thing differs " from " another in quality, ^c. 

Different to or from ? 

Both forms are used : " This rose is very different ' firom 
that;" or, "very different [unlike] * to* that." 

Difference of or between t 

Differences "of" the same articles, as '* differences of 
opinion," "differences of sovereignty," <fec.; but differ- 
ences " between " different articles, as, ** There is no 
difference between Jew and Gentile." (Romans x. 13.) 

Differentiate, d^f Jer.Sn'* ^heMCy to find the difference or 

the *• differential"; dif feren'tiat-ed (R. xxxvi.), differ- 

en'tiat-ing (R. xix.); differentiation, d%f*'fer.en'-ihe.a"- 

shun, determination of difference or " differential." 

French diffirence^ different, diffirentiel, diff^rentier, to difi^|reBti«fce ; 
Latin diffirens, genitive differentia, diffirentia, verb d^erre, lapine 
dilatwn (ova " delay "}. 

Diflficult, d\f.f\.kult, not easy to be done; difflcnlt-ly (adv.); 

difficulty, plu, difficulties, dif.ftkUUiz (Rule xUv.) 

French diJIIictUU; Latin diffUMUaa, diffieulter (adverb), «W/{cUi« {dif 
/UctlU, not easy). 



AND OF SPELLTNff, J15 

Biffidenoe, 6Bif,fi.denfe (Ettle xzvi.), want of eonftdenoe; 

diffident, distrastfhl of oneself; diffiddnt-ly. 

Lfttin diffldtnUa, difldenM, gen. -entii {difldHa] fidtnt, not trusting). 

DSfflniti're, dlif,fin\i.t^ (donble/), or definitlTe {see Define). 

In Latin there are the two forms d^nUlvui, &&, from '* defvnAo** 
and dAJfimUivuB, ate., ttom " diffinio.^ 

IMfikiaotion, dif.frSk'.skun (not di.fray^hun), the taming aside 

of the rays of light ; difbrao'ted (3 syl.) 

Fr. diffmction; Lat. di/ [6!bi]frango, sup. fraetum, to break asunder. 

DiffiiBe (noun), dif.fuce', (Terb) dif.fuze^, (Rale li.) 

Biffose, dif.fuce'f not compact ; difihue-ness, dif.fuee'.russ, 
"DiSuse, dif.fuztf, to spread, to circulate, to send in adl 
directions; diffosed, dif,fuzd'; difFds-ing (Rule xix.), 
diifds-er, diffilB-ible (not -able) ; diffosiMlity, difju'.zt- 
hW.tty, capability of being difihsed ; diffusion, d%f.fu\' 
zkun, a spreading ; difltuedly, dlf^\ged.ly, in a difiUse 
manner; diffusedness, d\f.fu'.zed.ne$9 ; oiffiuilre, dXf.- 
fa'Mv; di£Eti'8iTe«ly, diffa'sive*nesa. 

l^ench diiTtw, di^ffvitihU, diffusion; Latin diffltauB, diffUH^i diffmor, 
diffwid^t^ sui^e d^ffSJm,m, to spread far and wide. 

Big, past dng [or digged, 1 syl.], past part, dug ; digg'-ing (B. i), 

digg^-er, one who uses the spade. 

Danish dige^ to make a ditoh or dike. 

Digest (noun), dWjSst, (verb) di.jgsf. (Rule L) 

Bi'gest, a compilation of civil laws methodically arranged. 

DigeBt^ to dissolve food in the stomach, to think well on 

a subject and arrange it in the mind ; digest^ -ed (R. xxxvi.), 

digest'-ing, digest'-er; digestion, di.jis'.tchun; digest'- 

ible (not -able); digestibility, dujis'.ti.bW'd.ty ; diges'- 

tive, di.jh'.tlv. 

French digeste, digesteur, digestif, digestion; Latin digesta, Justin- 
ian's code of laws, digestio, digihrire, supine digestum. 

Dight, to adorn (only used in poetry). Old English diht[an]. 

Digit, dxy.lt, any single figure, a twelfth part of the diameter of 

the sun or moon ; digital, dif.%.t&l. 

French digital; Latin d/lgUus, the finger ; dtgltdlie. 

Digitalis, d^f.i.tay'\lis. The fox-glove. 

"t)i:gYt&Iis," Latin, the finger-flower (from digitus, a finger). 
'* Fox-glove," Old EngUsh/oxes-glofa. 

Dignify* d\g'.ni.fy, to exalt in honour or rank ; dignifies, 

dig\ni.fize; dignified, <%',m./ui<! (R.xi.); dig'nify-ing. 

iMgnity, plu. dignities, rank, loftiness of mien. (R. xliv.) 

Dignitary, plu. dignitaries, dlg'.ni.t^n^z, a clergyman who 

holds some clerical "dignity," such as prelate, dean, 

archdeacon, prebendary, canon, &c. 

French dignitaire, a dignitary, dignit4; Low Latin dignitoHus; 
Latin di!r>ius faeio, to make worthy, to dignify. 



216 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



DigreBs, digress^ to deviate; digressed' (2 sjl.). digress'-ing, 
digress'-er; digression, di.gre8h\un ; digression-al, di.- 
greiK.un.al; digress-ive, dugrea'aiv; digressive-ly. 

French digressif, digression,- Latin digression digredior, supine 
digressum (di [disj gradior, to walk aside ; gmdus, a stepX 

Digynia, di.gin'.i,ah {-gin hard as in " begin "), plants with two 

pistils or styles; digynian, di.gln\i.an (g hard), having 

two pistils. Plants with pistils are called "female," 

plants with stamens are called " male." 

Greek di guni, double female (or pistil). Plants with two stamens 
are diandrla : i-e., di andres, double males (or stamens). 

Dike (1 syl.), a mound, a ditch; a large mineral vein. 

Old English die, 

Dilacerate, di.lds\e.ratet to tear; dilac'erat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

dilac^'erat-ing (B. xix.); dilaceration, di.las\e.ray'\shun. 
French ditaotfro^um, verb dUacirer; Latin dUAdrdtio, dUdeirdre. 
Dilapidate, di.lap\i-date (not delapidat€\ to fall to rain; 

dilapldat-ed (Rule xxxvi), dilapldat-ing (Rule xix.); 

dilapldat-or (not -«r, Rule xxxviL), one who lays waste ; 

dilapidation, di.lap\i.day'' ahun, decay, ipjnry. Charge 

for '* dilapidations " charge to cover necessary repairs. 

French dilapidation^ v. ditapider,- Latin dilAptddtio; v. dUdpfd&re 
{lapldo is to stone, or heap up stones; di-lapido is to remove 
stones, "di" in this example has the force df de (it reverses). 

Dilate, di.late' (not delate), to enlarge ; dilat'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dilat'-ing (Rule xix.); dilat'-er, one who dilates; 
dilat'-or (applied to certain muscles of the nose); dilat- 
able, di.late\a.Vl (Ist Latin coi^jugation); dilatability, 
di.laUf ,a,biU\i.ty ; dilatation, di\la.tay''-8hun, 

French dilaiability, dilatable, dilatation^ verb dilater; Latin dUdiiOt 
dUdidre (Idttu, broad ; Greek pldtus). 

Dilatory, diV,a.t5.ry, fuU of delay; dil'atori-ly (Rule xi.), 

dU'atori-ness. 

French diUUoire; Latin dlldtOrins {dif-fero^ to defer, sup. di-l&twm. 

Dilemma, di.lem'.mah (not deUmma), A perplexity. 

On the horns of a dilemma. Between two perplexities. 

French dilemviM; Latin diUmma, an argument that leada to two 
opposite conclusions : as "a Bosotian said, all Boeotians are Uaca.** 
If all Bceotians are liars, the Bceetian told a lie when he said all 
Boeotians are liars. Qu«ry, Are they liars or not? 

Dilettante, plu. dilettanti (Italian), d\V ,et,tan' .te, an amateur of 
the fine arts but not a proficient, a dabbler in literature 
or the arts; dilettantedsm, dU* .et.tan'.te.izmy aflbetation 
of art-loving, without any real knowledge of the subject. 

Diligence, diV.iJence (R. xxvi), industry; diligent, dil'igent-Iy. 

French diligent: Latin dWlgens, gen. dlligentiSy dWimniia, v. diligot 
to love dearly. Diligence is working with good wUL 



AND OF SPELLING. 21' 



DilL The seed of an aromatic plant. (O. Eng. diU, dill or anise.) 

"Dill** is the Aiufthum QratxfoUns; "Anise*' is the Anbic anisun. 
" ABethnm/' Greek aiUthon {an6 ihein, to grow rapidly). 

Dilate"' (2 syl.), to reduce the strength of a liquid by adding 

• something else ; diluf -ed (R. xxxvi.), diluf-ing (R. xix.) ; 

diluf -er, that which dilutes, one who dilutes ; diluent, 

di\lu,ent (not dU\u.ent\ that which dilutes ; diluents, 

water drinks to dilute the animal fluids ; dilu'tion. 

French dihuTt dilution; Latin dUBLSrB, tup. dVMum, dUuiio. 

Diluyial, dl.lu\v\Ml^ pertaining to the Deluge; diluvialist, 
d%.lu\vl.dl.ist^ one who ascribes to Noah's flood such geo- 
logical phenomena as the boulder-clay, ossiferous gravels, 
and so on ; diluvium, di.lu\vl.um, earth, sand, <fec., de- 
posited by the action of running water. 

Diluvian, d%M\vl,&n, pertaining to the Deluge; ante- 
diluvian, prior to " Noah's Flood." 

French dUuvien (an error), diluvion; Latin dU&viwn, r. diNMOre. 
Dim, obscure, to obscure ; dimm'-er {comp.)^ dimm'-eet (super.) ; 
dimm'-ish, rather dim {-ish added to adj. is diminutive, 
added to nouns it means "like"); dimmed (1 syl.), 
dimm'-ing (Rule i.) ; dim-ly, dim-ness. 

Old Eng. dim; dirrUie, dimmish : dimm€, dimly ; dirwnet. 

Bimensidn, dX.m^\8hun. The measure or extent of a surface. 
French dimenrion; Latin dlmensio {dlmiiior, to measure). 

Bfiniiiiflh, dtmln'Mh^ to make smaller; dimin'^ished (3 syl.), 
dimin'ish'ing, dimin'iah-er, dimin'ishing-ly. 

Diminuendo, plu. diminuendoB (R. xlii.), di.mXn,u.en\doze 
(in Munc)j softer and softer. (Italian.) 

Diminution, dim^i.nu'^shun, decrease; diminutiYe, dt- 
fnin\u.tiv; dimin'utiye-'ly, dimin'utlve-ness. 

French diminutif, diminution ; Latin dlmlnMio, dlminutivum, verb 
dlm/bnuo {-Aah added to verbs means " to make "). 

Dimiasory, dim' M^Bb.ry (not [letters] demisory or demissory). 

French dimtMoir« (Jiettres dimisaoriales); Latin dimisaoritu (verb di 
[die] mitto, supine dimissum, to send away). 

Dimity, plu, dimities, dim\i.tyf dim'.i.tiz, a cloth originally 

woven with two threads. Similarly samite, a coiTuption 

of xamitef cloth woven with six threads. 

Oxeek di [dis] mitos, two threads ; hex mitos, six threads. 

DimorphiEm, di.mcy/.fizmy the property of assuming two distinct 
crystalline forms ; dimorphous, dumor^./us; dimorfic 
French dimorphs; Greek di [dis] morphS, two-fold form. 

IMmple, dimf.p'l (noun and verb) ; dimpled, dim\p'ld; dimpling, 
dim\pling; dim'ply. 



218 ERRORS OF SPEECH' 

Din, a confused contmnous noise, to pester with repeated noise 

or demands ; dinned (1 syl.), dinn-ing (Rule i.)* dinn-er. 

(See below Dine.) 

Old English dyn{ian\^ to din ; dpM, a din ; dinvng, a dinning, a 
tinkling. Latin UwnXo, to inratUe, to tinkle. 

Dine (1 syl.), dmed (1 syl.), dinging (Rule xix.), dinner (this 
ifl a blunder in spelling, the word ought to be diners as 
in French), dinner-^lesa, &c. 
Old English d^nan to dine ; Freneh dmer, reach and noun. 
Ding, to knock; dinged (1 syl.), ding'-ing (not din-ging). 
Ding-dong. The sound of bells. (An imitative word). 
Old Eng. den<v[^> past deamcg, past part, donegen, to knock or ding. 
Dingle, dln'.g% a glen ; dingle-dangle, hanging slovenly. 

** Dingle," a glen amidst hills. Old Eng. dynig, hilly (with dim.) 
'' Dingle," to hang loosely. Danish dimgUy to dangle <^ bob about. 

Dingy, dln'Je, soiled ; din'gi-neas, din'gi-ly (Rule xi.) 

Dinomis. (jSf^^ Deinomis.) 

Dinotherium. (See Deinotherinm.) 

Dint, effort, force. By dint of (industry), by the power of... 

Dent. An indentation. 

" Dint," Old Eng. dytU, a stroke or blow. 

" Dent/' Lat. dens, gen. derUis. To dent/ "dentium more inoicIAne." 

Diocese, di\o.8i8 (not diocess), the circuit over which a bishop 
has jurisdiction ; diocesan, di.88\e.iSn (not dt.o.seef^dn)t 
a bishop, one who holds a diocese, ac^. belonging to a 
diocese, as diocesan inspector, 

French di4)ee8et dioc^aain; Latin dioee^sdnuSf diaeSais; Greek dioi' 

kiais. administration, v. dioikifd, to administer. 
(Misled, as tisuaX, by the Freneh, our words are ill-speU cmd iU-pnh 

nouTiced. They shotUd be dioecese, dioece'san.) 

Dicecia, di.e^si.dh, a class of plants, like the willow, having male 
flowers on one plant and female on another; dicBoian 
or dioecious (adj.), due^siMji^ di.i\9i.tu. 
French diceeie; Greek di [dis] aUoos, two houses. 
Dioncea, di.o.nee\ah. Yenus's fly-trap. 

Yenus was called Dioneea, and the flower ia called after iMr fkom its 
grace and elegance. 

Dioptrics, di.op\tHkSt that, part of optics which shows how light 
is refracted in passing through glass, air, water, &c 
(Rule Ixi.), dioptric (adj.) 

French dioptrifu>e, noun and adj. ; Greek dUtptrdn, sometUag tnuuh 
parent {di [diaj optdmai, to see through). 

Diorama, dV.o.rdh^'mdh, Panorama, pdn*.o,rdh.mdh. 

A " diorama " is a series of pictures '* seen throngh " tt 
aperture. A panorama is one large pictui« stret^ed on 
a cylinder, the axis of which is the point of view. 



AND OF SPELLING. 2t9 

{Both these wwds^ borrowed from the Freneh^ are mU- 
9pelL They should be Dihorama and Panhorama.) 

" Panonma," Greek pcm horOma, a riew of all [at a glance]. 

" Diorama," Oredc di (cUa] Aordma; a view throsgh [an apertve]. 

DioOBoraa, di'J68Jt6r^'re.aK The yam, (feo. 

So named from DloaoSrldds, tke Greek botanist. 

Biotifl, di^,ti8. A shrub, the sea-cotton weed. 

Dip, a plunge in water, the incline ot a stratum, a oandle made 
by dipping a wick in tailow, to plunge into water, to 
indin« downwards, &c.; dipped (1 syL) or dipt, dipp'ing 
(Bule i.)i dipp'-er. 
Old Bngiish dipf{m,\, past dipptd^^ past part, dipped. 

Dipbtheiia, dlf,Thee^.ri.dh (not dip.theria), a throat disease; 
diphtheritio, dif\rhe.rW\lk, adj. 

Qredc d4phthira, leather. The disease is characterised by the forma- 
tion of a leathery membrane in the throaL 

Diphthong, dif, thong (not dip.thong\ two vowels pronoanced 
together with a different sound to either of them sepa- 
rately, as aaiLce, where -au- has a sound different to either 
" a " or " u." K two vowels ate pronounced together, 
without producing a new sound, it is an improper diph- 
thong, as «a in bea4i, where " a " serves only to lengthen 
the **e," and ie in believe, where the sound of e only 
remains; diphthongal, ({f/.r/i^'.^a{; diphthongal-ly. 

French diphthongue ; Latin diphthongtu; Greek diphthoggos (di 
[die! phthdggda, doable sound ; pktKigg&mai, to utter a sound). 

Diploe, dip\lo.S, The network of bone-tissue between the 
tables of the skull ; the cellular substance of leaves. 
French dfploe: Latin dipleU, a doublet ; Greek dipldds, two-fold. 

Biplaiiia, plu. diplomat, dtpld.mah, Ac, (not deplo'ma)* A cer- 
tified writing conferring a privilege. 

Diplomatic, dl.pl5,maf.%k ; dlplomat'ical, diplomat'ical-ly. 

Diplomacy, dLpWm\a.8y, the art and practice of state- 
craft; diplomatist, dl,pldm\a.ti8tj one employed in.... 

DiplomatlGS, d^plSm'.a.tik8. The art of deciphering ancient 

documents, and determining their age and authenticity. 

French diplomatique, diplome, diplomatie; Latin dipldma: Greek 
dipldma. Every sort of ancient charter, donation, bull, &c., was 
calJksd a diploma, being inscribed by the Romans on two tables uf 
copper folded together; in early English history, a diploma is often 
called <'a pair of letters" (diplMs, double, dupUoate). 

Dipper, dipping, dipped. {See Dip.) 

Dipfotodon, plu, diprotodoBB, di.prd'.tti,dSn. A gigantic fossil 
animal allied to the kangaroo, with more than one pair 
of incisor teeth. 
Gr^ek di (dit] pr6U»Mo»8, duplex incisors or "first teeth." 



220 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dipteran, plu, dipterans or diptera, dXp'.te.ran, dlp\ti.ranz, 
d\p\tS.rdh, insects, like the blow-flow, with only two wings ; 
dipteral, dip\te.ral; dipterous, dlp'.t^.riis (a^j.) 
Frtnch diptbrt; Greek di rdis] jpMhm, two wings. 

Dire (1 syl.), dreadful, dismal. Dyer, dt/'.^r, one who dyes; 
dier, di\er, one at the point of dea^. 

Dire, direst, di'.rest (most dire). The comparatiye form 
[direr] is not in use. 

Dire'fol (2 syl.), dire'fiil-ly, dire'fnl-ness. 

Old Eng. da/r, injury, ▼. dericm, to destroy, hence Shakespeare's 
" dearest foe*' = deadliest foe ; Latin dvruSf dire {jybrtB, the furies). 

Direct^ adj. straight, plain, express, verb to command, regulate, 
show the way ; direct'-er (more direct), direcf-^st (most 
direct) ; direct-ed (Eule xxxvi), direct -ing. 

Direct'ly, immediately, openly, in a straight course; dixecf- 
ness; direction, di,reW.8hun; directiye, di.r^Wiio. 

Ditector, fern, directress, manager ; direct'or-ship. 

Directorate, diseW.to.ratey the office or body of directors ; 
directory, di.r^.to.ry, 

French direct, direction^ diredmre: Latin d't/rtdnUy direcUo, director 
(redu8, right). 

Dirge, durj (contraction of the Latin d^Hge (3 syl.), the first 
word of a Latin funeral hymn), a funeral hymn. 

Dirk, durk. A dagger. (Scotch durk, a dagger.) 

Dirt; diirty, not clean, to defile; dirties, dur^.tiz ; dirtied, 
duT^,tM; dirty-ing (Rule xi.), dir'ti-ness, dirtl-er (more 
dirty, one who dirties), dirti-est (most dirty). 
Old Eng. ge-dritian}, faeces ; German dreck (by transposition derek). 

Dis- (Greek and Latin prefix, meaning " asunder"). The most 
usual signifieation in English is not or the reverse qf, but 
not unfrequently it denotes apart^ sometimes it means 
two, and in a few examples it is simply emphatic 

Dis- and T^n* ; DU- denotes separation of what has been united ; 
Un- that union has never existed. Dis- ought to be 
joined only to Lat. or Gk. words, un- only to native words. 

Disable, nnable, v/n.aWl (a4j.) not able, dis,aWl (yerb), to ren- 
der unable; disabled, di8.aWld; dis'abling. 

Disability, dls\aMV\i.ty, incapacity; disabilities, ^Sii^.€L' 

mV.Ltlz, legal disqualifications ; disa1)le-]neiit» 
Latin dis h&bilis^ not habile, not able. 
Disabuse, (noun) di8\a.buce\ (verb) di8\a,buze\ (Kule fi.) , 

Disabuse (verb), to undeceive; dis'abused' (3 syL), dJlT** 

bus'-ing (Rule xix.) 
French diaabtuer/ Latin dis ah-ustu, to rid of abos*. 



AND OF SPELUXG. 221 



IKsacknowledge, di8\&k.nSV' .ledge (not dW.ak.kndu/' .ledge\ to 
disown ; disacknowledged (4 sjL), diBacknowledg-ing. 

Umtcknowledged (-i syl.), not owned, not ans wered. 

Old English cnawincg, knowledge, with the Latiii dit, oc [ftd]. Un- 
is the better prefix for this word. 

BinkdYantage, di8\ad.van^\tagey the reverse of advantage, to 

injure in interest; disadvantageoTis, d^\ad.v(ln,tay*' .jiU ; 

di8'advanta''geoii8-ly, dis'advanta'geoTLB-nesB. 

Vrench avantage, with dU. Latin ad vewio, to come to. "Adrui- 
tage" meant originally *'the portion of goods which come to a 
cMid from the will of his father, or from the law's award. " 

Dia'aflGBcf, to alienate affection; dis'affect'-ing; 

TJn'affecf -ing, having no power to move the passions. 
Bisaffecf-edt estranged in affection ; 
Un'^affecf-ed, of simple unartificial manners. 
Big'affeo^ted-ly, in an ill-disposed manner ; 
Un'^affec'ted'^ly, without artifice in speech and manners. 
DIs'affec'ted-ness, being ill-affected and discontented ; 
Un'affec^ted-ness, being without affectation. 
Bisaffection, d^' .af.j^'* jikan^ want of goodwill. 
Ftaioh d/UaSf^ion,; L^tin du c^[ad]/ec<iM, ill acted on. 
BisB^pree, dii^,a.gre^, to differ; dis'agreed^ dis'agree'-ing, dis'- 
agree^'-ment, dis'agree'-able (not dUagredble as many 
write the word), dis'agree'ahly, disa'gree'ahle-ness. 

Un'agree^able, un^agree^ahly, unagree'ahle-ness, indicate 

less aversion. DU-agreeable means positively distasteful; 

un-agreeable not positively pleasing. 

Frendi disagr^cMe ; Latin dis a [ad] grattu, not plnasing to ns. 
fThe French spelling qf " disagreeable^' mtLst be car^fuUy avoided.) 

DiflaUow, dW.al,l6w {-low to rhyme with now), dishallowed' 
(3 syl.), dis'allow -ing, dis'aUow'-able ; dis'allow'-ance, 
refusal to allow or permit. 
1H$ and Fr. aXlouer; Lai die oU [ad] locate, to refuse to place to [your share]. 

IMaumeiz, dW.an.neae' (not dis\a,nex'), to separate ; di^'anuexed' 
(8 syl.), separated; 

' TTnannexed, not joined together ; 
Bis'annex'-ing, severing what is annexed. 
Latin dis an [ad] nexus, the reverse of tying to (neeto, to tye). 

IKnnnnl) disl'.an.nuV, to abolish or annul ; dis'annulled' (3 syl.), 
dis'anniill'-ing (Rule i.), dis^'annul'-ment (one I, because 
^ment does not begin with a vowel). 

ITn'annulled' (3 syl.) Not repealed. 

(Disannul ought to he abolished, the prefix " dis " is quite 
' useless, and ** annul" is the better word.) 
French annttUer; Latin dis an [ad] nvM'um, [to bring] to nothing. 



222 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Disappear, di9\ap.peer' (not di8'ui.p€ef^), to vanish, to cease to 
appear; dis'appeared^ (8 syL), dis^appear'-iiig, dis'ap- 
pear'-ance (ought to be dUappear-ence, K. xxiv.) 
JHs and French appcurenee; Latin dis ap [ad] paring part. jMwetw, 
to discontinue to appear to [tight]. 

DiBappoint, dis^ap.poinf (not dW.a.poinf), to fail expectation ; 
di8'api>oint'-^ (Hule xxxvi.), balked la expectation; 

TJn'api>oint'-ed, not elected or appointed. 

Bis'appoint'-ing, dia^appoint^ment. 

BiaapiK>inted of a thing not obtained. 

Disappointed in a thing obtained. 

French dSsappainter, ddsappointement (4 sjl.); Latin di» ap [ad] 
pondus. not to add to the main sum. ** Appoint" ia the "odd 
money " of a bill, or the balance of an account. To dt^-oppoint ia 
to cut off the odd monej ar to fail in pa^g the balance. 

Disapprove, dis^ap.proov (not di8\a.prdve^) ; dis^aj^noved' 

(3 syl.), dis'approv'-ing (Rule xix.), dis'appiov'liig^-ly, 

dis^approY^-al; disapprobatioii, dWMp.pro.bay'^^kim, 

French dMapprouvar, diaapprobation ; Latin di$ ap [ad] proMre, to 
fail to prove to [one], or to satisfy one's judgment. 

Disarm^, to divest of weapons of offence; disarmed' (3 syl.), 

divested of arms ; 
Unarmed, not having any weapon of offbnce. 
Bisarm'-ing; disarmament, disbar"'. mcument, 
French dAsarmer, dSsarmement ; IJatin di$ ofrvMky deprlvad of arms. 
Disarrange, dU\ar.rdnge' (not dW M.r&nge'), to put oat of order; 

dis^arranged' (3 syl.), put out of order ; 
TJn'arranged' (3 sy).), not yet put into order. 
Disarrangement, disbar .rimf .ment* (Only five words drop 

the final e before -ment, Kule xviii.) 

French dAranger, derangement; Latin dia or [ad] reffo, ta dlMort 
what is regulated, {-n- is not fundamental.) 

Disarray, disbar. ray ^ to put out of order, to divest of raiment ; 
dis'arrayed' (8 syl.), dis'array'-ing, dis'array'-er (R. xiii.) 
Un^arrayed^ (3 syl.) Not dressed, not put in array. 
Low liatin di» orrayo, to put out of military arxaj. 
Disassociate or dissociate, dis\(i8.8o*.9%.atet dU-so^MMts^ to dis- 
unite; dis'asso'ciat-ed or disso'ci§4;-6d (Bole xxx^)^ 
separated from companions ; 
Un^aaso'dat-ed, not joined to a society. 
Bis^asso'ciat-ing or disso^'dat-ing (Hule xix.) 
Fr. ddsassocier; Lat. di» as [ad] socidre, to cease being a oompaidoB eff €■*. 
Disaster, di8.d8\ter, a mischance, an accident ; disastroua, dU.- 
as^trous (not dU.as^te.rus), calamitous; di8a8'troii»4y, 
disas'trous-ness. 
iFrench dSaaatre; Mid. Lat. dis aairoms, not fortonata (nrfiw, a 
star) ; Greek dHa aatron, ill starred (d&»- alwaya denofeea afdl^r tha 
•ubverdon of good;. 



AND OF SPELLING. 223 

I)!igairQ>w, dM^.a,vW, to disolaini ; dis'^avowed' (3 gyl.), dis'avow'- 
ing, dis'avow'-Al, dis'^avow'-er, disavow'-ment {-vdw to 
rhyme with now), TJn'avowed^ (3 syL), not owned. 

French ditavowtxr; Latin di» a [ad] vtfvso, to rtfnae to tow to [one]. 

IMsbaad', to dismiss from inilitaTy service ; disband'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), disband'-ing, disbaiid'-meni 

French iibander^ d^andemmU (8 wjL); Latin dia handvm, [to send] 
away from tho banner. 

BiBbar', djebar', miUir' ; -barred, -bard ; -ban<-ing, &q, (R. i.) 

Diflp-bar, to deinriye a barrister of his right to plead; 

De-bar, to forbid; 

Unbar, to draw back a bar, as to *' unbar the door.** 

« 

Tlia "bar" to which barristers are called is the rail which divides 
the coonsel from the " laity.** 

{Tii- ia a native prefix, denoting privatifyn^ oppotitUm^ or dtterHbToMon. 

Bisbelieve, dW.he.levef (R. xxviii.), not to believe a statement ; 
disbelieved (3 syl.), disn[)elieY'-ing (R. xix.), not believing 
a statement; nn'lieliev'-ing, not believing in Revelation. 

Bisbeliev'-er, one who distrusts a statement; 

UnbelieY^-er, one who does not believe in Revelation. 

Disbelief, dis\be.leef, distrust in a statement ; 

Unbelief, scepticism, having no faith in Revelation. 

UnbeHev'-able (not dishelievahU), unworthy to be believed. 

Old Eng. unrgeledfa, nn- or dis- belief : two very pretty words might 
be restored, viz., ungeledfavm, unbelieving, and ungelaffsumnes. 

Bjabowel or disembowel, dU.bdw\el, dis'.emhSw'.el {biiw to 
rhyme with now)^ to take out the entrails ; dis* or disem- 
-bowelled {-bow\eld)y -bowelling (R. iii. el), -boweller. 

JHs and French hoel; Latin botelliu, a gat 

Di81md^ to deprive of buds : disbudd'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis- 
bndd'-ing (Rule i.) Unbudd'-ed, not budded. 

JH§- and the French h<nUon, a bud. 

Disbiirden, disburthen, imburden, tmburthen, dis* or un- 
,biv/.den, -bw/.then^ to remove a load ; 

Disburdened or disburthened, dU- -bur^,dend, -bur^.thend, 
relieved of a load; 

Unbur^dened or nnbnrthened, without a load. 
Disbnr'den-ing, disbnrthen-ing, nnbur^den-ing or nnbnr"- 
fhen^zig, removing a load. 

JH»- or VM- with Old Eng. lyrden or bwihen (byrd, heavy, hyr[an\ 
or h6i\fin\y to bear). Our words should have been spelt byrden, or 
harden to preserve the darivation more correctly. 



224 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DisbnTBO. disJmrce^^ to lay out money ; disbTused'' (3 syL), dis- 
buTs'-ing (Rale zix.), disbnne'-meiit (Rule xviii.), the act 
of paying out money; disbniBe'-mentB, money paid out; 
disburs'-er, one who pays out money. 

French dSbourse. diboursemenU (8 lyL), t. d^bowrser ((owrse, % pnnt, 
the [money] exchange). 

Disc, disky the face of the sun or moon, the face of a shield or 
any round flat body. Disk (in Botany\ a ring or scale 
between the bases of the stamens and orary. 

Discous, dis'.kiis (a4j.)> broad, flat; dbciform, dU^j^fwrm 
(not dU\ki.form\ in the form of a flat round liody; 
discoid, dW.koid [pith], in Botany that which is divided 
into cavities by discs. 

French dA^ut; Latin discus, disciformdUt : Ore«k dUtif$, a quoit, 
a round flat stone or piece of metal. 

Discard, dU.kard\ to reject; discard^-ed (Rule xxxvi), dia- 
card'-ing; discard'-er, one who discards. 

Spanish de<carfar, to discard, or reject cards; duearU, the caids 
rejected or thrown out of one's hand. 

Discern, diz.zem% to see, to discriminate ; discerned, dizjBemd^; 
discem'.ing, discem'ing-ly ; discem-er, dizjiem'.er; 
discem'-ment, discem'-ible (not •'able), discexnlUe- 
ness; discemlbly, diz,zem\i.hhy. 

Discernment and discretion are both from the same root- 
verb (Latin discemo), but now 

Discernment means insight, and discretion, prudence. 

French discemement (3 syl ), verb diseemefr; Latin diaeemSre. wofiat 
discrgtum (di8 cemo, to sUt and separate, hence to distinguish). 

Discharge' (d syl.), to dismiss ; discharged' (2 syl.), disc^iaig^- 
ing (Rule xix.); discharg'-er, one who discharges. 

Discharged' (said of firearms), shot ofif ; 

Uncharged' (said of firearms), not " loaded." 

French dicharger, to unload (c/uirger, to load) ; Low Latin Mredrf^ 
to freight a ship. To "discharge " means to unioad. 

Disciple, di8.8i\p'l (not de^Wp'l), a pupil, a follower ; diaol'ple* 
ship {'Ship, Old English, "office," «• state of being...**). 

Disciplinarian, dis'.sl.pli.nai'/'ri.an, one strict to enforce 
discipline; disciplinary, dWai.pU.nerry. 

Discipline, dU'^tpUn, Rubjection to rules and mastera, to 
train to obedience; dis'ciplined (3 syl.), dis'dlplln^iiig 
(Rule xix.) ; dis'cipUn-er, one who trains. 

Disciplinable, disM.pU'.na.b'l; discipli'nable-] 



French disciple, disciplindble, disciplinaire, discipline, ▼. cKwipiiNcr; 
Latin disdpllna, disciplindhilis, disctpiiltts, a scholar (etfpAlo [in 
composition cipulo] is to pour liquor from one vessel into another, 
and a disi-ciple is one into whom instruction is poured). 



AND OF SPELLING. 225 

Difldaim, dis.klame', to disavow ; disdaiined' (2 syl.), disclaimer 
ing, diBclaim^-er, disclaim' -ant. Unclaimed, not claimed. 

Declaim', to spont, to recite ; declaimed (2 syl.)) &c. 

"Disclaim," Latin dU elamdre, to refuse to call for Tone]. 

" DecUim," French diclanur; Latin dicldmdre, to make set speeches. 

DifldoBe, to rereal; tmclose, to open what is closed; dis- or 

vn- dosed' (2 sjl.), dos'-ing (H. xix.), disclos-er, one 

who reveals or tells some secret ; disdosure, dU.cW.zkvfr. 

JHs and Old Eng. dusa ; Latin clavMrum, a prison. To dU-dose is 
"to dischaigt from oonfinement" or secrecy. 

Biflcdour, di8.kitt,er, to stain ; discoloured, dis.kuV.erd, injured 

in its colour; uncoloured. un.kuV.erdt not coloured; 

discoloration, di9\kid.er.a*\ihun. 

(** Discolour " would he better without the " u," which it 

dropped in " discoloration.") 

Vrench dieoloration, ddcolorer; Latin dieSlor, dicSlordtiOf y. dieSUh 
rdre (cdloro, to colour). 

Difloomfit, di8.kiim,fU, to defeat. Discomfort (see below). 

Discom'fit-ed (Bnle xxxvi.), discom'fit-ing, routing; 
discomfiture, dis.kiim'.fX.tchur, defeat in battle. 

Frmch dicoTnjUure ; Latin confectiu, finished (fion fddo, completely 
done), dis- in a bad sense. 

Diacomfort, dis.kum\fortj absence of comfort, to make uneasy; 
discom'fort-ed (Rule xxxvi.), discom'fort-ing ; disoom- 
jbrtore, dis.kUm'.for.tchur, want of comfort. 

Difloom'forted, made uneasy ; 

TJnoom'forted, not consoled. 

TJnoomfortable, un.kum\for.ta.b\ not easy ; uncomfortable- 
ness; uncom'fortably, uneasily. 

French dicovfort^ v. dicoTiforier ; Latin dis c(yn<fortdri, the reverse of 
being strong or comforted (fortis, strong). 

DiBOommode. {See Incommode.) 

DiBOompose, di8'.kSm.poze\ to unsettle ; De'compose', to reduce 
a con»pound body to its elements or ingredient; 
dis'composed' (3 syl.), dis'compos'-ing, dis'compos'-er; 
discomposure, dW .kbm.po" .shur, agitation. 

Vn'oomposed' (3 syl.) Chiefly applied to literary work. 

French decomposer, to discompose and decompose; Latin de eom- 
ponire, to de-compose, dis componire, to discompose. 

Diflooncert, dis'.kon.sert', to disturb, to put out of countenance ; 
dis'concert'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis'concerf -ing. 

TJn'concerf ed, not concerted. 

French diconeerter; Latin con-certdre is "to strive together,** hence 
"to be in harmony," dis-concertdre is "to strive contrary ways/ 
h«noe " to be out of harmony," " to be disturbed," &.c. 

P 



226 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Difloonneet, di8'.kSn.n^f, to separate; dis^connecf-ed (4 ^L), 

separated; im'connect'-ed, having bo connection; dis'- 

ocnmected-ly, unconnected-ly, dkconnect'-ing;, difcon- 

nect-er; disconnection, di8\k8n.nekf\8hun ; diaoonnec- 

tive, di»\kbn.neW Mv ; discmmeotiYe-ly. 

JHs' And Freiich etmneaeiont connectif; Latin dis ooimeeto, to nabind 
what is bound together {necto, to bind). 

BiBCOiiBolate, di8.kdn\8o.late, sorrowful; discon'solate^y, dis- 
con'solate-ness; disconsolation, dUMn'jto.lay^'^lmn. 
The rest of these words are compouided'with in- or vn-. 

Inconsolable, in\kdh.8o'\la.h'l ; inognaolltble-neflB, inoon- 
solably, in\kon,8o'\la.bly, * ^ 

Un'consoled' (3 syl.)» not consoled, imcoD85r-ing (R. xix.) 
French inoonsolahle, inoonsoli; Latin dis- wns^dttut, Ac, 

Discontent, dis' .kon.tmt' , want of content ; dis'contenf-ed, dia'- 
contenf ed-ly, dis^content^ed-ness, dis'cantenf-mei&t 

Mal'contenf, one politically discontented or inclined for 
sedition ; maJcontent'-ed, maloontenf ed-Iy, msdcontent'- 
ed-ness, malcontent'-ment. 

Non'oontent, jplu. non'contents. Lords who negative a 

" bill." Those who approve of it are called ** Contents." 

French verb miconteriter, mdconterUement, mdcontent; Latin rnali 
contentus, &c., dis contewtua, &o. 

Difloontinne, di8\c(in.nn\u, to cease; discontin'ned (4 syl.), 
• discontin'n-ing rRnle xix.), discontin'n-ance; discon- 
tinuation, dis' ,kon.tln' M.a'\8}mn ; discontiniiity, dW.^ 
kdn.ttnW.i.ty ; discontinuous, di8\kon.tin'\uM8, 

French discontinu, discontinuation, verb discontintber^ diaconUmMi, 
discontinuance ; Latin dis contXnudre, &o. 

Dia'cord, want of harmony; discor'dance, discor'dazrt; 

discor'dancy, plu. discordancies, dis.kdi^ddnMs (Bnle 
xliv.); discor'dant-ly. 

French discord, discordance, discordant; Latfn discordanSt gOBHIr* 
discordantis, discordia (dis corda, hearts asunder). 

Discount, (noun) dis'.kountt (verb) dis.kount' (Rule L) 

Dis'count, abatement for ready money. • 

Discount^ to mnke an abatement for ready mon^; di8« 

count'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), discount^ 4ng, diseoimi'-er. 
Uncounted, not counted. 

French dicompte, verb (f^compfer =da.k5n.ta7 ; Latin cU« MMipttdH^ 
not to be reclioned [in tbe account]. 

Discountenance, dU.kownf.te.nance, to discourage; dfaooim'- 
tenanced (4: syl.), discoun'tenanc-ing (Rule xix.); 
discoun'tenanc-er, one who discountenances. 

French faveur, the countenance ; d^aveur, the exact •qofvalmt of 
di*- tounUinanu. French eonienanoe (2 tyL); Latin 



AND OF SPELLING J 2C7 

oonUioing. cowUnewtia. The word "ooantenaace" means tlkB 
" contents **: hence the "outline'* or "xontonr," und br still far- 
ther licence " the superficial aspeet.** fOur word it Ht formed. J 

BiflOOiiiage, dU.kufrage, to (iissnade, to dishearten ; diBConr'- 
ug&di (8 syl.), diseonr'ag-ing (Rule xix.), dkooui^aging-ly, 
dkooiir'ag'«r, diBCOor'age-ment (Rule xviii.) 

Kcendi dicowiugemeni^ rerb dioowragw; Latin cHs cor «0O, to act on 
tiie heart the wrong waj. 

Steonne, dUMfti^^. cf)nyer8ation, to oonverBe; difloonned' 
(2 syL), 4lmNnHi'-ing (Rule xix.), dlsoourt'-er ; disconT- 
give, diMMrj^. IMsour'siTe meann " desultory." 

Vmeh diseowrs ; Latin discursus (disevrro, supine discursumf to run 
over. A ducow»e is a " running over " [some subject]. A di9C%i$- 
tiov. is a shaking about [of some subject]. 

Biaoonrteous or UnoQurteoiifl, -kor.ti'tu (not -kw/.tchua), impo- 
lite; discour'teous-neas or nncourteoTu-ness, disomr^te- 
oii8-ly or imcoiir'teous-ly, rudely ; discourtesy, plu, dis- 
oourtesies, dis.kor^.te^iz (never un-) (not dU.kur^ .te^y) 
(Rule xliv.), want of courtesy. 
French diacourtois^ disoourtoisie, (See CrOUrt.) 

Biseofver, du,kuv'.er (not di8.k6v'.er). Uncov'er. 

Discover, to find out what was unknown ; 

Uncover, to remove a covering from some object. 

Bis-, or un- covered, -kuv\erd, -cov'er-ing, -cov'er-er, 
discover-able ; discovery, dis.kuv'J.ry. 

French ddcouvrir, to discover and uncover, d^couvreur. Low Latin 
eofira; Latin cdphlmia, a coffer. To cover is " put into a coffer." 

Discredit, dis.krid'M, disgrace, not to credit or believe; dis- 
credlt-ed (Rule xxxvi.), discred'it-ing, discredit-able, 
(Rule xxiii.), discreditably. 

Incred^-ible, not credible ; incredible-ness, incredibly ; 
incredibility, in.kred^.iMV\i.ty, state of disbelief. 

Incred'ulous, not believing; incred'ulous-ness, incred'n- 
lous-ly; incredulity, in\kre.du".VLty, 

French diseridit, v. ^iscrSditer, incredibility, ineridule, ineriduliti; 
Latin dis credere, incredVnlia, incredibilitcu, iiuyrtditv^^ discredited, 
ineridiUitas, incrSdulus. 

Discreet, prudent. Discrete, disjoined. Both dU.kreetf, 

Disoieet'-ly, discreef-ness ; discretion, dis.krish'.un (not 
dis.kree' ^hun) ; disoretion-ary, du.kre8h".unMjry, 

French diseret, diecrUion, discr^tioniuiire ; Latin diKritua^ discritio, 
V. dis-cemOf supine discritum, to discern [right from wrong]. 

DiftOtepancy, plu. discrepancies, dis.kr^p\an.8iz. (Rule xliv.) 
Disagreement in a statement. 
Latin diteripanUa {die critpdrtt to creak or jar sadly) 



228 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

INscrete^ (2 syl.), disjoined; diacretiye, dis.kreeWiio; discre'- 
tive-ly. {See Discreet.) 
French discrett discreet and di8cretiy^ ; Latin discfi^us^ serered. 

Discretion, dis.kresh^un ; discretion-ary. {See Biscreet) 

Discriminate, di8.k7fm,'.in.atey to mark the difference of objects; 
discrim'inat-ed (H. xxxvi.), discrim'inat-ing (R. xix.)« 
discrim'inating-ly, discrim'inat-or (not -er, R. xxxvii.); 
discriminatory, di8.krim\\n.a.tb.ry ; dlBbiiminatiyey dis.- 
krim\%n,a,tiv ; discrimination, dMJsiiim^J(m>.a'\8hun, 
(** Discrimination '* one of the words in -tion, not Fr.) 

Latin discrlmen, genitive diaeriminU, dUcrlmindtio, diaerimXndtui, 
verb discrlmindre; Greek dis krimct, judgment between [things]. 

Discrown', to depose a sovereign or deprire him of his crown; 
discrowned' (2 syl.), discrown'-ing. 

Un'crowned' (2 syl.), not crowned. 

To "crown" is to invest a person with a crown m .i^ symbol of 
royalty. To " discrown " is to remove from him that symboL 

Discnrsive, dis.kur'.sXv, desultory; discor'siye-ly, discnr'siTe- 

ness; discursory, di8.kur\80,ryj arguroental. 

French diamrsif; Lttin diacurro^ snpine diacursum (dii eurro, to 
run hither and. thither). 

Discos, dis^kus, a ^uoit. Discons, dis'.kHs, broad, flat. 

Discuss, di8,ku8\ To talk argumentatively on a subject. 

"Discus," Latin ; Greek diskds, a round flat plate of metal, &a 
** Discous," see Disc. *' Discuss/' see next article. 

Discuss, di8,ku8\ to ventilate a subject. {See Discns.) 

Discussed' (2 syl.), dipcuss'-ing, discuss'-er. 

Discussion, dis.kOsh^uny a debate; discussive, dis^iHt^ai^ ; 
discutient, di8.kil\8hl.ent, having the power to disperse 
morbid matter. 

French discusJtif, disciission, verb discuter ; Latin discus^, difcvtsor, 
verb discnitiOy supine discussum, {dis qualiOy to shake thoroughlyX 

Disdain' (2 syl.), contempt, to scorn; disdained' (2 syl.), dis- 
dain' -ing, disdain'ingly, disdain'er, disdain'-ftii (Rnlo 
viii.), disdain'ful-ly, dis^Edn'fnl-iiess. {See Deign.) 

French dAdaigner, d4ddin; Italian disdegno, disdegnart; Latin 
dis digndre, to deem unworthy {dignus, worthy). 

^Disease, di8.eze\ illness. Disseize, di8.8eet\ to onst. 

Disease is more applicable to man ; distemper to famteB. 

Disease' (2 syl.), plu. diseas'es (3 syl., Rule liii.) 

Diseased' (2 syl.) Afflicted with disease. 

Uneasy, un.ee'.zy^ not easy, uncomfortable; mieasi-ly, 
nneasi-ness (Rule xi.) 

Old English edth^ easy; unedth, uneasy; vnedthnea, Tmnatitnons r 
urUthelic, uneasily. French malaise. Latin die or maU o<i^««]> 



AND OF SPELLING, 229 

Biflembark or debark, dis'.em.harkf, de.bark% to land from a 
a ship ; disem- or de- barked, -barkt, -bark-ing ; disem- 
barkation or debarkation, dU.em- or de- bar. kay'' .shun ; 
disem- or de- barkment, dU^em- or de- bark'.ment. 

"Bark** (French barque. Low Latin ba/rea^ a little ship). Em or en 
converts nouns into verbs, hence tmJbark, to ship or put on board 
(French emJbarqucr). DU reverses, hence dia-tmhark, to nnship. 

French dibarqiu, dibarquement, r. d^barquer, formed on another 
principle. L9W Latin de barca, [to take] out of a bhip. 

Dtflembarrasa, dis.em.bar'ras, to free from perplexity; disem- 
bar'raased (4 syl.)> disembar'rass-ing, disembar'rassment. 

Unembarrassed, un'.em.bar^ratU not troubled with per- 
plexities or pecuniary difficulties. 

Trmch dAbarrae^ r. dibarrasser; Low Latin barra, a barrier, Bm 
or en converts nouns into verbs, hence emba>raia to hamper with 
barriers. JDis reverses, h«nce dia eaibarroM^ to remove the barriers. 

Disembellish, dU.em,belV.i8h, to strip off decoration <« ; disem- 
bell'ished (4 syL), disembell'ishing, disembeirish-er. 

"Bell," a beauty (Latin bellus, pretty). Bm or en converts nouns into 
verbs, and Uh added to verbs means "to make.*' hence embelliith, 
to make beautiful. DU reverses, hence dis-emhelLuh^ to strip off 
that which makes beautifuL 

Disembody, di8\emMd",y, to froe from the body ; disembodies, 
dU\emMd'\%z ; disembodied, dU\em.bod"Ad (Rule xL), 
diaembOdi-m6nt (Kule xi.), but disembod'y-in^ (with y). 

Old English bodig, the body. Bm or en converts nouns to verbs, 
hence embody, "to give a body, or put on a body." Dis reverses, 
hence die-emhody^ to put off a body, to take the body away. 

BiBembogae, di8\em.bug'\ to pour out through the mouth [as a 
river, into the sea] ; disembogues, di/.em.6/7ps"; disem- 
bogued, di8\em,bogd"; disembogu-ing, dis^emMg^ing 
(R. xix.); disembogue-ment, dis\em.bdg^\ment (R. xviii.) 

"Bogue" (French bouche, Spanish boca), the mouth Em or en con- 
verts nouns into vprb«», hence em-bogue, to put into the mouth 
(French emJbotLcher, Spanish embuchar). Die reverses, hence dis- 
embogiie, to put out of the mouth, to disgorge (JNorman-French 
d^eemboucher, Spanish deaemimchar). 

IHaembowel, di8'.em.bow^l {-bSw- to rhyme with now), to take 
out the entrails ; disembow'elled (4 syL), disembow'ell-ing 
(R. iii el) ; disembdw'ell-er, disembow'el-ment (one I). 
These words are also used without tiie prefix di8- : as 

Embowel, em.bfhd'.eU to take out the entrails ; embdw'elled 
(3 syl.), embSw'ell-ing (R. iii. el), emb5well-er, em- 
bdw'el-ment (one I). 

** Bowel** (Frenc* boel ; Latin botellue, the gut). Em or m converts 
nouns into verbs, hence em-bowel, to gut, t.«., take out the en 
teaila. In this example die is pleonastic. 



230 ERnom OF SPEECH 

Disenchant, dU.en.chant (not dU,enxhdnt\\jofteB from enchant- 
ment; disenoh(^nt'-ed (E. xxxvi.), disendiant'-iiigy diB- 
enchlUif -er (should be -or), disencduLnt'-men^ 

FrMich dSsenchantet, dSienchantement ; Lstin dis iwiaivUtrer'4>iM«Uar 
mentum, -incanidtor (canio, to sing often the same tone). 

IHsenoninber, dU.enJkum\hiSr, to remove an encnmbiunce ; diA- 
encum'bered (4 sy].)> disencmnnser-er, disencnim'ber-ing; 
disencnm'brance (not dUencumhera'nfie). 

Bisencombered, haying an encnmbrance taken off; 

Unencumbered, un' .en.kum'.berd, without encumbrance. 

JHs and French eneombre, r. enwmJbrvr; Latin fn cvni5^re, to lie or 
lean npon ; die reverses. 

Disengage, dis' .en.gage\ to free from work or entanglement; 

disengaged' (3 syl.); disengag-ing, dis^en^gdge'-ing ; 

disengag-er, dis.en.gdgg'.er ; disengage-onent, disen- 

gagedness, di8*.en.gdge'.ed.nes8y state of being at leisure. 

Dis'engaged' (3 syl.), set free from an engagement; 

Un'engaged' (3 syl.), without any engagement. 

Disengaging, setting free something entangled ; 

tfnengaging, not adax>ted to engnge the heait of anyone. 

Freneh ddgdgi, digagement, verb digager; Low Latin vadiwmf a 
pawn ; German %wige^ a pair of scales ; wdgen^ to weigh ; xaxoinf 
wei!<hed out for senmce, hence wages ; gooUs for which monej is 
weighed out, hence a pawn. En converts nouns into verbs, hence 
engage to pawn : therefore, "not to be free or unoccupied. " JHt 
reverses, hence dis-engnged, taken out of pawn, free, at Jeisiwe. 

Disennoble, dis' .en,nd.h% to deprive of nobility; dis'ennoni>led 
(4 syl.), dis'enno'bling. Un^ennobled, not ennobled. 

"Noble," a nobleman. E% converts nouns into verbs, henoe m»- 
noble, to make noble. IH8 reverse^ hence dia-tmnobief to deinire 
one of that which gives nobility. 

Disenroll, dis^en.roll, to frase from a roll; dis'enrolled:' (3 syl.), 
dis'enroll'-ing, disenroll'ment, gi^nerallv disenxolment. 
Un'enroUed' (8 syl.), not enrolled. UnroU, to open 
something rolled ; nnrolled' (2 syL), unroll'ing (R. viii) 

" Roll," a list of names. En converts nouns into verbii^ hence emroll, 
to put aname on a roll. JHs reverses, h- nee di»-enroU, to take 
a name off a roll. (" Roll," lAtin rdtula, a reeL) 

Disentail, dis'.en.taiV, to free land from entail; dis'entailed' 
(3 syl.), dis'entail'-ing, dis'entail'-ment, dis'entaU'er. 

French entailler, to cut off, h^nce to limit : Law Latin feudwn tatti- 
dtwn, a fee curtailed or limited [to a particular heir). JHi rerenee, 
hence dis-entailf to abolish the limitation of entailment 

Disentangle, dW .en.tan' .g'l. to unravel ; dis'entan'gled (4 ^L), 
dis'entaa'gling, dis'entan'gler, disentan'gle*meBi. 

tTnentangled, un\enMin",g'ld, not entangled; 



AND OF SPELLTNO. 2Sl 



Dioeatanc^Led, ^i8'.eH.tan'\g*ld, yrifh the tangle removed. 

"IJvigle," ft jumble^. En conyerts nouns into vorbe. henoe entangU, 
to make a jumble. JH» reverses, henoe dia-tntangUt to get rid 
of the jumble. 

INaenthial, dis* .en.thravsl', to free from thraMom (Bule viii); 
disenthralled' (3 syl.), dis'enthrall'-ing (Rale i), 
dis'enthral'-ment (only one 2). 

TJnenthralled, un'.en.thraw'ld^ not in thraldom; 

Sisenthrfdled (3 syl.), set free from thraldom. 

Thral, Old English, "a slave." En converts nouns into verbs, hence 
enthral, to make one a slave. Dis reverses, hence dis-mihralf to 
set free one who has been made a slave. 

JNaanthrone, dis'.en.throne" or dethrone, de.thronefy to depose 
a sovereign : dis'enthroned" (3 syl.) or dethroned' (2 syl.), 
di8'enthrOn"-lng or dethron'-ing (Rule xix.), dis'en- 
throne"-ment or dethrone'-ment. 

"Throne," the seat of royalty. En converts nouns into verbs, henoe 
vtdhrone, to place on the seat of sovereignty. Dis reverses, hence 
di»-€nihrone, tu remove from the seat of royalty. 

"Dethrone" is formed on another principle: dt ihroiM, 
Lto remove] from the throiiC. 

Sifleiititl^, dis'.en.tWiX to deprive of title or daim ; disentitled, 
dis'.en.U'.tld ; dis'enti'tling. 

Untitled, without title ; Disentitled, deprived of title. 

"Title** (Old English tUvX\ a denotation of rank. En oonverts 
nouns into verbs, hen<-e entitle^ to confer a title. JH» reverses, 
hence dis-eniiiU, to remove the name denoting rank. 



, di8\en.toom' (b mute), to remove from a tomb; 
disentombed, rf?y.cn.<oomd'; disentomb-ing,di«'.«n.foom'.- 
ing ; disentomb-ment, dU\en.toom\ment. 

Untombed (2 syl.), without a tomb, not committed to a grave; 

BiBentombed (3 syl.), taken ^ut of one's grave. 

**Tpmb" ^French iombeau, Greek tvmhos), a grave. En converts 
nouns into verbs, hence entomb, to put inio a grave. Vis reverses, 
hence dis-entomb, to take out of a grave. 

DisesfeaUish, dU\e8dah" .lUh, to break up; dis'estab'lished (4 
syl.). dis'estublish-ing, dis'estab'lish-ment. 

ITnestabllshed (4 syl.), not establisheil ; 

Diseetablished, deprived of that which gave establishment. 

^''Stfti le," a thing flxt (Latin sto, to stand or fix). En converts nouns 
Into verbs, and -i»/i added to verbs means "to make," hence m 
[en] stablinh. to make firm. Di» reverses, hence dU-tstdbli^, to 
unfix what was firm. 

Dis'Mieem', to disregard ; dis'eeteemed' (3 syl.), dis'esteem'-ing; 
disestimation, d's.es' .ti.may" .sihun, 
lAtin dis attitndre; French misestimer (Latin male ceitimare). 



232 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bisfavonr, dis.fay'.v^r^ disapprobation, to disapprove; dia- 
fa^'vonred (3 syl.)) disfa^onr-ing, disfa'vour-er. 
Other negative compounds are made with un- : as — 

XTnfaVouT-able, nnfaVouiable-iiess, imfa'vourably. 

Unfavoured, un.fay\verdf not favoured; 

Disfavoured, spited, discountennnced. 
French d^faveur, difavordble ; Latin dia fdvoVf removftl of goodwill. 

Disfigure, dis.fig'.er (not dis.fig'.geur), to deface; disfig'ured 
(3 syL), disfig'ur-ing (Rule xix.), disfig'ur-er, disfig'nre- 
ment (only live words drop the ** e " finnl before -merU, 
Bule xviii.); disfiguration, di8.f\g'.u.ray"^hun, 

TJnfigured, not figure* I, plain; disfigured, defaced/ 
FreDch d^fifpirer: Latin dis figHrdre, to mar the form ; JigiMUiOf Ac 

Disforest, disjor^rest or disafforest, dis'.af.foi^rest, to take from 
a forest its royal piivile*;es; dis- or disaf- for^ested 
(Rule xxxvi.), dis- or disaf- for'est-ing. 

Old French forest, Ffench for6t. Af converts the nonn into a verb, 
hence afforest, to convert into a forest with certain privileges. DU 
reverses, hence disafforest, to remove the privileges of the forest. 

Disforest is to reduce a forest from being a forest. 

Disfranchise, dis.frun'.chize, to tHke away the franchise; dis- 
ftan'chised (3 syl.), disfran'chis-ing (Rule xix.), digfiran'- 
chise-ment, dis.fran' .shiz.mMt (Bule xviiL) 

Unfranchised, not franchised ; 

Disfranchised, deprived of its franchise. 

JHs and French franchise; Low Latin fromthetia, % fhuichiBe ; diU 
franchisdtus, disfranchised. 

Disgorge' (2 syl.), to ueld up; disgorged' (3 syl.); diggofg-iiig; 
dis.gorge'dng (Rule xix.); disgorge'-ment. 

Ungorged' (2 syl.), not sated or gorged ; 

Disgorged' (2 syl.)» vomited out or ejected from the stomach. 

French dSgorgement, verb dAgorger, to dischai^e ftrom the thRMt 
{gorge, the throat : Latin gurgiiUial the windpipe). 

Disgrace' (2 syl.), dishonour, to be out of favour; disgraced' 

(2 syl.); disgrac-ing, dis.grase' ing (Rule xix.); ^U»- 

grace'-ful (Rule viii«), disgrace'ful-ly, disgraoe'fal-neM. 

Ungraced' (2 syl.), not embellished; 

Disgraced, reduced to shame. 

Ungraceful, without grace ; disgraceful, shamefril. 

Ungraoefnl-ly, inelegantly ; disgracefnl-ly, shamefbDj. 

Ungraoeful-ness, inelegance ; disgraoefnl-ness,shameAilnee8. 

Ungracious, un,gray' .shusy siurly ; ungracious-ly. 

(Un- denotes simply the absence, dis- denotes aetyal pri- 
vation of something before possessed.) 
French di8gra4ie, verb dii^gracier, disgra^ieux, ongracioui ; Latta dis 
gratia, favour, grace, honour. 



AND OF SPELLING, n:\ 



Biggiiise, dis.gize!', a false appearance, to have a false appear- 
ance; disg^nised, dis.gized; disgnised-ly, dis.gized^.ly 
or dis.gized. ed.ly ; disgaiB-iag, dis.gize'-ing (Rale xix.); 
disgnise-ment, dis.gize'jnent (Rule viii.) 

Old French deaguiier^ &c. ; French diguiser, diguisemeni. 

(Old English ioi<a, manner, guise ; Welsh gwis^ mode, gvyitg, dress.) 

IDHagat^, aversion, to excite aversion ; disgiiBt'-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
disgnsf-ing, disgnsfing-ly, disgiiBf-ful (Rule viii), 
di^usf fol-ly, disgusff ul-nesB. 
Italian diaguMartf disgtuto; lAtin dU gust&rt {ffiutvu^ taste). 

Biah, pJu, dishes, dish.Sz (Rule liii.), notm and verb; dished 
(1 syl.), dish'-ing. To dish up [dinner], to put food on 
the dishes ready for [dinner]. 
Old English disG, a plate or dish ; Latin disetu; Greek duiko9, 

BiahahOle. {See Deshabille.) 

Bighearten, dU.harf^en, to dispirit; dishearfened (8 syl.); 
dishearten-ing, dU.hartf.ning, 
JHb and Old English heorUt the heart 

Biaheyel, d%^h^\el, more correctly decheVel, to let the hair 
loose; dishev'elled, more correctly dechev'eled (8 syl.;, 
dishevell-ing, more correctly dechevel-ing. 
(Ihe spelling of ** dishevel'' U disgraceful.) 

French chevev,^ the hair : (heveluret the hair dressed ; de ehevel, to 
"derange the dress of the hair" (Latin capiUus); but duhevtl 
must be either de-shevel or dis-Jievelf both nonsense. 

Biahonest, dis.Sn'.est, not honest; dishonest-ly, dis,on',est.ly ; 
dishonesty, dis.hn\est.ty. 

(Only three simple words begin with h-mute : (1) heir = 
air, (2) honest = on'. est and honour = on\er, (3) hour =3 
our (Rule xlviii.); all taken from the French.) 

Old French Tumneste, French honnSte, dishonnite ; Latin hOnestug, 
inhcmestus. (We have avoided the French donblo n, but have 
followed the French in dropping the h.) 

Biahononr, dXz.Sn'.er, disgrace, to disgrace; dishonoured, diz.- 
iht\erd; dishonouring, ^^^.(5n^«r.^n^ ; dishonour-er, dtz.- 
dn'.er.er; diBtonovaaible^ diz.5n'.er.a.b'l; dishonourable- 
ness, dii6.8n\er,a,b'l.ne88 ; dishonourably, diz.dn\erM.bly. 

ITxihonoared, un.5n\erdf not honoured, disregarded; 

Biahonoured, positively disgraced or discredited. 

French dAshcmneur 1 1 but dSsfuynorahle (one n1, verb didumorer; 
Ltetin I^noTf dehOnestua, verb dehdnestdre, to discredit 

Biaindine, dis'.inMine'^ not willing; dis'inclined" (3 syl.), 
dis'inclIn'Mng (Rule xix.); disinclination, dis'.inM.- 
nay'^shun, dislike, unwillingness. 
Latin dU indindref dia inclindtio (cllno, Greek JUinC, to bend). 



284 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

IMflinooTpoTate, di8\in.k(y/'.posate, to deprive of corporate 
rights ; dis'lncor^'porat-ed (Hule xixvi.), dis^incor^'porat- 
iog (Rule xix.) ; disincorporation, d%s\in.hoT^]^,r^'j^" ^hun, 

TJn'incor"porated, not oorporated j 

Bis'lncor^'porated, deprived of corporate rights. 

French disincorporer, dSsincorporation ; Latin dia incorpardtio, -in- 
oorpordre {earptis, a body [corporate]). 

Difl'infect"', to deodorise, to purify ; dis'lnfect^'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dis^infect^'-ing ; dis'infect'^-er, a person or substance 
that disinfects ; dis'ii^ecV'-ant, a substance which disin- 
fects; disinfection, dis^in.fek^'^hwn, 

TJn'infect"e4t not contaminated ; 
Dis'infect'''ed, cured of its contamination. 
XJninfectioTis,ttn'.in./^".s/iw«, not communicating [disease]; 
Bisinfectious, di8\in,fek'\8hu8, neutralising infection. 
French ddsinfecter, disinfection; Latin dia infectus, -infeeior (it^fieio). 

Disingenuous, di/.in.jenf'.u.us (not dis* Jin.jee'\rd.UH), not frank; 
dis'ingen''nous-ly, dis'ingen'^uons-ness ; disingennity, 
di8\in.je.nu'\i.tyt want of candour. 

Latin dis ing^vXtas, -ingifnuust, verb ingenor, to be of good extrac- 
tion or well- bom. IHs reverses. " Disingenuous " is " iO-bred.** 

Disinherit, dis^in.hfir^Wlty to deprive of hereditary rights; dis'- 
inher'it-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dis'inherlt-ing, dis^in^er'it-er 
(ought to be 'Or)\ disinherison, dis\in.her^'ri.sdn, the act 
of disinheriting; dis'inher'itance. 
(The French and Latin pnvitive in this example ia ex.) 

French exMridation, disinherison; verb exhirider; Latin ea du ari- 
ddre, to disinherit ; exhcereddtor, exhcereddfio, disinheriiion. 

Disintegrate, dis.in'.tegrdte, to pulverise ; disin'tegrat-ed (Rale 
xxxvi.), disin'tegrat-ing (Rule xix.); disinteg^tion, 
dis. in'. te.gr ay'*. shun; disintegrable, dis.in\te.grci.Vl ; 
disin'tegrabie-ness. 

Latin dis intigrdre, -integrdtio (intilger, entire and whola). 

Dis'inter", to exhume; dis'interred" (3 syL), dis'interr'^-iiig 
(Rule i.), dis'interr"-er, dis'interr'^^ment. 

Unhiterred, not buried ; Disinterred, exhumed. 
" Di>inter" should have d&ahle "r" {Latin terr[a]). 

'*Ter," for terra^ the earth. In or en converts nouns into verbc, 
hence inter' , to put into the earth Dis reverses, hence dis itnAtr', 
to take out of the earth. 

Italian interrare, to bury ; French diterrer, to exhume. 

Disinterested, dis' .in.ter.eslf' .ed, without selfish motive; dislii- 
teres'ted-ly, disinterest ed-ness. 

Un'interest'ed, not concerned [in the matter]. 



AND OF SPELLING. 235 

Ua^interest^-ing, dull, tmable to excite the mind. 

Ihi'mtereef iBg-ly, in a cLull lifeless manner. 

Trench disi%UTt*»6^ dtaiDtereated aad wnintemted : Latin inUrttt, 
it concerns [me] ; dU interest, it does not concern [me] ; hence 
"nnselflsh/* and also " unexciting.** 

Diqom', to seyer; disjoined' (2 syl.), disjoining. 

Disjoined' (2 syL), severed. Unjoined', not united. 

Trenoh d4Joindr€ and di^oindre; Latin di^nngo, supine duowutum. 

BugoiBf, to put out of joint ; disjoint-ing, disjoint'-ed (Bole 
xxzyi.), disjoint^ ed-ly, disjoint'ed-ness. 

Disjointed, put out of joint. Unjointed, not jointed 

Dfejuncf ; disjunction, di8.juny.9hun, disunion, severance; 
disjnnctive, dU.junkWiv; disjunc'tiye-ly. 
"Disjoin" and "disjoint" are from the same root-verb, 
A ** joint** is a contrivance to join together two parts, 

French ditffoifU, dit^onet\f, disjanction, di^jonctwe (in Grammar). 
LaUn di^nctuSf di^uTidio, di^Tictivtu. . 

Disk 0ja. Bot,) In a daisy the disk is the yellow eye, and the 
white petals are called the " rays." 

Disc. The face of the sun or moon. 
Both French disque ; Latin discus : Greek dishos, a ronnd plate. 

Dislike' (2 syl.), avei sion, to feel aversion to : disliked' (2 syl.), 
disHk'-ing (Hule xix.) 

Unlike', not like, dissimilar; nnlike'-ly, not probable; 
nnlikeli-ness, improbability; unlike' -ness, want of re- 
semblance; nnlikeli-hood {-hood Old Eng. suf., "state"). 
W»- or wnr and Old English gtVic, like ; liced, lik4>ned. 
Difllocate, disWo.kdte, to put out of joint; dislocat-ed (Kule 
xxxvl), dislooat-ing ; dislocation, dis'.lo.kay^'.shun. 

Dislocated, put out of joint ; 
Unlocated, not having a j&xt place assigned. 
Unlocated Land (Americanj^ land not yet appropriated. 
Fr. disloctUian, v. disloquer; Lat dis locdre, to put out of place. 

Dislodge' (2 syl.), to remove from its place ; dislodged' (2 syl.), 
dislodgp-ing (R. xix.j, dislodg'-er; dislodg'-ment (one of 
the five words which drop the e before -ment, R. xviii., %), 
Fr. diloger, dilogement; Lat. dis locdre, to displace (locus, a placeX 
Disloiral, dis.loy\aU or onloy'al, not loyaL 

Disloy'al denotes an active demonstration of disloyalty ; 
Dnloy'al denotes simply the fact of not being loyal. 
Disloy'al-ly; disloyal-ty, dis.loy'.alty. 

French ddloyal (loi, a law) ; Latin Ugdlis {lex, a law). 

L(yyal means " obedient to law ;" disloyal, disobedient to law. 



236 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Diamantle, di8.man\t% to strip [a house, (fee, of its furniture] ; 
dismantled, dis.man^fld ; dismantling, di8.mant\ling. 

Bisman'tled, deprived of mantle or furniture ; 
Unman'tled, without a mantle. 

French cUmanteler (military term) : Latin dis mantele, a mantle. 
SismaBt^ to hreak down or carry away the masts of a ship; 
dismast' -ed (Rule xxxvi.), dismast'-ing. 
Old Fr. dimasier; Fr. dSmdter; Ital. masto; Germ. mast. 

Bismay, diz.may^ terror, to be in terror: dismayed' (2 syl.), 
dlsmay'-ing (B. xiii.) Un'dismayed (3 syl.) , not dismayed. 
Spanish desmayar, to be in dismay ; desmayo, dismay. 

Dismem'ber, to mutilate ; dismem'bered {-i syl. ), dismemnier-iiig, 
dismem'ber-ment, mutilation, severance of limbs. 
French dSmembreTt d^memhrement ; Latin dis membrum, a Umb. 

I)i8mi8S^ to send away ; dismissed' (2 syl.), dismiss'-ing, dis- 

miW-al; dismission, dia.mlsW.un; dismissive, di8.i»utf''.iv; 

dim'issory, granting leave to depart. 

Latin dimUsio, dimissoritbs, y. dimittiret supine dimistwm (<li[dis] 
mitto, to send away). 

Dismount^, to alight froin a horse, to take articles from their 
"mountings"; dismoiint'-ed (R. xxxvi.), dismoonf-ing. 

Unmoun'ted, not mounted; dismounted, deprived of... 
French d^monter; Latin dis mons, gen. montis, from the monntaiD. 
Disobey, dls'.o.bay'f to act in opposition to orders given; dis- 
obeyed' (3 syl.), disobey-ing (Rule iiii.); 

Unobeyed, not having done what is ordered. 

Disobedience, di8\o.bee''^di.ence (not -ance). Non-observ- 
ance of a command. 

Disobedient, di8\oA)ee''.di.ent; dis'obe'dient-ly. 

French diaoMissance and disobSissant (wrong conj.), ddsobHr; Latia 
dis dhediensy gen. dhedientis, dbedientia, v. dhcdlre. 

DisobUge, di8\oMige\ to offend by incivility ; dis'obliged' (3 syL), 
dis'obllg'-ing (R. xix.), dis'obli'ging-ly. 

Disobli'ged, sliglited by incivility ; Unobli'ged, not obliged. 

Disobli'ging, discourtaous ; ITnobliging, not obliging. 
French disobliger; Latin dis ohligdre (ob IXgo, to tie or bind to ob«)l 

Disorder, diz.or^.dert want of order, to put out of order; dis- 
or'dered (8 syl.), disor'der-ing, disor'der-ly, disar^derii- 
ness, untidiness. Unor'dered, not asked for or ozdeied. 
French d4sordre : Latin dis ordo^ order, y. ordindr^ 
Disorganise, dis(.of'.gdn.ize, to derange what is organised ; 
disor'ganised (4 syl.), disor'ganis-ing (Rule xix.) ; disor- 
ganisation, dis.of .gdn.i.zay'\8hun; dis'organ]!B-er(B.zxxL) 
Unor'ganised (4 syl.), not methodised; 



AND OF SPELUNG. 237 

Diaor'ganised (4 syl.), thrown out of methodical arrangement. 

Or'ganised {;•^ syl.), having organic structure ; 

Inor'ganiged (4 syl.), not having organic structure. 

French disorganiser, disorganisation, disorganisateur ; Latin or- 
gdnum ; Greek orgdnon, an oi^an adapted to some work or func- 
tion hence " oi^iinised " also means methodised, and ''disorgan- 
ised " thrown out of methodical arrangement. 

Disown, diz.own'y to ignore ; disowned' (2 syl.), disown'-ing. 

Unowned' (2 syl.), bayiug no recognized owner; 

Disowned' (2 syl.), disclaimed. 

Unow^d, un owd, not owed, not due. 

Old English dgan, to own ; undgan, to disown. 

Disparage. dU.par^rage, to depreciate ; dispar'aged (3 syl.), 
cUspar'ag'ing (Rule xix.), dispar'aging-ly, di8pa]<ag-er, 
dispar'age-ment (Rule xviii.) 

Latin dispardre (dis par, nneqnal) ; French parage, lineage : [dis] 
parage, of unequal line ige. To " disparage meant originally ' to 
consider another of meaner rank," hence "of meaner value, and 
hence *' to depreciate." 

Disparity, plu. disparities, dis.par^ri.tiz (not disparaty), 

Latin dispdrttitas, adj. dispdrtlia (par, gen. pdria, equal). 

Dispassionate, dU.pd8h\un.atej without emotion, impartial; 

dispassionate-Iy. 

ITnpassionnate, not of a passionate temper. 

Latin dia jMiSiio, without passion. 

Dispatch'. {See Despatch.) 

Dispel', 10 dispers*^; dispelled' (2 syl.), dispell'-ing. 

(It would he better if the double 1 had been preserved.) 
Latin dispello (dis pello, to drive away). 

Dispense' (2 syl.) not dispence, to administer, to do without; 
dispensed', dispens'-ing (Rule xix.), dispens'-er. 
(" Dispense " is one of the six words ending in -ense, be- 
tween two and three hundred end in -ence, Rule xxvi.) 

XTndispeQsed, un'.dis.penst^, not dispensed. 

Dispense to, administer to ; 

Dispense with, to part with or do without. 

Dispensable, di8.pen\sa.b% that may be dispensed with ; 

In'dispen'sable, that cannot be dispensed with; 

Indispensably, absolutely, positively. 

Dispen'sary, plu. dispensaries, di8.p^\8a.riz (Rule zliv.), 
a place where medicine is dispensed ; 

Dispensatory, dis.p^n'^sa.to.ry, a dictionary of medical pre- 
scription s,&c.; atij.having the power to grant dispensation. 

Dispensation, dis.p^^ay" .shun^ exemption, a system of 



$38 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

roles (as the Mosaic di8pem<Uion\ God's mode of dealing 
with his creatures ; 

Dispensative, di8.pSn,8a.tiv ; dispen^'sative-ly. 
Fr. dispenser f dispetisaire, dispensation: Lat. dispensare, ditpmtAUo. 
BispermoTis, dU.p^.mus (in Botany), having two seeds. 
Greek dissds «perma, twofold seed. 

Disperse' (2 syl.), to scatter; dispersed' (2 syL), dispers'-ing 
(Rule xix.), dispers'er, dispeis'able (Kule xxiii.); 
dispersion, dis.per^ .shun ; dispersive, dia.per'.siiv, 
Undispersed, un'.dis.persf, not dispersed. 

French disperser, dispersion: L%tin dispergire, snpine diapenum, 
dispersio, dispersus {spargo, to acatterX 

Dispirit, disspir^rity to dishearten; dispir'it-ed (Eule xxxvi.), 
dispir'it-ing, dispir'ited-ly. TTn'dispir'ited, not... 

Dispirited, disheartened. Unspirited, tame, without spirit. 
Latin dis splritus (splro, to breathe). 
Displace' (2 syl.), to remove from its place ; displaced'^ (2 syL), 
displac'-ing (Rule xix.), displace' -ment (Rule zviii., IT), 
displace'- able {-ce and -ge retain the e final before the 
postfix -able. Rule xx.) Un'disidaced'', not displaced. 
French ddplcbcer, d^plctcemetU ; Latin pMtea (Greek pldtus, wideX 

Displant', to remove a plant; displant'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
displant'-ing ; displantation, di8\plan.tay'* ^hvn, 

Displant'ed, removed from where it was planted ; 

Unplant'ed, not planted, of spontaneous growth. 
French diplawter, diplantcUion; Latin displantdre, displanidUio. 
Display', show, to exhibit; displayed' (2 syl.), display'-ing 
(Rule xiii.), display'-er. Un'displayed', not displayed. 
French d6ployer ; Latin dis plicdre, to nnfold. 
Displease, dis.ple€z\ to ofiend ; displeased' (2 syL), displeas'-ing 
(Rule xix.), displeas'-er. 

Displeasure, di8.plezh\ur ; displeas'm^e-Able. 

Unpleasant, un.plez\ant, not pleasant; iinpleMrMit-ly, 
unpleas'ant-ness. 

Displeas'-ing. offensive ; Unpleas'-ing, not pleasing. 

Fvenoh ddplaisant, dipUxisir ; Latin di^UcenUa, di«pUciv« {dia 

placifOf to displease). 

Dispose, dis,pdze\ to arrange, to feel wUling ; disposed', ammged, 
inclined; dispos-in^' (Rule xix.), dispos'-er, cBspte'-al, 
dispos'-able (Rule xxiii.), dispo'sable-ness. 

Undisposed, not disposed. 

Disposition, di8\pd.zt8h'\un. Arrangement, tempai. 

Indisposed, in.di8.pdzd, unwell, not inclined; inAiqmaitkm ; 
indi^os'-^ble, not saleable. 



AND OF SPELLING. 239 



TTndisposedlkeBB, wri'-d%8,po".zH,ne9Bt unwillingness. 
Disposed o£, Farted with, sold. {See Depoee.) 
Undispeeed oC Not painted with, not sold. 

French dispoaer^ disposition: Latin dupMMo, dispMitu*, dAtpC/niirt 
(dw pono, to set aside, to distribute). 

Bispoflsess, diy,p58.z&^ (not di8\po,zi^'\ to deprive of; dis- 
possessed, di8\po8.ze8f (not dU^poJsesf) ; dispossess-ing, 
di8\po8.ze8\ing (not dis^po.zis^.ing) ; dispossession, dW.- 
po8Jii8h'\wi (not di8\pd,ze8h" .un) ; dis^possess'-or. 

DtB^possessed' (3 syl.), turned out of possession; 

Un'possessed' (8 syl.), not having in possession. 

Fr. d^posgesHon ; Latin dis possesgio, possessor, possidso, rap. posKs- 
««tn» (pM [potisi sedeOf the right of settling down. Dis reverses). 

Dispraise, dis.prdze\ censure, to censure; dispraised' (2 syL), 

disprais'-ing (Rule zix), disprais'ing-ly, disprais'-er. 

Dispraised, dU.prdzd^^ censured; 

DTnpraised, un.prdzd\ not praised. 

Dis and German preiaen, to praise ; prsiser; French prieer, to value : 
Latin pr^tium, price or value. To praise is " to value." 

DisprooT (noun), conftitation ; disprove' (verb), to confute (R. li.) 

Disprove, dis.proov' (not dis.prove), to confute ; disproved, 
dis.proovd'; disprov-ing, dis.proov'.ing (not di8.prd\ving, 
Rule xix.); disprov-ahle, dis.proo\vd,bl; 

Indisprovable, not to be disproved. 

Diiprov-al, dU.proo'-val, refutation ; 

Disapproval, di8'.ap,proo'\val, displeasure. 

Disapprobation, dis' .ap.pro.hay'^s'hun, displeasure. 

Unproved, un.proovd' (not un-provd), not proved ; 

Disproved, dis.proovd' (not dU-provd), confuted; 

Disapproved, di8\ap.proovd\ not pleased with. 

JHs and Old Fnglish prof\ian], to prove ; past pro/ode, past part 
profod; Latin prdbdre (prdbus, honest, upright). 

Disproportion, dis\pro.por''.8hun. want of proportion ; dispro- 

por'tion-able, dispropor'tionable-ness, dispropor'tion- 

ably, dispropor'tion-iLl, disproportional-ly, dispropor'- 

tion-ate, dispropor'tionate-ly, ^propor'tionate-ness. 

French disproportion, disproportionel ; Latin dis proportio, propor- 
tiondlus {poriio, a portion). 

Dispiite' (2 syl.), a contention, to contend; disput'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), disput'-ing (Rule xix.). disput'ing-ly, disput'-er; 
disputable, dis'.pu.ta.h'l (not dis. pute.,a.bU} ; dis'patable- 
ness, dis'pntably, dis'putant. 

Dispntation, di8\pu.tay'\8hun. Controversy. 

DispittatiouB, dU\pu,tay'\8hit8. Contention?. 



240 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Disputative, dW.pu.ta.tiv ; dis^patative-ly. 

Undispu'ted, not disputed ; nndispnted-ly. 

Indispntable (not un-), in.dU".pu.ta,ble, certain ; 

Indis'pntable-ness, indis'patably, certainly. 

French disputtible. disputant {** Disputation*' is not s French word) ; 
Latin dispHtoMlis, dispiUdtio, dispHtdtOTf y. dispiUare (pCUo, to 
prune or dress vines, to think ; dU piUo, to think different^. "To 
think" is to prune or dress the thoughts). 

Disqualify, (2i«.ftti7^r.t./t/, to render unfit; disqualifies, dU.kwSt.- 
i.fize ; disqualified, dU.kwbV.i.fide; disqualifi-er, dis.- 
kwoV.i.Ji.er (R. xi.) ; disqualification, du,kw5l/uJLkay^\' 
shun, but disquali'fy-ing (Rule xi.) 

Disqualified. Having something which destroys fitness; 

Unqualified. Not having what is required. 

JHs and French qualification, y. qualifier (Latin gwUftas fSeiOf to 
make of the quality or nature required). 

Disquiet, dis,kwi\et (not di8.kwoi\et\ uneasiness, to disturb ; 
disqui'et-ed (Rule xxxvi.), disqui'et-ing, disqni'et-er, 
disqui'et-ly, disqui'et-ness ; disquietude, dis,qui^.e.tude. 

Unquiet, un,kwi\eU restless ; unquiet-ly, unqniet-nea. 

Inquietude, in,f(wi\e.tude. Anxiety. 

* French inquietude: Latin inquiitOdo, inquiitus, r. inquUtdrt. Ont 
word is formed from (Latin) dia quiea, tne reverse of rest. 

Disquisition, di3\kwi.zi8h'\uny discussion ; disquisition-al. 
French disquisition; Latin disquisitio, v. disquiro (du queero). 

Disregard, dis'.re.gard^ slight, to neglect; disregard^'-ed (Bole 
xxxvi.), disregard'-ing, disregard'ing-ly, disregard'-eor, 
disregard'-ful (Rule viii.). disregard'fol-ly. 

Un'regard'ed, neglected; Dis'regarded, slighted. 

Dis and French regarder; Low Latin regardium, ** gwd^ ^ ward 
(one under a guardian, one guarded or looked after). To "renzd * 
is to look after one as a guardian, disregard is to neglect lo d^ig. 

Disrelish, din.reV .ish, a dislike of the taste, to dislike the taste; 
disrel'lshed (3 syl.), disreFish-ing. 

Dis'rerished (3 syl.), aversion to the taste ; 

Un'rerished (3 syl.), having no fondness for the taste. 

Greek dis [re] leich[o], leicho, to lick ; re leuJio, to lick again ; cKf rt 
leicho, to lick over and over again. It is a badly compounded word. 

Disrespect, dW. re. specif want of respect, to show want of respect ; 
disi^espect'-ed (K. xxxvi.), disrespect'-ing, disrespeof-ltal 
(R. viii.), disrespect'ful-ly, disrespect'ful-ness. 
Dis'respecf ed, dishonoured. Un'respect'ed, not respected. 

Irrespective, ir.re,8pek".tiv, without regard to ; ir'iespeef- 

ive-ly, independently of other considerations. 

JHs and French respect, verb respecter; Latin respicio, snpllio 
tutu (re specio, to look back upon;. Di* reverses. 



AXD ftF SPELLING, 241 

IHsEObe' (3 syl.), to undress ; disrobed^ disrob'-ing (Rule xix.)> 
disrob^. Uniobe', onrob'-ing (same meaning). 

Bigrobed' (2 syl.)t divested of robing; 
IFniobed (3 sylOt without robes, or dress. 
Bit and French robe, a state dress ; Low Latin robo, a rob*. 

Diorapt', to burst asunder ; disrupt'-ed (Rtde xzxvi), dismpt'- 
ing; diamption, dis.rup'^shun, fracture. 

Latin dAarumpOy supine ditruptwn {di» rumpo, to break asnnder). 

Diaaatisfy, dis^Sf.ls.fy, to leave discontent; diflflfttinficfl, dis,- 
adfXs.fize (Rule xi.) 

BiBsatisfied, di8.8dtf.i8,fide, discontented ; 

Unsatisfied, un\8df.l8,fide, not contented. 

BiBsat^isfy-ing, leaving discontent behind; 

UiiBat^igfy-ing, not contenting. 

Biflsatisfiactory, dU^af.is.fdkf'.tS.ry, giving dissatisfaction ; 

XTn'satiBfactory, not giving satisfaction. 

BuBatisfac'tori-ly, in a way to cause dissatisfaction ; 

Unsatisfactori-ly, in a way not to satisfy. 

Biasatisfac'tori-ness, a state of being dissatisfied; 

XTnaatiafactori-ness, failure to produce satisfaction. 

Biaaatiafaction, di8.8atJi8,fdk''.8hun, discontent. 

Unaatifffiable, un^df.K8,fV',d.ble, not satisfiable. 

Latin dia adti^actio, adti^fdcifre {sdOafdcU), to do enough). 

Buaect, dis^ecf (not de.8ec1f), to anatomise ; dissect'-ed (Rule 
zxxvi), dissect^-ing, dissect'-or (not -er), dissect'-ible 
(ought to be -able)', dissection, di8.8ek\8hun. 

ft, dissection; Lat. dissectio, dissicdre (dis sSco, to cut to pieces). 

BiflMize, di8,8eez', to dispossess. Bisease, diz.eze\ malady. 

Biaseized, dU^eezd*; disseiz'-ing (Rule xix.), dispossessing 
wroYigfuHy; diaseiz'in, the act of disseizing; 

Biaaeiz'-or, one who takes possession unlawfully ; 

Biaseizee, di8.8ee.ze^t the person disseized. 
(These words are also spelt with " -s " instead of "-z," but 
at seize is always spelt with *' z," there is no reason why 
itt compounds should adopt a different spelling.) 

Low Latin disseisina, disseizon ; disseisio, to disseize ; disaeisitor. 

BiaBemble, dis.z^\b% to conceal by equivocation ; dissembled, 
disjiSmWld; diaaem'bling (Rule xix.); dis8eml)ler, one 
who conceals by equivocation. 

Q 



242 ERROI^ OF mSECH 

DiflBimnlation, di8Mm\u.lay'',8fmn, the act of dissembling. 

JHs and French aembler. The French corresponding words ore dig- 
aimuler, dissimulcUion ; Latin disstmiUdref diMin/Oldtia (jrim/Alo^ 
to feign ; dU in a bad sense, gimilis, like). 

(It would have been better if toe had adopted the v)ord " dissimulate " 
instead of the bad French form "dissemble.*^ 

Diflseminate, di8.8^\i.na.tef to scatter as seed, to diffuse; 
dissem^inat-ed (Role xxxvi), dissem'lnat-ing (Rule zix.), 
dissem'inat-or (Rule xxzvii.); dissemination, dUjem'.i,- 
nay". shun; dissemlnative, disjBem\LnaMv, 

Trench dissiminer, dUs^mination; Latin dusSm^ndtio, disaim^ndtort 
dieaim^indre [simen, seed). 

Dissent, dis.sent't disagreement, to disagree. Descent, d^^enf, 
generation, a going down. 

Dissent^ (notm), dissent'-er. 

Dissent' (verb), dissent'-ed (Rule zxx^d.), dissent'-iiig. 

Dissentient, di8.senf.8hl.ent; dissension, dis.8^'^hiun (not 
-tion, Rule xxxiii., -t). Assent^, q.v., agreement. 

French dissension; Latin disserUienSt^ gen. -entia, dissenaio, verb 
dissentlre^ supine dissensum (dis sentio^ to thiok tUfferently). 

Dissertation, dW^er.tay'^shun (not de^ .er.tay'\8hun\ a disqui- 
siiioD ; disserta'tion-al, dissertator, di8\8er.ta.tor, 

French dissertaiion, dissertateur : Latin dAssertdOo, verb disaeirt&rt 
frequentative of disiro, supine dissertum (dis sero, to scatter seed). 

Diasever, di8.8^\er, same as "sever"; dissev'ered (3 syl.), 
diBsev'er-ing, dissev'er-er, dissev'er-ance; disseveration, 

di8.8ei/.e.ray''.8hun. (Not French). 

Dissevered, di8.8^\erd, separated, severed ; 

Unsevered, un.8ev\erd, not separated or severed. 

Dis intensive and Fr. sevrer, to wean, to estrange. Lat. s^fpdrdrs. 

Dissident, dis^si.dent (not di8.8i.dant), one who dissents, (04/.) 
dissenting; dis'sidents, dis'sidence, dis'sident-ly. ^ 

French dissidence, dvffddent; Latin dissidentia,, diasidens, ftnltive 
dissid&ntia, verb dissidire {dia sideo, to sit apart). 

Dissimilar, di8Mm\i.lar, unlike; dissim'ilar-ly; dissimilarity, 
dW.sim.i.ld'/' ri.ty ; dis'sinulltude. 

French dissimiUiire, dissimilitvde ; Latin disslmlletudo (dia HmXUa). 

Dissimulation, di8.8im\u.lay'\8hun, (See Dissemble.) 

Dissipate, di8'.8l.pate, to disperse, to squander; dis'edpat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), dispersed, squandered, ac^j. dissolute; 
dis'sipat-ing; (Rule xix.); dissipation, dis'M.pay^jhwi. 

French dissiper, dissipation; Latin dissipation diaaipdre (dia sipo, to 
scatter abroad ; Greek alph&n, a siphon). 

Dissociate, di8.8o\8i.ate, to disunite ; disso'ciat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
disso'ciat-ing (R. xix.); dissodation, dis.Bo'Mui'^jtkMn, 



>4JN7> OF SPELLING, 243 

DiandaUe, dU^c^ ,sha,Vl, ill-assorted; 

UnBodable, un^o^ .sha.H'l, not sociable. 

XTnsociftbly, un.sd'.sha.bly, with reserve, anfriendly. 

Biasociability, dU^(f.8hd,biV\i.ty, nnfltnees for sociel^y ; 

UiVKKsialullty, saliennesB, liviDg an unsociable life. 

Unsocial, un^^hdl ; nnsooiableness, want of sociability. 

JPreneh ktaodaJbUM, iutoctabU: Lftiin diitdeiOhUis, di$§dcidtio, di»- 
idcidre (dia addo, aOciia, a companion). 

DisBOlate, dU^soMte, dissipated; dis'solnte-ly, dis'solate-ness; 
dissolution, dU\80.lu" ^hun, 

Bissolable, di8\8o.Ui.VL {See Dissolve.) 

French dissolu, dissolution; Latin disadlutus, ditaSUUio, ▼. diiuolvir^, 
supine dissdlutvm. {See next article.) 

Dissolye, d!i8.zolv\ to melt; dissoly'-ing (Bule xix.) 

Bissolyed, di8Jsolvd% melted. Un'solved, not solved. 

Bissolv^er, that which melts something. 

Dissolvent, di8.zfiV.vent, that which has the property of 
melting something; 

InsolveBt, a debtor unable to pay his debts, not solvent; 
insorvency, the state of being insolvent. 

Dissolvable, di8Js5V.va.b'l (Rule xxiii.), or 

Dissoluble, di8\8o.lu.b'l, capable of being melted ; 

Ihsolvable, in.8oV.va.Vl (Rule xxiii.), or 

Insoluble, in.8oV.u.Vly incapable of being melted ; 

Unsolvable, un.8bV.va.h% incapable of being solved; 

Unsoluble, same as insoluble. 

Dissolubility, di8\tdl.u.hiV\i.ty, having a solvable nature ; 

In'dissolubillty, having a nature which resists solution. 

Dissol'vable-ness, negative Insoruble-ness. 

French dissoluble, dissolvant (wronsr conj.) insolvMliti, insolubh, 
insolvable; Latin dissolv€re (dis solw>, to loose thoronghly ; Greek 
aUn luo, to loose altogether). 

fThe wrong conj. -able has been borrowed ds usual from the French, 
bui has been avoided in dissolvent.) 

IMsBonance, di8'.8o.nan8ef discord ; dis'sonant, discordant. 

Fr. dissonance, dissonant; Lat. dissdnans, gen. -sonaniis (dis sihuire). 

DJamade, neg. of persuade, di8.8wade', per.8wade'; dissuad^'-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), dissuad'-ing (Rule xix.), dissuad'-er ; 
dissuasion, di8.8way\8hun, neg. of persna'sion (R. xxxiii.).' 
dissuas-ive, di8.8wa^Mv ; dissua'sive-ly. 

French dissiutder, dissuasion; Latin dissudsio, dissudsor, v. dis- 
tuddire (dis. tuddeo, Greek Ionic TuuUfOy to delight). 



244 ERRORS OF SPEECU 

Dissyllable, dis sKV.la.h'l, a word of two syllableH (double I); 
dissyllabic, dis\8iV.ldb'\lk (adj.); dissyllabificatioii, 
di8''8il.la}/-i-ji.kay'*-8lmnf making into two syllables. 
(Lat, words containing a "j" are borrowed from the Gk.) 
" Fr. dissylldbe, dissyllabique ; Lat. diiayllabum; <3k. diss&a stilldbi. 

Distaff, plu, distaffo (not distaves), A staff used in hand- 
spinning. (An exception to Rule xxxviii.) 

Old Eng. di8taif(ihiBiel [stsef], a thistle resembling a bunch of tow). 

Distance, dis'.tanse, remoteness, to leave behind in a race ; 
dis'tanced (2 syl.), dis'tanc-ing (Rule xix.); dis'tant, 
remote ; dis'tant-ly, remotely. 

French dUtanee, distant; Latin distanHa, distans, gen. di$tamii9 
{di [dial ato, to stand apart). 

Distaste'' (2 syl.), dislike (followed by for: as "Many have a 
great distaste for cheese," not of), 

Distaste'-fol (Rule viii.), distastefol-Iy, distasteful-neflB. 

Distem'per, disease, to disorder ; a preparation of colour with 
water (not oil) for walls, &c., to use this preparation. 

Distempered, dis.tSm^perd; distem'per-ing. 

" Distemper" is used most frequently for disease in dogs, and other 
dumb animals. {See Disease.) 

It was once thought that the body contains four " humours,** that 
the just balancing of these fluids constitute health, and that dis- 
ease is a disturbance of the balance (Latin dis tefnperdre). The 
adjustment of the fluids gave rise to the expressions good and ill 
"temper." ''Good temper" being the effect of a good or just 
mixture of the fluids, and "bad temper" the effect of a bad or 
unjust mixture. If bile prevailed the temper was '* fiery,*' if air 
prevailed the temper was "sanguine," if earth it was "melaa" 
choly." if water it was " phlegmatic." 

The couNTBNANCB is the facial index "containing" (Latin eonU- 
nens) the outward manifestation of the "temi)er" or mixture of 
the four fluids : it is yellow if " bUe" [fire] prevails, red if "blood" 
[air] prevails, grey if "melancholy" [earth i prevaUs, and dead 
white if " phlegm " [water] prevails. (See Complexion.} 

"IMstemper (p>iint), Italian distemper[amento], v. distemperartf to 
dissolve, tempera or tempra, water colour; Latin temperare, to 
mix, die temper&rey to dissolve. 

IMstend^ to stretch; distend'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), distend'-ing, 
distention or distension, (2i8.ten'.</iu7i; disten'sible. 

French distendre, distension: Latin distendire, supine ditteniwm or 
disteiisum, distentio, distentiLs or distensiu {tendo, to stretch). 

Distich, dis^tik (not disMtch'), two lines of poetry making 
complete sense. {Ch = " k" shows it to be firom the Gk.) 
Latin distlchon; Greek di-sttchds, two lines, an elegi'ac couplet. 

Distil', to let fall in drops ; distilled' (2 syL), distiU'-ing (K. i) ; 
distill'-er, one who distils; distill'-able (not -ible^ 1st 
Latin coi^.); distillation, dis'MLlay'^^shun; distill'- 



AXD OF 8PELLTNG. 245 

the place where distilling is cnrried on; distillatory, 

di8.tU'\la.to.ry (adj.), pertaining to distillation. 

("Distil" w(mld he better with double "L") 

French distiOer, distUlabU, distillatitm, distillaUnre, dittiUerie; Latin 
disUUatio, distill[dre], stiUa, a drop ; Oreek ttazo, to drop. 

Bigfcincf , separate, hence clear, (fee. ; distincf -ly, distinct -nesB ; 
distinction, dU.tink'.ahun ; distinct-ive, dis.ttnk'.tiv ; 
distinctive-ly, distinctiye-nesSb Verb didtingaigh, q.v. 

Indistinct, not distinct. Distinct followed by from, 
French distinct, disiinctum, distinetif; Latin digtinetus, distinction 
Biatiiignish, dis. ting g wish, to note difference by certain marks 
(followed by between) ; disting^oished, dis. ting* gwishd : 
distin'gnish-ing, distin'guishing-ly, distin'guish-able 
(R. xxiii.), distin'gnishable-ness, cQstin'gaishably, dis- 
tin'guish-ment, distin'gniah-er. (See Distinct.) 

Undistin^guished, nn- or in- -distin'gnishable. 

French di«fi)iguer/ Latin distinguire, supine distinctwnf to notify 
by a mark (Greek ttigma, a mark* y. stizo, t j prick or mark). 

Distort', to pervert; distorf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), distort'-ing, dis- 
torf-er ; distortion (not -sion), dis.tor'^hun (Bale xxxiiL; 
Undistorted. Not distorted. 

French distortion (wrong) ; Latin distortio, r. distorquirt, topine 
distortum, not distorsum (dis torqueo, to twist away). 

Distracf , to harass ; distracf-ed (Rule xxzvi.), distrac'ted-ly, 
distracted-ness, dis'tract'-ing, distract'-er, distracflng-Iy ; 
diatTBctiaafdisUrak'^kim; dirtractive, dis.truk\tUf, 

Undistracted, un'.dis.trdJ^\ted. Not distracted. 

(" Distraught" is sometimes used in poetry as past part) 
Lat. di8tr€Utio, distrdho, sup. distraetwn (dis trdho, to draw two ways}. 

DigtEain' (2 syl.), to seize chattels for debt; distrained (2 syl.), 
distrain'-ing ; distrainf (noun); distrain'-or ; dis- 
train'-able, subject to distraint. (Rule xxiii. ) 

Distress^ same as distraint', the act of seizing for debt. 
Latin distring^re, to strain hard {stringo, to grasp). 
Distress', afiOiction, destitution (see Distrain); distress'-ing 
(part, and adj.); distressed, dis.trisff afflicted; dis- 
tress'-fol (Rule viii.), distressfnl-ly. 
French duresse: Welsh trais, rapine ; treisiant, oppression. 
Distribnte, di8.trW.iite, to dole out; distrib'ut-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
distrib'ut-ing (Rule xix.), distrib'ut-er (ought to be 
-or): dMtnbxition, dis\tri.W'.shun ; distriyut-able (Role 
xxiiL); distribnt-ive, dis.trW .u.tlv ; distrib'ntiye-ly. 
Undistributed, un.dis.trib\u.tid^ not distribated. 
Ihdistribntive, in.dis.trW .uXlv, not to be distributed. 

French distribwr, distributeur, distribution, distributif; Latin A#- 
trtbatio, distribiUor, distribtUfre {dis trtbuo, to gHwe la |Muts). 



24$ ^HRORS or SPEECH ^k 

DiBtmst^, want of coDfidence, to doubt or suspect; distrust'-ed, 
distrast'-ing, distrust'lng-ly, diatriist'-fal (Bule Yiii.)f 
distrust'fHl-ly, distnisf fnl-ness. 

BiBtruBf-ed, sQspected ; TJntmst'-ed, not trosted. 

Untmst'y, not trusty ; untms'ti-»nefls, unfaithfulness in the 

discharge of a trust; untrustworthy. 
Old English wntre&iiotizstt mif aithful : «m^edim[ian], to deeelTe. 
Disturb', to discompose; disturbed' (d sjL), distorV-ing, 
disturV-er, diirturV-iuioe. 

Perturb', to disquiet (a stronger t(*rm than disturb); 
perturbed^ perturV-ing ; perturbation, |)er'.tur.6ay".- 
shun, agitation from disquietude. 

Perturbations of the planets, deviations from their usual 
course from some external influence. 

Undisturbed (8 syl.), not disturbed ; undisturV-ed-ly (6 syl.) 

French perturhation ; Latin disturhdtio, a disordertDg ; perttvrhdtio, 
great trouble or disturbance ; disturbdre, to throw into disordwr: 
perturbdre, to trouble, to tuna topey tarry [twbOf to disturb). 

Dimnite, disu.nlte^ to disjoin ; diaunif-ed (Rule xxxvi), 
disunit'-ing ; disunlt'-er, one who severs what was united. 

Disunion, <{^s.u^n^.on, want of union ; distinity, dU,u'.ni,ty, 

Disuni'ted, separated after having been united ; 

TJnuni'ted, not united. 

I^encb d^iunicn, diswnir; Latin dU wn/krt (wniM, oimX 
Disuse, (noun) disMce', (verb) disMze!" (Rule li.» c). 

Disuse {n(yiin)f neglect of use; disusage, dlsM^^age; 
disuse (verb), disused, dis.uzd'; disus-ing (Rule xix.) 

Unused, un.u8ty unaccustomed ; unused, tm.uzd, not used; 
Disused, dis.Uzd, the use discontinued. 
Unuseful, un.u8e\ful; unu'sual, unusual-ly. 
Latin dis imim, v. vior, supine %uus, to use ; Greek ei^tAd^ vdutl. 
Ditch, plu, ditch'.es (R. liii.). a trench ; ditch'-er, one who makes 
a ditch ; ditch'-ing, makiDg a ditch. 
Old English die, a dike or ditcii, ▼. dieiicm], dieunf^ ditdiiaf . 
Dithyramb, dvrh\i.ram, a song in honour of Bacohus; dithy- 
rambic, dlrW.i.rum"Mk (a4j.) 
Latin d%ihvravnhu8f diihyra'mbieiut ; Greek dUhwrmnXnn, 
Dittany, dU\ta.ny, a corruption of die'tamnyy garden ginger; the 
leaves smell like lemon-thyme. Also called dittander. 
Lat. didatMius; Gk. didamium or dickmum (fkom LUM^ fak GfMe). 

Ditto, also written do., but always pronounced dif.to, same as 
above, same as aforesaid. (Italian detto, said, spoken.) 
( Used in bills and books of account to save repetition.) 



^ AND OF SPELLING. 247 

IHttj, fla, ditties, dilf.Viz (Rule xlir.), a short poem intended 
to be snng. The word is almost limited to *' love-songs.*' 

Welsh ditiOf to utter r ditiad, an utterance. 

"Oomposition" is from the Latin eomp&no, "to set in order," and 
the Anglo-Saxon diht-cm is " to set in orler," whenoe dihtig. 

Diuresis, di.u,re^.8i8f excessive flow of nrine ; dise'resis, q.v., the 
mark ( " ) over the latter of two distinct vowels. 

Diuretic, di.u.r^t\lk, provocative of the flow of urine. 

Fr. diuritique; Lat. diureticua; (Gk. dia ourA), whenoe "urine"). 
Diurnal, di.w/MaU daily, pertaining to a day ; diur'nal-ly. 

French ditimc, journal ; Latin diwmua (diu, di«f, a dayX 

Di'VBii, dhvan\ a coffee and smoking room fitted up with sofas. 

French divan, a sofa-bedstead . Persian diiran, the imperial council 
or chamber where the council is held. 

Kve (1 syl.), to plunge under water; dived (1 syl.), div'-ing 

(Bule xix.j; div-er, one who dives; diving-bell. 

Old English dt^[ian], past dyfde^ past part, dyfed^ part pres. dyfing. 

Diverge' (2 syl.), to 8prea«J from the central point, to recede from 
each other (the opposite of Converge') ; diverged' (2 syL), 
diverg'-ing (R. xix.), diverg'-ence (not -ance\ fiverg'-ent; 
diver'gency, plu, divergencies, di.vet' .jen.8lz (R. Ixiv.) ; 
diver gent-ly ot diver'ging-ly, in a diverging manner. 

French divtrger^ divergence, divergent ; Latin divergium, the parting 
of a river into two streams ; Latin vergens, gen. vergentii {divergOf 
to bend di£Ferent ways). 

Wveis. di'.verz, plu. of diver (see Dive); (a^j.) sundry. 

Diverse, duversef^ not alike, not identicaL 
" History supplies divers examples" (sundry), not diverse, 
" Squares and diamonds are diverse forms," difierent. 
"There are divers nations on the earth, but each one 
diverse from the others." 

Divers-ly, dV.verz.ly, in many diffiBrent ways ; 

Diverse'-ly, not in the same way. 

Diversity, plu. diversities, di.ver'.si.tXZy differences. 

Diversify, dLve/MJy, to vary; diversifies, di.vei^,si,f%ze; 
diversified, di.ve'/.si.fide ; diver'sify-ing (Rule xL), 
diver'sifi-er ; diversificatioii, di.ver^ .8i.fi.kay"shun. 

French divers, plu. diverses [ pernonnes, &el. {" Diversification " is 
not French), diversijiir, divtrnU; Latin diverse^ in different parts, 
diver sitas, diverUfre, sup. diver sum {di verto, to turn different ways.) 

Divert, dtverfj to turn aside, to amuse ; diverf -ed (R. xxxvi.), 
diverf -ing, diver'ting-ly, diverf -er ; diversion, dtver^.- 
shun (Riile xxxiii.), amusement. 

Divertisement, d%.ver^.ttz.mentj (not dS.vair.tlz.mong). 
Fr. divertir, diversion^ divertissement; Lat. diverUfre (see above). 



248 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Divest, dtvesf, to strip, to dispossess; divesf -ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
divest'-ing; divestiture, di.v^'.ti.tchur^ the act of sur- 
rendering one's chattels (the opposite of InvestitiiTe) ; 
divestnre, dtves^tchiir, the act of stripping or depriving. 

Old French dSvestir; French dSvitir; Italian divestire. to undress; 
Latin di [dis] vestio, to deprive of dothing (vestiSf raiment). 

Divide, d%,v%de\ to part; divld'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), divid'-ing 

(Rule xix.)» divi'ding-Iy; divid'-er, one who divides; 

dividers, dl.vi\derz, compasses ; divid'-able (Rule xxiii.) 

Divisible, di.vlz\i.h% what can he divided ; divislble-nesB, 

divis'ibly; divisibiHty, <K.rfe'.t.Mr.i.t2/ ; 
Division, di.vlzh\un; division-al, divisional-ly. 

Divis-or, eK.w'^or, the number which divides another; 

Dividend, dXv'.i.dend^ the number to be divided by the 

divisor, the share to each creditor of a bankrupt's effects, 

the interest paid on public " stock." 

French divisUfle, v. diviser, dividende, ditHMon, diviaewr; Latin 
dividend/us, division dlviaor, ditfid&re, sup. dlvUmm (di and Btnucan 
idvaret to sever into two parts). 

Divine, dLvlnef^ a man set apart for the sacred ministry; (adj.)^ 

sacred ; (verb), to guess, to predict. 

(The French spell the verb toith " de-," but fall back to 

" di-" in the noun " divination,") 
Divine (adj.), divin'-er (comp.), di"^ii'-est (super.); 

divinely (adv.), divine'-ness ; divinity, di.vin'.tty, 

theology ; divinity, plu. divinities, di.vin\i.t\z, deity. 

("Divine" and "supine" are the only adj. in **-ine" 

which can be compared with the suffixes -er and -est.) 
Divine (verb), divined' (2 syl.), divin'-ing, divinliig.]y, 

divln'-er; divination, div' .i.nay'\shun, prediction. 

French divin, diviniU, deviner, to predict ; devineur, fem. devinensae, 
divination n prediction; Latin divinitas, dlvinus, divine, (from 
divus, Greek dids, god), divlndtio, divlnus, a diviner ; divlndre, to 
predict (predictions being supposed to come, de divo, from dai^/. 

Divisible, di.viz\i.Vl; divis'ibly {see Divide). 

Divorce, dtvorce^ (not devorce), dissolution of mnrriage, to 

annul a marriage ; divorced' (2 syl.), divorc'-ing (R. xix.), 

divorce'-ment, divorce'-able (-ce nnd -ge retain the e 

before -able, Rule xviii.), divoroe'-less. 

Divorc'-er, one who divorces ; divorcee', the person divoroed. 

Divorce Court, pUt. divorce courts ; Oonrt of Divoroe, plu, 

courts of divorce (Rule liii.) 

French divorce; Latin divortium, y. divorUSre {diverto, to tan awiy). 

Divulge, dl.vulj', to make public, to disclose ; divulged' (3 syL), 

divulg'-ing (R. xix.), divulg'-er, divulg'-ence (ought to 

be divulge-ance. It is the 1st Latin conj.) 

French diwiguer, divulgaUon is a word we might adopt; Latin 
dimUgatio, divulgdre {vrdgtu, the common peopLa). 



AXD OF SFELLTXG. 249 



Divnkdon, dLvUV^hiin, laceration ; diynl^'Bive, di.vul.8iv. 

(" DitmUion" one of the few words in -sion not French.) 

Latin diwlsio, divello Rapine divulaum, (di vello, to pluck asunder). 
Biz'zy, giddy; diz^zi-ly (Rule xi.), diz'zi-ness. 

Old English dyHg, dysignes dizziness, dytiglke dizzUj. 
lyerrid, jef.rid, a Turkish javelio. (Arabic.) 

Bo, dao^ to perform an act; past did; past part, done, diin; do-ing; 
pres. tense I do, thou doat, dust [or doest, doo-est]. he 
does, duz, plu. do, doo, all persons; past tense I did, 
thou didst, all other persons did. 
Doer, doo-er, one who performs or achieves [something]. 
As an auxiliary, the verb do is chiefly used in asking 
questions, in which case it stands before its noun, as do 
you wish to ride this morning t 

S As a representative verb "Do" acts the part of a pronoun, 
and stands for any antecedent question asked with tlie 
auxiliary, as " does Caesar come forth to-day t " " Yes^ he 
does** [understand come forth to-day]. 

S Occasionnlly it is used for the sake of emphasis, as J ^Zo very 

much wish to go, 
\ In poetry it is used with the present and past tenses merely 

to help the metre or the rhyme. 

Doings, doo'.ingz, behaviour. Pretty doings, very censur- 
able conduct. 

Done, dun, achieved, finished. Done with [it], finished 
with it, want it no longer. 

Bone np, quite exhausted. 

To do for [him], to manage, (threateningly) try to ruin. 

To do away, to erase. 

To do with [it], to employ or use [it]. 

To do np, to pack up, to tie together. 

How do you dof How are you in health, how do you 
thrive? A corruption of How do you dut {_dug[anj, 
to thrive]. (Equal to the Latin valeo!) The full question 
is. How is it that you do thrive [in health] t 

Old English ic d6, thtl dAst, he d6th, plu. d6th ; past ic dyde thti 

dydest, he dyde, plu. dydon; ^'Sstpart. ged&n; Infinitive d6n. 
Duflton], to thxi\e, makes past ddhte, later form dowed, Scotch dow. 

Bo., pronounce ditto, of which it is a contraction. Used 
in bills and account books to save repetition. It means 
the ** same as the foregoing." {See Ditto.) 

Bo (to rhyme with no), the note C in Music. 

Boeile, dS'Mle or dds'.ile, tractable ; docility, doMV.i.ty, 
Itm6b. doeOe, doeiliU; Latin ddctlis, dddHtas, 



i 



2r>0 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dock, a place for ships, a p^ace where persons under trial stand 
in a law-court, a plant, to curtail; docked, dokt^ cur- 
tailed; dock'ing. Bock'-age (2 syl.), charge for the use 
of a dock. 

Old English doece (for ships) ; French dock; 0«rman dodbe. 
"Dock" (a plant), Latin dav,cus; Greek daiik6s. This word ought 

to be spelt dauc or davk (not doik). 
'* Dock " (to curtail;, Welsh toiAaw, to dip ; tod, something dipt ; 

German dodcen. 

Docket, dok'M, a ticket, a label; dock'et-ed, dook'et-ing. To 
'* docket" goods is to mark the contents on a label or set 
them down io a book, to summarise. 
Welsh tocyn^ a ticket : tocynicid, a ticketing ; tocynu, to ticket 

Doctor, dnk\tdr (not docter, Rule xxxyH.), fern, doctor-ess or 
doc'tress ; doc'torate, possessing the degree of doctor ; 
doctor-sMp {-ship Old £ng. suffix "tenure" of office or 
degree); doc'tor, to give medicine in illness, to adulter- 
ate, to falsify; doc'tored (2 kvI.), doc'tor-ing. 

Doctor of Divinity, plu. doctors of divinity (Rule liii) 
Latin doctor, doctits, one instructed (doeeo, supine doctum). 
Doctrine, ddk^.trin, a tenet, what is taught ; doctrin-al, d6k\- 
trl,ndl (not dok.tri'.ntih, pertaining to doctrine, contain- 
ing doctrine; doctrinal-ly. 
French doctrine^ doctrinal; Latin doetrina, theory, learning. 

Boonmentfddk'ku.merU, A record; doc'umenf'-al; docnmeBtary, 

dok'ku.men'\ta.ry, certified in writing. 
French document; Latin ddcHmen, ddc&mentum (doeeo, Be% above). 
Dodder, a parasitic weed. (German dotter,) 

Dodge (1 syl.), a quibble, an artifice, to track, to evade, to qmbUe; 
dodged' (1 syl.), dodg'-ing, dodg'-er, one who dodges. 
Old Eng. dedg-ol, sly, dedg [elian\ to act slyly, dedg [lianX to Ude. 

Doe, do (to rhyme with no), the female of a buck, also a gender- 
word, as doe rabUt, (male) buck rabbit, doe hare, ^jndle) 
buck hare. (Old English dd. 8e4 Buck.) 

Doff (Rule v.), to take off; doffed (1 syl.), doff'-ing. 

A contraction otdo-oS; similarly " don "= do-on, *'dnp'*sxdo-yp. 
Dog, either male or female; bitch, only a female dog; 
dogg'-ish, churlish, like a dog (-ish added to nouns 
means "like," added to ac^. it is diminutive), dogglsMy, 
doggish-ness; dogged, dog'.ged, sullenly, self-willed. 
Dog, to track ; dogged (1 syl.), dogg'-ing (Rule i) 
Dog-cart, a one-horse cart with a box behind fov dogs. 
Dog-fly, a fly very troublesome to dogs. 
Dog-louse, a louse which infests dogs. 
Dog-star, tbe Latin canicula (dim. of. eanis, a dogX 
Dog teeth, the eye-teeth of man, resembllDg doga' teeth. 



i 



AXD OF SPELLIXa. 251 

Dog-weary, tired as a dog after a chase. 

Deg'ft-baae, a plant supposed to be fatal to dogs. 

Dog*8 tail, a grass, the spikes of which resemble a dog's tail 

Bog^B ear, the comer of a leaf bent down, like the ear of a 
spaniel, &c.; dog*B eared, dogz eard. 

f Dog-, meaning " worthless," " barbarous,'* " pretended." 

Doggerel, dogl',ge.rel, pretended poetrj in rhyme. 

Dog-Latin, barbarous or pretended Latin. 

Dog-fileep, pretended sleep. 

Dog-cabbage, dog-violet, dog-wheat. 
§ Dog-hole, a vilu hole only fit for a dog. 

Dog-trick, a vile trick, only fit to serve a dog. 

IT Dog-graea, grass eaten by dogs to excite vomiting. 

Dog-rose, a rose supposed to be a cure for the bite of mad 
dogs (Pliny viii. 63, xxv. 6). 

Dog-brier, same as dog-rose. 

H Dog-cheap, a perversion of the Old English gdd-cedp, 
(French bon marehi)^ good bargain. 

Dog-watch, corruption of dodge-watch, the two short 
watches which dodge the routine of the watches on board 
ship ; that is, prevent the recurrence of the same watch 
at the same time. 

§ Ckme to the dogs, gone to the bad. The Eomans called 
the worst throw at dice canis (dog), hence the word came 
to signify " ill-luck," "ruin," &c. 

Danish dogge, French dogus (a bnll-dog); Spanish dog<k, a terrier; 
French doguirif a puppy or whelp. 

I)oge, dcjje, captain-general and chief magistrate of the ancient 
republics of Gen'oa and Venice. 
Italian doge; Latin dux, gen. diids, leader {dtico, to lead). 
Dogma, plu. dogmas, dog\vidh, dog'.mdhz, a tenet, an arbitrary 
dictum on some matter of faith or philosophy. 
Dog'matic {noun), a dogmatic philosopher. 
Dogmatics (Bule Ixi.), dog.matf.lkSy dogmatical theology. 
Dogmatic or dogmatical (adj.), dog.m&i\i.hdl, dictatorial; 

dogBiafical-ly, dogmaf ical-ness. 
Dogmatize, dogC .in>a.t\ze (not dogmatiset B. icxxii.), to assert 
dogmatieaUy ; dog'matized' (3 syl.), dogmatiz'-ing (R. xix.), 
dogmatiz'ing-ly, dogmatlz'-er ; dog^matiat, one who 
speaks upon matters of faith or philosophy dogmatically; 
dt^imatifim, dog'.ma.tlzm. 

6T«ek ddgma, dOgmcUizOt ddgmatikds, ddgmatUtis; Latin dogma, 
dogmdtizo, dogmdtlcus, dogmdtistSs ; French dogmatiser, whence, 
jw uraal, oar error of spelling with $. 



2r,2 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Doily, doi'.ly^t a small napkin used at dessert. 

Dutch diocele, a towel : in Norfolk a house-cloth is called a dwVtl* 
and the doth dvn/.eLing. 

Doings, doo\ingz, conduct, behaviour. {See Do.) 

Doit (1 8yl.)i the eighth of a penny. (French d'huit.) 

Doloe, doW.tchS (in Mu8ic\ sweetly and softly. {Italian,) 

Dolce far niente (Italian), dole'.tche faf ne.en\te, agreeable 
idleness [sweet doing-nothing]. 

Dole (1 syl.), a share, to distribute in shares, to give grudgingly ; 
doled (1 syl.), dol'-ing (Rule xix.), dol'-er. 
Old English ddl or ddlj a share, a portion. 
Doleful, dole' Jul (Rule viii.), dismal; dole'ful-ly, dole'fol-nesB; 
dolesoibd, doU^surriy dismal, querulous {-some O. E. suffix, 
*' full of"), dole'some-ness {-ness denotes abstract nouns). 
French dcmZeur, doulffreua^ deuxU; Latin ddleo^ to grieve. 
Dolerite, doV-e-rite (not dolorite)^ a variety of greenstone. 

Greek ddUfrds, deceitful. Ro called from the difficulty of dSatin> 
guishing between felspar and augite (its compounds). 

Doll, a child's plaything. Contraction of idol, 

Latin iddlivm, an image ; Greek eid6lon {eidda, form or flgnxe). 

Dollar, dJoV.laTy an American coin = 4s. 2d. (marked tiius $, 
meaning scutum). The line drawn through the "S"* 
denotes that a contraction has been made. For a similar 
reason lb (a pound weight lihrum\ has a line through it 

German thaler = fdhler; Danish daler. (So called from OuU, a 
valley; the counts of Schlick extracted from Joachim's Uiol or 
valley, the silver which they coined into ounce pieties. Tlds 
money became standard, and was called valley-money or ikalen.) 

DoUman, dolmen. 

Dolman, plu. dolmans, dof.manz, a long Turkish robe, the 
summer jacket of the native Algerian troops. 

Dolmen, plu. dolmens, doV.m^m, a cromlech. 

"Dolman," Hungarian dolmang; Turkish dolaman. 
" Dolmen," Celtic dol men, table stone. It consists of a stone nper- 
posed on two stone standards ; French dolmen. 

Dolomite, doV.o.mite (not dolemite\ a magnesian limestone. So 
called from M. Dolomieu, the French geologist. 

Dolorous, d5V.o.rus (not do.lo.rus), doleful; dol'orous-ly, dol'or- 
ous-ness ; dolour, do\ldr (not dbl.er), 
French douUmrenx; Latin ddhyr, v. dOHret sup. dSlKtwn, to grieiTe. 
Dolphin, fern, dolphinet, doV.fln^ dUV.ftnSt, a sea mammal. 

Delphine, dSl.fln (adj.), applied to certain French elaancs 
edited for the Daupiiin or eldest son of Louis XIV. 
(Our word is a jumble of had French and Latin.) 

French dauphin; Latin delphin or delphimu; Greek cU^pMa. 



AND OF SPELLING. 2.*,3 

Bott, a blockhead ; dolf -ish, stupid {-Uh added to noons means 
"like," added to adj. it is dim.)\ dolt^ish-ly. 
Old English dol, foolish ; doldrunc, immersed in stupiditx. 

-dam (Old English suffix meaning "possession," "right," 
"dominion"), kingdom, the dominion of a king; freedom^ 
the power or right of a free man ; wUdom, the possession 
or property of a wise person. 

Domain' (2 syl.) or demesne, di.mean% estate in lands. " Do- 
main" is also used for domitiion, empire, in which sense 
demesne is never employed. 

French domains ; Old French demaiiM; Latin dominium, lordship 

{domirvus, lord and master). 
Demesne is de meisan [maisoni a house, and was applied to the 

manor-house and its lands, kept by the lord for his own use. 

Borne (1 syl., rhymes with home). Doom (rhymes with room), 

d5me, a cu'p51a; domed (rhymes with foamed, 1 syl.), 

fitted with a dome. Doomed (1 syL), fated, destined. 

French d&ma; Latin d6tna, a solarium or roof terrace, where persona 
went to sun themselves, a gallery on the house-top. 

Bomeeday, dooms'.day, the day of judgment. 
Old English d&mdceg, judgment day. 

BomeBday-book, dooms\day^ book. Two volumes containing a 

record of the estates and chattels of all the British do- 

mini(ms over which William the Conqueror reigned 

(1086). Kept in the Record Office, London. 

Old English ddmboc ("liber judicialis"), to which appeal was made 
in the Saxon times to settle disputed claims of property. Stotr 
derives the word from domu8-dei-**book," the book kept in the 
"domufidei" of Wiucheater cathedral, but "domerbooks" were 
well known before the time of the Conquest. 

Bomestic, do.mes'.tlh, a house-servant, {adj.) pertaining to a 
private house, tame ; domestically, do.mea'.ti.kaLly, 

Domesticate, do.tnes'.ti.kate, to tame, to habituate to home- 
life; domes'ticat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), domes'ticat-ing (Rule 
xix.), domestication, do-m^s.ti.kiy*' .shun. 

French demestiqiAe, domestiquer ("domestication" is not French); 
Latin domestic^s (domus, a house and home). 

l^oniicile, ddm'.i.dle (in law), the place where a person has 
resided at least forty days. 

Domiciliary, ddm\i.8\V\i.a.ry, A "domiciliary visit" is 
one paid by authority in search of some person or thing. 

Domiciled, dJ^m' .Lslled, located as resident. 
French domieiliaire, v. domicilier; Latin domicUium. 

Bominant, ddm^i.nant, ruling, as the " dominant spirit," the 
"dominant party," the "dominant power"; (in Mtisic) 
the " dominant " is the fifth from the key note : thus, in 
the key of C, the dominant is G. 



2r>6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

DoBt, dust, second per. sing, of do. A corrapt form of d^t. 
Dust, dry and finely pulverised earthy matters. 

D5t, a point [as a " full stop," the mark ahove the letter t, d^c], 
to make a dot ; dotf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), dott'-ing (Rule i.) 
D5t (in familiar language), a dowry, a dotation. 

** Dot ** (a point), same as tot, a little thing ; Dan. tot, a smaU bunch. 
"Dot" (a dowry), Latin dot, gan. do1iis\t a dowry. 

Dotage, do'tage, second childishness. (See Bote.) 

Dotation, dd.tay*\shun, money ftinded for some charity. 
French dotation; Latin dCtdtio, an endowment 

Dote (1 syl.), to love fondly (followed by on or upon), to show 
the childishness of old age ; dot'-ed (R. xxxvi.), dof-ing, 
dot'-er; d5t'-age, the chiildishness of old age; dot'-ard, 
one in second childishness {-ardf Old Eng. suffix, ** one 
of the species or kind," dotard^ ** one of the doting kind'*). 

French radoter, to dote or talk childishly ; radotage. radotewr, one in 
his dotage. WeLih doiian and dotio^ to puzzle, to oonfnse. 

Doth, diithj third per. sing, of do, now does, duz, except in 
poetry. Old form ic d6, tbti d6stj he dith, plu. d6th all 
persons. (The substitution of -a for -th is post-Morman.) 

Doable, dub\h% twofold, to fold, to increase twofold ; donbled, 
duhWld; doubling, dub'. ling ; doubly, dUb'.ly; doabler, 
duh'.ler; double-ness. 
French double, dovMeur: Latin duplum (dtio plioo, to fold In two). 

Doublet, dub'.let, a man's garment of former times. 

(This is one of our perverted French words. In French^ 
a ''doublet*' is pourpont, an4 the word doublet meant 
" a false stone" Rule Ixii.) 

French doublure (I'fitoffe dont nne autre est doublfi). 

Doublon, dub bloon', a French form of the Spanish word doblan^ 
a '• double pistole." 

(It would be more consistent to "keep the Spanish form 
for Spanish words, and not to disguise them by French 
spelling.) 

Doabt, douty uncertainty of mind, to be uncertain in mind; 
doubted, douif.ed (Rule xxxvi.); doubt-ing, dottl^.ing; 
doubt'ing-ly : doubt-er, doutf.er; doubt-foL, doufjvl 
(Rule viii.); doubt'ful-ly, doubt^fal-ness ; doiibt4eflB, 
douf.less; doubtless-ly. 

**I doubt not but [that] you are right,'' is the Latin form 
mm diibito gum... but **I have no doubt yon are Tight** is 
also s;ood English. The two ideas are not identical: the 
former phrase means " I have no doubt [notwithstanding 
all that may be said to the contrary] that nevertheless 



AND OF SPELLING, 257 

yoa are right." The latter simply expresses the opinion 
of the speaker without regard to opposing statements. 

A Latinisei French word. French douter; Latin dUbito. We hare 
borrowed the diphthong from the French, and inserted the Latin 
bf which is ignored in Koand. 

Douceur, a bribe for '* place." 

{We use this word in a sense almost unknown in France. 
In French douceur means " sweetness" and gratification 
is used for " gratuity.'* Few Frenchmen, unacquainted 
with En^lishy would understand such a sentence as : 
Faites cela, et 11 j aura quelque douceur pour vous.) 

Douche bath, doosh bdth, a shower bath. 

French douche ; Latin dudre, to conduct or direct. (The shower Is 
"directed" to any part of the body, to relieve local suffering.) 

Bough, dow (to rhyme with grow, low)y bread, <fec., before it is 
cooked; dough'-y, sticky, " stoiigy." 

Old English dilg or ddh. We have strangely combined both forms, 
without preserving the sound of either. 

Soiue (1 syl. to rhyme with house, mouse). In sailors' lan- 
guage, to ''extinguish instantly" [a light], to "lower 
suddenly " [a sail] ; doused (1 syL, to rhyme with soused 
sssowst); dous-ing, dowse'. ing (Rule xix.) 
Greek dud (n. dusia), to sink, to set [as the sun, &c.] 

IKy^e, diiv, a pigeon ; dove-cot, duv.cot^ a pigeon house. 

Dove-tail, duvdale (in Joinery), to uuite by a "notch" 
shaped like a "dove's tail"; dove-tailed, duv taild; 
dove tail-ing (French en queue d'aronde). 
Old English duua = duva; German taube. 
Dowager, dow.a.ger (dow to rhyme with now^ not with grow), 
the widow of a person of rank ; if the mother of the 
present peer, she is termed the duchess dowager of..:, 
the countess dowager of...; but if not the mother, she 
is termed "Louisa" dtichess of..., or countess of...; 
both are referred to in common speech as the dowager 
duchess, the dowager countess, &e, 

Qaeen-dowager, widow of a king, but not a reigning queen. 

French douairih'e (douairj6re) "veuve qni jouit du douaire,' i.«., a 
jointure or dowry. '* Douair," is a corruption of the Low Latin 
dotarium (dou'arium). Latin dos, gen. dotis, a dowry. 

J^Jwdy, doto.dy (dow- to rhyme with now), slovenly in dress; 
dow^di-er (comp.), dow'di-est (super.), dow'di-ly, dow^di- 
nees; dow'dy-ish {-ish aided to adj. is dim., added to 
nouns it means "like"), dowdy-ness. 
8ootch dawdie, a dirty sloven {daw and the dim., a little sluggard) 

Dower, ddw\er (dow- to rhyme with now, not with grow), pro- 
perty settled on a widow for life, the fortune brought 

s 



w 



258 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

a wife; dowry, dUko.ry (same as dower); dowered, dSw'.erdf 
having a dowry ; dowser-less. 

Dowager, ddw\a.ger, (See ahove^ Dowager.) 
French doiiairej corruption of Low Latin dotarwm (don'ariiim). 

Dowlas, ddw'.las {dow- to rhyme with now)y a coarse linen cloth, 
used for towels, <fec. 
80 called from Dau/rlaiSf in Franee, whore it \b manufactured. 

Down, fine soft feathers, any fine hairy substance light enough 

to float in the air; (adv,) tending towards the ground, 

on the groand, towards the mouth of a river, into the 

country [from London]. Persons in the provinces go 

up to London ; downward (adj.), tending to a lower 

position, as dovmward motion; downwards (adv,) 

"Downward," ufed cu an adverb it grammatically in4:orreet. It 
should be either adownward or downwards, "a-" being an ad' 
verbial prefix, and "-a " an adverbial poatfix. In the vxtrds [now] 
"adays," [Bleep] "anights," uoe have the dotible adverbialSt to thai 
arte of the signs may be omitted toithout affecting the adverbial 
form; a/xordingly we have in Old English dse^ea ** daily,'* 
nightes *' nightly, and Shakespeare im«s anight /or "anights.*' 

Downfall mot downfal), downhill (not dovmhil) (Rule viiL); 
downfallen, dovm.falVn. 

Down-train, the train from the provinces to Londpn. or 
from some minor station to the chief terminus. Up- 
train, Uie train from London t.o the provinces, or from 
the chief terminus to some inferior station. 

**l>own" (feathers^ German daune; Dnnlsh duun. 

"Down" (adv. and prep.) Old English adiin, down, ad^tnweard, 
downwards. It is the prefix a- which converts dtin into an ad- 
verb, and this significant letter ha» been unwisely dropped 

Downs, ddwnz (to rhyme with towns, elown8)f large open hilly 
sheep pastures contiguous to the sea. 

The Downs, a well-known road for shipping in the English 

Channel, near Deal in Kent. 

Old Eng. diin, a hill ; French dunes. It would have saved obscuri^ 
it we had mad^ the following distinctions : — 

Duun (feathers called down), or "dnve," French d nv t i . 
Adown (adverb), and down, preposition. 
Jhines (the hiUy sheep-walks and sand-hills). 

Doxology, plu. dozologies, dox.oV.o.glz (Rule xliv.) 

French doxologie ; Greek ddxdldgia (doxa logot, gtorj wovAiX 

Dose, dose, doee, does, doss. 

Doze (1 syl.), a nap, to take a nap ; d5zed (1 syl.), Aoi'-ing 
(Rule six.), doz-er; doz'-y, do'zi-nesB (Rule xi.) 

Dose, ddce (1 syl.), a quota of medicine, to give medicine, to 
give anything ro largely as to produce disgust; doaei, 
ds'x^ (B. xxxiv.); dosed (1 syl.), dos-ing, dda^Amg (Bole 
sxxTi.); doB-er, ddee-er. {See Doee.) 



AND OF SPELLING. 860 

Does, doze, pla. of doe, the female of the fallow deer. 
JkieSj dUzy third per. sing. pres. of Do (g.t;.) 
Don, dSSf a straw hassock to kned on. 

"Doze,** Dan. dose: Old Eng. dtpcBs, dnll : Wehdi dwps, heavy. dnlL 
"Dose,** French dose; Greek ddns, a thing given ; Latin ddsis, a doae. 
**Doe8*' (female deer), Old Eng dd, a doe. " I>oe8," dUx (see Do). 
*' Doss," Archaic dossd, a bundle of straw, doeier, a straw loMket. 

Dozen, duz'*n, twelve [articles]. 

A baker's dozen, thirteen, i.e,. twelve and a " vantage loaf." 

French dovaoAtu; German duUend, contractioti of the Latin duo 
decern {duo 'cent), duo + decern, two + ten. 

D^nt), a slattern, a hrownish colour, a brownish cloth; drab, 
drabb'-ish (Hole i.), {-ish added to nouns means " like," 
added to adj* it is diminutive); drabVish-ly. 
Old English drabbe, a slattern, diregs, lees of wine. 
Drachm, drum, the eighth part of an apothecary's ounce. A 
fluid drachm is a tea-spoonfuL Contraction, dr. or drm. 
Dram, the sixteenth part of an ounce avoirdiipoise (dr.) 
(The distinction in spelling shoiild be preserved, altkcyagh 
the apothecaries' weight is sometimes written dram.) 

"Drachm," French drachme; Latin drachma, the eighth (or rather 

seventh) of an onnee, 84 = 1 lb of 12 oas. ; Hebrew drachvnon. 
"Dram " is the Italian dramma. 

Draft, draught (both drdft, to rhyme with craft, laughed). 

Draft, a cheque for money, a bill of exchange, a plan 

drawn in outline, a copy, an abstract; to transfer men 

from one company to another. 

Draught, a stream of air. a portion of liquor drawn off, 
liquor drunk at one potation, a catch of fiisb, force neces- 
sary to draw, traction. 

Draughts (no sing.), a game i^ayed with little flat round 
" men " of two colours. 

Draughtsman, drdfts-m^n, one of the little flat round 
pieces used for " men " in tbe game of draughts ; 

Draftsman, one who makes a draft or draws a plan. 

(These are the distinctions usually observed, but there is 

no rigid rule, and the two words differ only in spelling.) 

Old English drag[an\ to draw ; past dr6g or drdh, past part, dragen. 
The word draught is an absurd amalgamation of drog and dn'^, 
disguised by tlie diphthong au. The final t, is a " weak " aflSx 
added to a "strong" verb. 

l)tlg, to pull along, to trail; a cart, a harrow, a skid, an 
obstacle; dragged (1 syl.), dragg'-ing (Rule i.) 
Old English dra^anl, past drdg or dr6h, past part, drcegen. 

Dnggle, drdg\g% to trail through the mire ; draggled, drag*., 
jfld; draggling, drag'.gling ; draggle-tail, a slattern 
who suffers her gown to trail through the mire ; draggle- 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



tailed, one dressed in a gown which has heen trailed 

through the mire ; also daggle-tail and daggle-tailed. 

"Draggle" is dim. of drag, and "daggle" of ddg. to dangle, but the 
.idea is not identic^L Draggle-iail is one who drags the skirt of 
lier gown through the mire : but dagglertail is one who has her 
gown in jags or " dags " from being trailed through the mire. 

/ragonuua, plu, dragomans (not dragomen; it is not a com- 

pound of *' man "), an Eastern interpreter or guide. 

French and Spanish dmgaman; Italian dragomeuw/O: Chaldee fur- 
gaman (turgmn)^ whence '* targum " an exposition of the Old Test. 

Dragon, drug^on^ a fabulous monster. 

French dragon. ; Latin drdco, gen. drae6n[is] ; Greek drak&n (from 
derk6), to look ai one [with fiery eyes]. In Welsh dragon is a com- 
manoer, and pen-dragon a chief commander. Many enconntert 
« « ** with .dragons " in ancient story were fights with Welsh dragons. 

Dragoon, dragoon', a horse soldier, to persecute with violence ; 

dragooned' (2 sjl.), dragoon'-ing. 

Dragonnade, a persecution under the ** tender mercies" of 

dragoons. *' The dragonnHdes " were a series of religious 

persecutions by Louis XIV., " to root out heresy." 

{The double n in *' dragonnade " is at variance with K. iii.) 

French dragon, dragonnade. Originally a company of soldiers who 
fought on foot or horse, with arquebuses called dragons, because 
the head of a dragon was wrought on the muzzle. (The suffix -adt 
means " the acr. of," " to act with." Latin ago^ ojcium, whenoe 
"cannon-ade," to ad Moith cannon, " dragonrnjade,** &c. 

Brain (1 syl.), a sink or sewer, to <lraw off liquids, to empty, to 
leave dry; drained (1 syi.), drain'-ing, drain '-er, drain'- 
age, arrangement for draining off water; drain'^-able. 
Old English drehnigean^ to drain. 

Drake, fern. duck. In common speech, ducks and drakes are all 

called '• ducks," and as food both are termed " ducks.** 

''Duck" moans the fowl that ducks or dives, the dipping-fowL 
"Drake" \a a contraction of dtick-rica (d'rio'). So in German entc is 
duck, and enie-rich a drake. 

Dram, the sixteenth part of an ounce Avoirdupoise. Diachm. 
dram, the eighth part of an apothecary's ounce. 

"Dram.** Italiin dramma. "Drachm/' French drachme; Latl 
drachma ; Hebrew drachmon. 

Drama, dray\mdh (is more usual than drdh-mdh, and aocor 

better with the derivatives), a thentrical piece 1 

representation ; dramatic or dramatical, dray,maf. 

dray.mufd.kul; dramatlcal-ly; dramatise, dram\a,t 

to adapt to the stage (Rule xxxi.) ; dram'atised (3 s 

■dram'atls*ing (Rule xix.); dramatist, dram\a,tUt, 

Dramatis Fersonie, dram\a,tls per.sD\ne (not per^jK 

characters introduced in a drama or play. 

French drame, dramatique, dramaiiser; Latin drama, 
Greek dramas drdmatikds {drao, to do or act). 

Drank. (^See Drink.) 



AND OF 8PELLTNG, 2f51 



Drape (1 syl.), to cover with folds; draped rl syl.), drap'-ing; 

drap'-er, one who deals in cloth ; drapery, dra\pi.ry. 

French drap^ cloth, draper, a draper, draperie; Low Latin draparius; 
Spanish ropa, cloth ; roperia, old clothes ; ropagey drapery. 

Drastic, drus'Mk, violently purgative; drastics, drus^tikSj power- 
ful purgative medicines. 
French drasixqu/t : Greek drastSrios, vigorous {drad, to accomplish). 
Dxanglit, drdft (to rhyme with crafty laughed). Draft. 

Draught, a stream of air, a' portion of liquor drawn off, 

liquor drunk atone potation, a catch of fish, traction. 
Draughts (no sing.), a game played with draughtsmen. 

Draft, a cheque for money, a bill of exchang(% a plan in 
outline, a copy, an abstract; to trans ier men from one 
company to another; draft^-ed, draff-ing. 

Dra^tsxaan, one who draws drafts or plans ; 

Draughtsman, drafts-man^ one of the **men" or pieces 

used in the game of draughts. 

"Draught is the amalgamated forms of dr6g and dr6h with i inter- 
polated. Oil English clragian], to draw ; past dr6g or dr6K, 
past part, drcegen. " Draft " is a phonetic spelling of " draught " 

Draw, foat drew, past parU drawn, to ptill, to rai^^e [water from 
a well], to suck, to delineate, to take out [money from a 
bank], to write out [a cheque]; draw'-ing, pulling, rais- 
ing [water], (fee; (noun), a picture "drawn" with pen- 
cils, (fee. A drawing room, the chief reception room to 
which ladies " withdraw." 

Drawer, drawW, a tray which *' draws ** out of a frame. 

Ohest of drawers, a set of drawers including the frame. 

Drawers (no sing.), draw*rz, linen or cotton trousers " drawn 

on " the leg*«, and worn as an tinder garment 
Drawer, one who '* draws" with a pencil, one who " draws '' 

a bill of exchange, &c. Drawee, drauf.eet the pei-son on 

whom a biH of exchange is *' drawn.** 
To draw back, to retreat, to move for the sake of avoiding. 
To draw in, to contract, to pull in. 
To draw near, to approach. 
To draw off, to decant, to draw away, to retreat. 
To draw on, to put on [gloves, stockings, <fec.], to bring on, 

to write a cheque or bill of exchange on a person named. 
To draw ont, to extract, to prolong, to array soldiers. 

To draw together, to collect 

To draw np, to raise, to aixay, to compose. 

Drawn [battle or game], one in which neither side wins. 

Old English drag[an]. to draw or dn^ ; past dr6g or dnfh, past part. 
d/nBoen; Latin traho. "Drag" and "Draw" are different totsDM 
9i we same verb. 



2^2 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bray, a brewer's cart ; dnty^man, diaylione. 

Old Eng. drcBge, a drag (▼. dfras^ofa'i^; Lai. trahea, a dray, (▼. iiraho). 

Dread, drH, terror, to fear greatly; dread'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
dread^-ing, dread'-er, dread'-fal (R. viii.), dread'ftil-ly, 
dread'fol-ness, dread-less, dreadless-ly, dreadleas-ness. 
Old English drdd, v. drdkd[an\ past drid, past part dr<6d€n. 

Dream, dreme (1 syl.), noun and verb; dreamt, drSmt (not 

dreampt\ or dreamed (1 syL), dream'-ing, dream'ing-ly, 

dream'-er, dream'-y, dreaml-ly (R. xi.), dreaml-ness, 

dream'-less, dreamless-ly, dreamless-ness,dream'-land. 

German traum, v. trdumen (tr&umerei would give qs a new and use- 
ful word, "dreamery/* the "stuff dreams are made of"). The 
Anglo-Saxon dredm means "joy/' drtdmUtu "joyless." 

Drear, drere (1 syL), gloomy ; dreary, dree'.ry, dismal ; dreari-ly, 

dree'.ri.ly (Rule viii.) ; dreariness, dree^ri.nesa. " Drear" 

means properly that gloom and dismal feeling which 

comes over us at the sight of blood. 

Old English dredr, blood, gore, dre6rig, Moody, gory; dredri^net, 
dreariness ; dre^lioe\ drearily, &o. 

Dredge (I syl,), to sprinkle [ftour on meat], to deepen a river; 
dredged (1 syl.), dredg'-ing (Rule xix.), dredg'-er, a box 
for dredging [flour on meat]. Drudge, a menial. 

"Dredge" (to sprinkle flour). Old English dreg{an] or dri^an\ to diy. 

The flour sops up the moisture : Greek trugo, to dry. 
"Dredge" (to deeperi a river), Old English drcege, a drag, v. dnifianl, 

to drag ; Fr. dragrier, draguagt. (The second -d is interpolated.) 

Dregs (no sing.), sediment, refuse: dregg'-y (Rule i.), muddy; 

dreggi'-ness, dreg\i,ness ; dregg'-ish, foul with lees. 

Old English dragen, drawn ^the part drawn off) ; Danish drofk rub- 
bish ; Greek trux, gen. tr&goa, lees of wine. 

Drenidi, to wet thoroughly ; drenched (1 syl.), drench'-ing, 
drench'ing-ly, drench'-er. 
Old English drenc[(m], to drench, past dreviete, past part, gedrtnetd. 

Dress, plu. dress'-es (Rule x^^xiv.), raiment, to put on clothes, to 

tiim ; past, dressed (1 syl.), past part, drest or dr ccDo d 

(1 syl.), dress'-ing, dress'-er, one who dresses another, a 

bench on which food is "drest" for meals; dreoir-y, 

showy in dress; dress'i-ly (R. xi.), dressl-ness; dzefis'uigB, 

architectural oraamentation in relief, manures. 

This is an example of a French word which has acquired with ua 
quite a strange meaning. To dothe oneself in French is slboMibr, 
aud dresHtr means to trim trees, dress f jod, iron liaen, gamiah a 
table, &c., but not to "put on clothes [net Rule IxUL) ; Lattn 
dirigo, supine direeUim, to set in order, to make itratcht (r«g»>. 
We have the familiar expressions " I most go and make mya^ 
straight," " I must put myself in order" (Le. dreuer) 

Dribble, dri5M)7, to oose in drops; dribbled, dr^'.h'ld; dribbler, 
drib'. bier ; dribblet, drib' let ^ a small quantity. 



AND OF SPELLING, 263 

To pay in diibblets, to pay pieoe-meal in small sums. 

French dripple, drip, with dim. Old English \iripCam], Co drip, to 
distil in drops. Danish draabe^ a drop. 

Dried, dride (I syl.); drier, dri\er, {See Pry.) 

Drift, [snow, sand, <fec.] driven in heaps by th^ wind, oovert 
meaning, to drive in heaps, to float down running water ; 
drift'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), drift'-ing. 
Old English dn/lan^ to drivt ; past dnif, past part dnfm. 

Drill (Hula v.), an instrument for boring holes, an iniMmment 

fur sowifjg seed, military exercises ; to pierce with a drill, 

to sow with a drill, to drill soldiers, &c. ; drilled (1 syl.), 

drill-ing, drill'-er ; drlLl-eergeant, driU aa^r^.jent. 

Old English thirl{ian\, to perforate ; past thirlode, past part. thirloA, 
fhirl, a hole ; German drillen, to bore holes, to train soldiers. 

Drink, past drank, past part, drunk (but drank is often used), 
drunken (xdj.), drink'-er, drink'-able, drink'able-ness ; 
Draught, draft, a diink, is from another word. {See Draught.) 

To drink to, to salute someone in drinking, to wish well to 

someone by drinking to them. 
Old English drinc[an], past drune, past part drtmcen. 
Drip, to fall in dr«»ps, that which falls in drops; dripped (1 

syl.), dripp'-ing (Rule i.), falling in drops, the fat which 

** drips " trom meat in roasting ; dripping-pan, the pan 

which receives the drip of meat in roasting. 
Old English drip[an], past dripede, past part, driped. 
Drive, past drove [older form drave], past part, driven. 

A drive (1 syl.), carringe exercise; to drive [horses], to 

guide horses, to ur<?e on ; drlv-er, one who drives [horses]. 
Diove (1 syl.), a herd of cattle or flock of sheep on their 

way to market, &c,; drov'-er, one who conducts a drove. 
Diiv-ing (Rule xix), guiding horses, urging on, tunnelling 

from the shaft into the mine. 
To drive a bargain, to make hard terms. 
To drive a trade, to carry on a trade with energy. 
Old English driflan], past drdf, past part, dri/en. 
Drivel, dTiv'.eU to slaver, to talk listlessly and sillUy ; driv'elled 

(2 syl.), driv'ell-ing (Rule iii. -el.); driv'ell-er, a dotard, 

one who drivels. » 
This is from the verb drip with -d dim. 
DiiBBl^, drie'js'l, fine rain, to rain in fine drops; di&szled, 

driz^.z'ld; drizzling, driz'ling ; drizzly, dHz'.ly. 
German rieseln, to drizzle, rieselregen, a drizzUng rain. 
Drallf drole (not dr6l, R. v.), a wag, funny ; drollery, drdW.i.ry 

(not drdV.e.ry); droUish, drdle-ish, somewhat droll {-ish 

added to adj. is dim., added to nouns it means ''Uke," 

added to verbs it means to " make"). 
Trench drdle; German drollig, drolL 



264 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dromedary, drum.e,dd.ry^ the Arabian camel (with one hunch) ; 
the Bactrian carnal has two hunches. 

French domadaire (French -ma-, English and Lathi -m«-); Latin 
dr&medarim; Greek dromaa {kamilo»\ the runnhig cameL 

Drone, fern, bee (both 1 syl.), the male of the honey-bee, an 
idler, to emit a humming noise ; droned (1 syl.), dron'-ing, 
dron'-iflh {-ish added to nouns means ''like/' added to 
adj. it is dim.), dron'lsh-ly, dron'ish-ness. 
Old English drdn or dr^kn^ a drone. 

Droop, to hang down, to fing, to languish; drooped (1 sy].), 
droop'-ing, droop^ing-ly. 
Old English dropletan]^ to drop. 

Drop, a liquid globule, the platform of a gallows, to fall in drops, 
to lower, to let fall ; dropped (1 syl.), dropp'-ing (R. i.); 
droppings (noun), the excrements of birds, &c.; drop'-let, 
a little (Jrop; drops, liquid medicine, mother's milk. 
Old English dropa, a drop, v. dropetan or drap[ian]. 

Dropsy, drop\sy^ a disease ; dropsi-cal, drSp'M,kal (Rule xi.) ; 
dropsied, drdp^sed^ diseased with dropsy. 
A contraction of hydropsy, but the loss of the first syl- 
lable has spoilt the significance of the word. 

French hydropHe; Latin hydrops; Greek hudrdps QiudOr <ip$f 
water manifestation). 

Drosky, plu. droskies, dr^s'.ky, dr^s.Mz (Bule xliv.) 

Buss an drozhki, a four-wheeled open carriage. 

Drofls (R. v.), refuse ; dross'-y, dross'i-ness (R. xi.) (Old Eng. drm.) 

Drought. Neither the spelling nor the pronunciation of this 
word is settled. The most common pronunciation is 
drSwt (to rhyme with out), but many call it dratU (to 
rhyme with thought, taught), 

Drought^-y, droughtl-ness (Rule xi.) 

Another spelling of the word is — 
Drouth, drouth'y, drouthl-ness. 

Sometimes we hear the words — 
Dryth, dryth'y, dryth'i-ness {y long). 

Old English drugath or drugoih (changed to druo^fK, drow^X 
"Drought" is a double metathStis of "drugoth** (flxsi Into 
drougth and then into drought). 

In regud to the pronunciation : every other word In the laiuiiaco 
spelt in a similar way is pronounced -art, and uniformity Ii de- 
sirable. We have bought, [drotmht], fought, fumght, ouffiU, timgkt, 
thought, and vrrought 

"Dryth": •fAaddel to adj. converts them into abstraot iumibi, m 
leng-th, bread-th, d^^th, dry-th. 

Drove (1 syl.), a herd of cattle or flock of sheep on their mad 
to market ; past tense of drive ; drov'-er, one who drives, 
cattle to market. {See Drive.) 



AND OF SPELLING, 2«5 



Dnmn, drSwn (to rhyrne with down, noun\ to kill by gnbmersion 
in water; drowned (1 8yl.)> drown'-ing. 
Nomiui dntkne, to drown ; German [er]tranken. 

BiowBy, sleepy; drow^si-er (more Bleepy), drow'si-est (Tno?«t 
sleepy), drow'si-ness (Ru e xi.). drow'si-iy, drow^si-ish 
('ish added to adj. is dim^ added to nouns it means 
•*like **); drowsing, drSwse'.ing. (Dutch drosen, to doze.) 

Bmb, to beat; drubbed (1 8.\1.), dmbb'-ing (Rule i.), dmbb'-er. 
Old English trtbuHan], to be&t ; Greek tribo, to thresh. 

Drudge (1 syl.), a menial, to toil; drudged (1 syl.), drudg'-ing 
(B. xix.), dmdg'ing-ly ; drudgery, druj'.e.ry, ignoble toil. 

Old English dreMan], to toil : past dreag or dreah^ past part, dnnen. 
(The d i» inUrpolated for phonetic use.) 

Bmg, a substance used for medicine, an article slow of sale, to 
dose, to put poison into food or drink ; drugged (1 syl.), 
dmgg'-ing (Rule i.) ; drugg'-ist, one who deals in drugn. 

French drogue, droguiste (drogtierie, drujrgery, is a word we miglit 
adopt) ; Old EngUsh drig, dry. ** Drugs " were once '* dry herbs. " 

Ihngget, a coarse woollen cloth. (This word ought to have 
only one g, it is not a " little drug," as the spelling indi- 
cates, but the French droguet.) 

Bndd, fern. dmidesB, drU'.ldj dru\id.e88, a Keltic priest: 
drnid-iam, the riteH and fiiith of the Druids ; dmidic or 
dmidical, dru.id\ikf druAd\i.kul. 

Welsh denoydd {derw, an oak ; derwen, oaken ; udd, a chief ; Keltic 
wydd, a priest ; Anglo Saxon toita, a prophet or wise man). 

Brmn, a musical instrument, the tympanum of the ear, a package 
[of figs in a wooden cylindrical box], a crowded reception, 
to beat a drum, &c.; drummed (1 svl.), dmmm'-ing (Rule 
i.), dniimn'-er, drmn'-ma'jor, kettle-drum. 
German irom[mel], a drum ; Norse drum, a booming sound. 
Dmnk, intoxicated ; drunken, given to intoxication ; dnmk'en- 
nesB; dnmk'-ard, one of the drunken kind (-ard Old 
Eng. suffix, ** one of a species," " of the kind." {See DriidL ) 
Old English drincianl past drane, past part, druncen. 

Urape (1 syl.), a pulpy stone-fruit; drupel, dru\pel, a pulpy 
fruit with seeds like the raspberry and bla< kberry : 
drapaceonB, drU.pay^^hus, prr>diicin«]: drupes, like drupes. 
French drupe; Latin dr&pa; Greek druppa, orerripe olives. 

Dry* dri-er {eomp.\ dri-est [super.) (Rule xi.), dries, drize (1 syl.), 
dried (I syl.). 
Iliy'-er, one who dries; dri-er, more dry; dry'-ing. 
Ury-ly or dri-ly, dry-nesa or dri-nesa. 

("Dry/* "shy." and "sly," are uncertain in their ipelUng, but it 
would he ufell to reduce them to the general rule (Bole xL j 



2Cfi ERRORS OF SPEECIT 



Dryad, dfy^Md, a wood-nymph. 

French dryade; Latin dryddes; Greek druddfy (dnu, an o«k.) 
Bual^dufMl, a plu. consisting of only two. Dael,a fight between two. 

Du'al-ist, one who believes in dualism ; 

Bu'el-ist, one who fights a duel. 

Bual-lBm, du\aUizm, the system which presupposes the 
nature of man to be twoifold, the system which presup- 
poses that there are two reigning principles in nature. 

Bualistic, du'.aLis^'.tlk, adj. of dualism, as the dtuiliatic 
system of Anaxag'5ras and Plato, who taught that there 
are two principles in nature, one active and the other 
passive ; duality, du.al\i.tyt the state of being two, &g. 
French duel; Latin dudlis (dua for duo, two); Greek dtuu, duality. 
Dub, to confer knighthood, to give [one] a title; dubbed'' (1 syl.), 
dubb'-ing (R. i.) (Old Eng. dubb[an], to dub, to strike.) 

Dubious, du\bi.uSf doubtful ; du^ious-ness, du'MouB-ly ; 

dubiety, duM\S,ty, doubt ; dubitable, du\bi,i&,b'l ; 

dubitably, du\bl.td.bly. 
Latin dvhietas, duhiosua, diMWMis, dabius {diMvAn, donbt). 
Ducal, du\kal, adj. of duke. (French ducaL See Di|ke.) 
Duoat, duk\dt (not du'.kdt)^ a coin once common in Italy. 

The first appeared in Venice, and bore this inscription ** SU Ubi, 
Christe, datus, quern tu regis, iste ducatus." ["May this dndhy 
[ducat-us] which thou rulest, O Ghridt, be devoted to thee."] Tha 
word " ducatus" gave name to the coin. 

Duchess (not dutchess), duch'^esSy fem. of duke; dnoheaB*! 
(po88. sing.), duchesses ivlu.), duchesses' {poss, pU^) 
French dtte, fem. ducheaae (Latin dux, gen. diusia, a leaderX 
Duck, the female of drake ; duck' -ling, a young duck or drake. 
{•ling. Old Eng. suffix, " ofispring of^" or simply diminu- 
tive). When sex is not an object of the speaker both are 
termed ducks, when kiUeJ for table both are called dimks. 
To duck, to dip, to pop down for the sake of avoiding 
something ; ducked (1 syl.), duok'-ing. 

Ducking-stool, a stool once employed for the purasiiment 
of scolding and brawling women, also called cuckin^Hrtool 
{chuck, to throw), the stool " chucked " into the water. 

Duck-legged, duk.Ugd, having short waddling legs. 

To make ducks and drakes, to throw stones &«., an the 
surface of water so that they rebound repeatedly. 

To make ducks and drakes of your money, to spend it m 

idly as if you threw it into water for amusement. 

German ducken, to duck, to dip the head. ▲ "duck** is fha fowl 
that " ducks " or dips its head [in water]. ** Drake '* ia a eoBtiae- 
tion of duch^aJee or rica (d'raJee or d'Ho}, the duok maatar. So in 
(German ente, a duck ; enU^rieh, a drake. 



AND OF SPELLING, «67 

• 

Duet, a tube for conyejing [water] ; aqne-dmet (not oqwidMckX 
a dnct for water. (Latin aqtuB ductuSy a duct for water. ) 
Latin duetua, a duct (t. dOeOy tnpine duditm, to lead or conveyX 
Ductile, duhf.tU (not diik\tile\ easy to draw out into lengths, 
like wire ; ductility, duk.til\i.ty, 
French ductile, ductiliU; Latin duetttia. 
Dudgeon, dud'.jdn, a sword or dagger, inward displeasure. 
To take [a thing] in dudgeon, to look on it as an offence. 

" Dudgeon " fa da^^r), German degen, a sword, a rapier. 
" Dudgeon" (diapleasure), Welsh dygen^ grudge, malice. 

Dne, duty, owed. Dew, moisture of the air condensed. Do, doOt q.v, 
Dn^y (du-lyf tru-lyt and whoUly drop the final e before 

the suffix -iy, Rule xviii.) 
Dues, dilze^ custom-house taxes, &c. Dews, plu. of dew. 
French dH, past part, of devoir; Latin deb^e, perf. debHi. 
Duel, du\el, a fight between two. Dual, du'M, a numb, in Gram. 
Du^el-ist, one who fights a duel ; 

Du'al-ist, one who believes there are two principles in 
nature, one who believes man to possess a twofold nature. 

Du'ell-er, du'ell-ing. (Rule iii., -el.) 
French duel; Latin duettum (dulo] [hiellum. 
Duenna, dil.en\nah, an elderly woman whose duty in Spain is 
to look after some young lady under her charge (Span.) 

Duet, du'.ef, a song for two voices. Duetto, plu, duettos (Ital.) 
Dug, the udder of a cow, &c. ; the past tense of dig (q.v.) 

Duke (1 syL), fern, duch'ess; duke-dom (-dom = "dominion"); 

duch'-y; ducal, du'.kdl; du'cal-ly. 
French due, fern, dueheese; Latin dwc, gen. d'Om, a leader. 
JPukminara, duV -ka.mair" rdh (not dul.kam\a.rah\ the plant 

called "bitter-sweet," or "woody nightshade." 

Latin dulci$ amd/nu, sweet bitter. The stalks and root taste at first 
bitter, but after being chewed a little time they taste sweet. 

Suloei, duV.$ety sweet [applied to sound]. 

l>ulciiy {-€%' not -OT-); duldfies, dUVM.fize; dulcified, 
d&Vjn.Jide; dai'dfy-ing. 

Dulcimer, duV.8i.mer, an ancient musical instrument. 

French dtUeifter: Latin dtdeif^ms, dulcia. (The two words "duldlo- 
quent" and "duldty " might be introduced.) 

DuUa» duM.dh (not du'M.ah, as it is generally called), the 
reverence paid to saints. 

Latria, la.tri'ah, adoration paid to God. 

Ijrtin dQlia; Greek dotdeia or douUii, the reverence paid bj a slave 

(dauJos) to his master. 
Latin IcUria; Greek latareia, the service of a free workman (UUria, a 

hired servantX 



268 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Doll, stupid, obscure ; dnll-er {eomp.), dull-est {super.) ; dnU'-ard 
i-ard, 01(1 Eng. surtix meaning "sptciHS," "kind"), one 
of the dull kind ; dull-nesB, dul-ly (Rule v., h). 

Bull, to make dull ; dulled (1 syl.). dull-ing. 
Old English dol, foolish, dallict, dully; Welsh dwl, stupid. 
Duly, du'-ly, fitly {see Due). Dully, dul-ly, stupidly {see Doll). 
Dumb, dum (b silent), mute, wanting the power of speech; 

Dumb-animals, all quadrupeds are so termed in contra- 
distinction to man, who is a ** speaking animaL" 

Dumb-ly, dum\ly; dumV-ness, dum'.ness. 

Dumb-shoTf, signs and gestures without words. 

Dumb-waiter, a piece of furniture. 

Dumfoun'der (without h), to strike dumb with amazement; 
dumfoun'dered (3 syl.), domfoun'dei^ing. 

Dummy, plu. dummies, dum'.miZy one who is dumb, an 
empty bottle. In tljree-lianded whist, the hand ezpof^d 
is called " dummy" and in French morU 
{Either the "b" should he struck out of "dumb," or it 
should he retained throughout. It is rather remarkable 
that •* dumbness " has ?io " b " in the Anglo Saxon dumnys.) 
Old English dunU), dumnys, dumbness ; German dvmm. 

Dumps, a fit of the sullen s ; dump-ish, rather stupid and sullen ; 
dum'pish-*ly, dum'pish-ness. 

Norse dump, dull ; German ditmm, stupid, sottish ; dumff, dvlL 
Dumpy, dum'.py, squat, short. 

Humpty-dumpty, any person or thing small and thick-set 

Dumplings dUm'.pling, dough leavened with yeast and 
boiled. Heavy or Suffolk dumplings have no yeast. 
There are several varieties. 

Korse dump, low, squat. (?) thumb, the short squat fingw, oaDed 
"dumpy." Anglo Saxon ihUma; German daumen. 

Dun, a brown colour, one who importunes a creditor for pay. 
ment, to din, to importune lor payment; dunn-iah (Rule 
i.), rather brown (ish added to adj. is dim., added to 
nouns it means "like"). 

Dun {v.), dunned (1 syl.), dunn'-ing (Rale i.) 

Dune (1 syl.), a sand hill near the sea-coast. 

Old English dun, a black-brown colour ; dunung, a ndM ; dft^iamX 
to make a noise ; diin, a hill. 

Dunce (1 syl.), a dolt, one backward in book-learning. 

Jhmsers, disciples of Duns Scotus, the schoolman, who citBumnd 
against "the new learning" which was fatal to the quiddities of 
Dunseiy. The new school called those who opposed them 
corrupted to dunces; German duns, a dunce. 



AND OF SPELLING. 2«9 

Donderliead, dun',der.Md, maddle-beRded ; dnnderhead'-ed. 

None timg, tutU, heavy, slow, lumpish, which enters into composi- 
tion with hand, tuad. heart, speech, hearing, &o., &c. 

Jhine {X syL), a sand-bill near the sea-coast. (Old Eng. dUn,) 

Dung (noun and verb), dunged (1 syl.), dung'-mg, dong'-y, 
dunghill (double 2, Rule viii.) (Old Eng. dung.) 

Ihingeon, dun'.jun, a dark dismal prison, underground ; doi^jon, 
the strong keep of an ancient castle. 
The prison of the ancient castles was under the dovijon (q.v.) 

Dunned (1 syl.), dunning, <fec. {See Dun.) 

Daodecimal, du\o.de8'\i.mul (adj.), computing by twelves ; 
duodecimals, cross multiplication, each lower denomina- 
tion being tbe twelfth of the one next higher, just as a 
penny is tbe twelfth of a shilling ; duodedmal-ly. 

Dnodedmo, plu. duodecimos (not duodecimoes, Rule xlii.), 
du'.o.des'^i.moze, the size of a book in which each sheet 
is f<)lde<l into twelve leaves. 

French duodecimal; Italian duodedino; Latin dUddieimiu (<iiM> + 
decern, two + ten). 

Duodenum, du^o.dee^'jnum (not du,od\e.num, an intestine about 
twelve fingers long, in the human body; di^odenal, 
du\o.dee*\nal (adj.); duodenitis, du\o.de.ni'\ti8, inflam- 
mation of the duodenum {-itis, Gk. suf., inflammation). 

Dnp, [the door] to open, past dupt or dupped (1 syl.), dupping* 

'*Then up he rose . . . dupped the chamber door, 
[And] Jet in the maid . . ."—Ham,, iv. v. 

"Dap "is Ang. Sax. do-ypp, "do-open," or do-up, lift up [the latchl. 

Ihtpe (1 syl.), one deceived, to cheat; duped (1 syl.), dup'-ing 
(Rule xix.), dup'-er, dup'-ery. 

French dupe, v. duper; Latin duplex, wily ("Cursus dupVCcia per 
mare Ulyss^i," Hor. Od., 1. 6, 7, " of the wily or duping Ulysses"). 

IHiplicate, du'.pluhate. a copy, a pawnbroker's ticket, to fold or 
double; du'pUcat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), du'plicat-ing (Rule 
xix.); duplication, du\pli.kay'\8hun ; duplicature, du'.- 
pli.ka.tchur ; duplicity, du.pli8\i.ty, 

French dupliccUa, duplication, duplicaU; Latin dupUcdtio, dup2<- 
edre, supii e duplicdtum, duplidLtas. 

Barable, du\ra.b% lasting; du'rable-ness, du'rably, durability. 

Fr. durable, dwahiliti; Lat. durdbilis, durabilitaa (durtu, hard). 

Dnza-xnater, du'.ra may'.ter (not mut.er), the outer membrane 

of tbe brain. The inner membrane is the pia-inater, 

I«atin dura-inater. Called "hard" (dura), because it is more tough 
than the other two membranes of the brain. Called mater or 
' "mother" from the su( position thit all the other membranes of 

the body were *' born " out of it, or were simply elongations of it. 

IKizainen, du.ray\ment beart-wood. (Latin duramen,) 



270 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dmance, dii\riiMef imprisonmeiit. Endu'zanoe, tderaniie. 
Dnratioii, duj-ay'^hun^ continuance. (Not French.) 
Duress, duressy constraint, restraint of liberty. 

Latin dvxare, to accustom to bardship; Old French d^Jream: Latin 
dtlritief, dHuratio {durus, hard). 

BoxBt, past tense of dare, to be bold to do. {See Barau) 

Dnflk, dim light, partially dark; dnsk'-isli, rather dosk {-ith 
added to adj. means rather ^ added to nouns lihe)\ 
dusk'ish-ly, dusk'-y, dnakl-ly (Rule xLX dusk^i-neas. 
Old EngUsh dti;<^«c[(ut], to extinguish ; {Mkst <2«m6kmI«, p.p. dwaueed. 
Dost {n(mn and verb). Dost, dust, second per. sing, of Do (g.v.) 
Dnst'-ed (B. xxxvi.), dust-ing, dust'-er, dust'-y, dnstl-ness. 
To bite the dust, to fall dead in battle. 
To kick up a dust, to make a disturbance. 

To throTf dust in one's eyes, to bamboozle. The allusion 
is to the Mahometan practice of casting dust into the air 
for the sake of "confounding" the enemies of the faith. 
"When the Enghsh king pursued the Iman who hHd 
stolen his daughter for Allah, Allah threw dust in his 
eyes to check his pursuit.** A Oori Legend. 
*• Dust," Old Eng. dust, dustig, dusty. " Dost," Old Eng. dM. 
Dutch iadj.)t pertaining to Holland or the Netherlands, the 
language of the Hollanders. 

The Dutch, the people of Holland or the Netherlands. 

A Dutchman, plu. Dutchmen. " Dutchmen" is the definite 

plu., as two, three, &c., Dutchmen, but " The Dutch** the 

indefinite plu, (R. xlvi. %). Dutch-docks, German docks. 

German Deutsche. *' Dutch clocks," corruption of Deuitch dock.. 

Duty, plu. duties, du\tiz ; du'ti-ful (Rule xi.), da'tiftil-ly, 

du'tiful-ness (R» viii.); du'ti-able, subject to excise duty. 

Duteous, du\te.u8; du'teous-ly, du'teous-ness. 

("Duty" and "beauty" have this change of vcwel, fo^ 
which there is no sufficient reason.) 
French dH, past part, of devoir; Latin debeo. 
Duumvir, plu. duumvirs or duumviri, du.um\veTz or <iit.tttii'.' 
vi.rl. In ancient Rome, the supreme magistracy veste^J 
in two men; duumvirate, du.um\vi.rate, the fom o^ 
government or office of a duumvir; danm'TiniL 
Latin dmimnir, plit duumviri, duwnvirSlis^ duumvtrdtet. 
Dwaif, plu. dwarfs (not dwarves. Rule xxxix.), dwair4Bh (-i$h 
added to nouns means " like," added to a^J. it is dim.), 
dwarfish-ly, dwarf ish-ness; dwarf -ing, keepiof amdl; , 
dwarfed (not dwarft-ed), hindered from growing. j 

Old English dweork or dweorg, a dwarf. .A 



AND OF SPELUNG. 271 

Dwell (Kule t.), patt dwelt, p<ut part, dwelt, to live, to abide ; 
dwell'-ing, living, abiding, a house, a residence; dwell'-er. 

To dwell on [« isubject], to continue talking on it. 

None ctoelt, to dwell, to twrrjr ; dvceUr, a dweller, a loiterer. The 
Anglo Saxon dw^ian] means "to deceive " (dtool an error). 

Dwindle, dw^.£l, to diminish ; dwin'dled (2 syl.), dwindling. 
Old Eng. dtotoCon], to pine away, to dwindle ; past dwdn, p.p. ckoinen. 

Dwt., pronounced penny -weight. It is D (penny, dendrium), 
and wt (contraction of weight). Similarly Gwt , hundred- 
weight is C (hundred, centum)^ and wt for *' weight." 

Dye, to tincture. Die, to lose life. (Both di.) 

Dyes, dyed, dye-ing (violation of R. xix.), dy'-er (from Dye). 

Dies, died, dy-ing (Rule xix.), di-er (from Die). 

Dyes, tinctures, third per. sing, of Dye. 

Dies, plu. of die, a stamp, third per. sing, of Die. 

Dice, plu. of die, a cube for playing " dice.** 

"Dye," Old Eng. dedg, ▼, ded(f[ian] ptL-^t dedgode, past part, dedgod. 
"Die," Old Eng. deddiian\, past deddods, past part, deddod. 
"Die" (a cube), Fr. d6, plu. d4s. 

Dyke (1 syl.), a geological term. Dike, a trench, a mound. 

A " dyke " is the material which tills up a fissure in a rock. 
Old English die, a dyke ; French dyke (in mines). 
Dynamics, di.namf.lksj that science which treats of force acting 

on moving bodies. (AU sciences terminating in the Greek 

'ika, except five, are plural, Rule Ixi.) Dynamic or 

dynamical (adj.), dynamlcal-ly. 

Dynom'eter or dynamometer, di'na.mom'\e.terf a (mechnn- 
ical) instrument to measure the relative strength-in- 
draught of man and other Huiraals ; 

Dynameter, an (optical) instrument for determining the 

magnifying power of telescopes ; dynametlcal. 
Dynamite, dV.na.mite, an explosive agent, consisting of 

porous silica sat-urated in nitro-glycerine. 
Fr. dynamique, dynanwrn^t/re ; Lat. dynamia; Gk. dunamis, power, 
^'yiuurty, plu, dynasties, dfn\u8.ttz, a race of monarchs from 
one common he»d; dynastic, di.na/.t\k (adj.) 
French dynastie, dynastique; Latin dynantia; Greek dunasteia. 
^^ (Greek due-, a prefix always denoting evil, opposed to «*-, 
which always denotes what is good). 

D^Bentery, dis'.en.terry, severe diarrhoea; dysenter'ic. 

Fr. dyaeenterie, dyMentdrique (double «, a blunder) : I^at. dysenteria, 
dy^mtericus ; (Gk. dua enUSra, bad [state of] the buwels) 

I)yipepBia or dyspepsy, dU.pep'.sl.ah, di8.pep\8y, indigestion; 

djriipep'tio, one who suffers from dyspepsia. 

French dyapeptU; Oredk dus pepsis, bad digestion (pepto, to oook). 



272 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Dysphagia, dis.fag'.i.ah, a difficulty of swallowing. 

Greek dva phagein, difficultj in swallowing. 

Dyspnoda, disp.nee'.ah, a difficulty of breathing. 

French dynjmie; Latin dyspnaa, asthma; Greek du$ pnoia, dUU- 
caltj of brea hing. 

DysniJa, dl.8u\ri.ah^ difficulty of passing urine ; djrBUiio. 

Fr. dysvric; Lat. dyaHHa, dyaHrictu; Gk. dua ovria difficulty of uiiiM. 

E-, Ef-, Ex-, iu composition, means out of. 

£- or Ex- means out of, hence 
* ' Privaf ion "or ' * pre-eminence **; 
'Tis XX- before a vowel, c. 
The aspirates, p, q, s, t; 
Tis EF- before an// but ■- 
With liqpiida^ c, d, g, j, v. 

-ea, -89a, -ia (in Bot.), denote a genus or division. 

Every word (except eager and ea>gle) beginning with ea- is Anglo-flazoB. 

Each, etchi every individual of a number treated separately. 

Each other : as *' Be to each other kind and true," that is. 
Each [one] be to [every] other one kind and true. " Each ** 
is nominative case, and ** other" objective, governed by 
to, '* It is our duty to assist each other," tiiat is, It is 
our duty each [one] to assist [every] other [one]. (In 
Latin, alter alterum adjuvdre.) 

Eager, e'.gur, desirous ; eager-ly, eager-ness. 

Welsh egyr; French aigre: sharp, sonr; Latin acer^ sharp, brisk. 
Eagle, e\g% a bird of prey ; eaglet, S'.gJety a young eagle. 

French aigle; Latin Aqulla (dquiltu, a dun colour). 
Ear, e*er, ere, hear, year, earing, ear-ring, hearing. 

Ear, eV, organ of bearing, appreciation of musical soimds, 
spike of corn, to f>rm into seed com; eared, S'rd; 
earing, ^r^-ing, forming into ears ol corn, time of plough- 
ing (as opposed to harvest), 
•* There sliall be neither earing nor harvest" {GefLTbr. •). 

Ear-ring, a ring for the ear. Hearing, perception of sonnd. 

E'er, e'er, a contraction of ever. 

Ere, airy before in time, sooner than ; erst, at first. 

Hear, /leV, to perceive by the ear. 

Tear, ye'r, a period of twelve months. 

"Ear" (organ of hearing), Old English edre, 

"Ear" lof c-rn). Old English edr or (B-hir. 

"Earing" (time of pl'ughing), Old Eng. eriung, ploughiBf, t. 

" Fa -ring" (ring for the ear), Old English edr^ng. 

E'er" ever», old English cefer or cffre. 

\ Ere " n>ef ore in time), O. Eng. ear ovekr, (comp.) lirrc^ (rapcr.) < 



M ' 



** Hear,'* Old English hyr{an] or hAr{an], to hear. 
" YMr,** Old English gear; German jaUr. 



AND Oh SPELLING. ilS 

£arl, fern. oonnteaB, url, eottn'.test, 

Earrdom, the title and rank of earl (-dom, rank, estate, &o.) 

Old English eorL The title was first used hj the Jutes of Kent. 
The Norman-French count is no EngUsh tiUe, although we retain 
the words eouwty and countest. French counU, comiesae. 

Early, ur^dy; earli-er (comp.), earli-est (super. j^ soon, before 
the lime; earli-nesa, ur^.U.nis (Rule xi.) 
Old Eng. ^, before, in time ; ardlic (adj.), early; ardUoe (adv.) 
Earn, urn, to win by service. Urn, a vase. 

Earned, umd; eam-ing, ur'.n%ng; eam-ingB (nonn) ur'- 

ningz, wages, money earned. 

Old English crm[ian] or eam{ian], to earn; esmimg or eamung, 
earnings, wages. " Urn," Latin urna, a pitcher. 

Earnest, ur'.nest, a pledge, a deposit to confirm a bargain, 

bansel, ardent, serious, eager; eamest-ly, u/.nist.ly ; 

eamest-nesB, w/.nest.ness ; in earnest. 

(*' flamest " [money]y ought to be ernes or emest.) 

"Earnest** (noun J, Welsh ernes, a pledge. 

"Earnest** (a4iJ, Old Eng. earnest, eomeste (oAo.); Germ, emst 

Earth, wrth (noun and verb); earthed (1 syl.), earth'-ing; 
earth-ly, urth'.ly ; earthli-ness (Rule xi.), earth-y, 
wrth'-y; eurthl-ness (Rule xi.), earth'-en, made of 
earth ; earthenware, urth\^,ware, crockery. 
Which is correct : 

*' Day and night are produced by the earth's revolving on 
its axis," or 

*' Day and night are produced by the earth revolving on 

its axis " f 

(In the former case, "revolving''* is a verbal noun, not a participle, 
the sentence is Da^ and Night are produced hy "the revolving of 
the earth'*.... Here *' revolving " = rewZutiow, and would have 
been better with the old spelling revolvung. Similarly we have the 
phrases, *'by the preaching [ie. preachmmi] of repentance," or 
by John^s preaching repentance " whete "preaching** is a verbal 
noon. The second example is not incorrect, but it is less idiomatic, 
and more German than English. [The] earth^evolving-im-its-aais 
being all one word. The former is decidedly to be preferred.) 

^wwig, e*r.ujig, an insect. (Old Eng. edr wigga, ear [shaped] in- 
sect. The bind wings being in shape like the human ear.) 

Ear'wigg-ing (Rule i.), whispering slander to gain favour. 

Ease, eze^ comfort, freedom from pain ; easy, e.zy ; easi-ly, 
easi-ness (R. xi.); eased, %zd; eas'-ing, ^.zing (R. xix.); 
ease'-m^t (only five words drop -e before -menU R. xviii.) 

Easy, Ijay ; (com p.) easi-er, e\zi.er; (super.) easi-est. 

Old English ed^ and edthlic, easy, (comp.) edthere, (super.) edthost, 
(adv.) edihe and edthelke; French aise. 

Easel, ijs% a frame with a shoulder, used by artists. 

Old English esd, a shoulder : less likely esol, German esel, an ass. 

s 



274 ERRORS OF SPRECff 

East, est; east-em; easterly, e9f,er.ly. 

Easter-ling, a native of the East. 

Easf-ing, the distance a ship makes good in an eastward 
direction. The eastward (nonn), the east direction. 

Eastward {a4j.)y eastwards (adv,) 

(The use of eastward as cm adverb is objectionahle. It is 
the final -s which is the adverbial badge.) 

Old Eng. east (noun and adj.)f easten-wind, the east wind, tagUm and 
eastinney in the east, eastan, from the east, «i8frV}M/rd, eastward. 

Easter, ls\t^ (noun and adj.), the season commemorative of 
" The Resurrection" of Christ; easter-tide, easter-week. 

Old English Easter, easter-dcBg, easter-day: easter-tidy easter-tide; 

easter-vmce, easier week ; eaater-mdndth, ApriL 
(April VX18 the time of the awnual Sixmdinavian jestivaL in honow 

of the moon coMed "East&r," " Ostar," '* Eastre" dec J 

Easy, easier, easiest. {See Ease.) 

Eat, 'past ate (not eat^ nor ete)^ past part, eaten; eat, ete 
(1 syl.); eat'-ing, eaf-er, eaf-ahle. 

Eaf.able, fit to eat. Eatables, things to eat or for food. 

Edible, e\dl.b% possible to be eaten. 
("Eatable" means suitable for food; "Edible," possible 
to be eaten, but not ordinarily ttsed as food.) 

To eat one's words, to retract them. The idea is from 

Proverbs xxvi. 11. 

Old English etan, to eat ; pres. tense ic ete, past (6t, past part eten. 
"Edible," Latin gdilis (ido, to eat). 

Eaves (no sing.), ei)z, the part of the roof which overhangs the 
walls. Eavesdropp-er, a sueak who listens surrepti- 
tiously to what is said in private ; eavesdropp'-ing. 
Old English ^ese, eaves ; ▼. Italian], to make eaves ; (ifes dropa. 

Ebb (noun and verb), (14 monosyllables not ending in /, i, or s, 
double the final letter: viz., add, odd; bwr, err; 6it*, 
butt ; ebb, egg ; buzz and whizz) ; ebbed (1 syl.), ebb-ing. 
The reflux of the tide. The contrary of flow or flood, as 
ebb-tide, flood-tide, ebb and flow. 
Old English ebba or ed&e, ▼. t^ian\, past e&&od«, past part, dhod. 

Ebony, eb\6.ny, a tree, the wood of the tree. 

Ebonise, Sb'.o.nlze, to make black like ebony; eVonised 

(3 syl.), eb'onis-ing (Rule xix.), eVon (adj.) 

{The " " o/ these words is a blunder. It should he " e.") 

French ih&ne, ▼. 6b4ner, 4b4nier, the tree; Latin ibinus, the tiee; 
gbinum, the wood : Greek SbinQs, ff^'nUnds (adj.) 

Bbriety. {See Inebriety.) 

Ebullition, e'.bul.lish".un, the operation or state of boiling. 
French ibuXlition ; Latin ebuUUio, v. ebulUo, to boiL 



Jestament. alsn ;f^^^» one of f>./T^°**' ^^^ the centra/ 

*'*o, i)7i, . .'• "•-archill • n_L '^smbJiDo' 

XIH ^'^ «*'-o. «' ;f ^* **'"'^«- 

' ««fi:s selected ; Greek 



Ik 



276 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Eclipse, e.kVlips' (n. and v.); eclipsed' (2 syL), edips^ing (R. xix.) 

Ecliptic, ^JillpWik, the apparent annual path of the sun 
through the heavens. So called because the moon to be 
eclipsed must be near this hypothetical path. 

French Sdipse, v. iclipser, idiplique; Latin ecHpsis, eeUp1Me%u: 
Greek ikleipsis {ek leipo, to leave out). 

Eclogue, plu, eclogues, Sk'.Ug, ek\ldgz, a pastoral poem. 

(The French termination of this word is foolishj seeing 
we have discarded this very un-English ending in a host 
of other words^ and *' log " is all-sufficient.) 
French idogue; Latin ecUfga; Greek ^ldg6 (ek lego, to pick out). 

Economy, plu. economies, e.k6n\o,m\z^ careful expenditure of 
money. Political economy, the way of ruling a people 
so as to increase their wealth. Vegetable or Animal 
Economy, the usual operations of nature in the growth, 
preservation, and propagation of vegetables or animals. 

Economics, the science of household management. 

Economic <yr economical, e\ko,nbm" .i.kal ; economical-ly. 

Economise, e.kon'.o.mize, to manage household matters 

with frugality; econ'omised (4 syl.), econ'oml&-ing (Rule 

xix.), econ'onus-er (Kule xxxi.), economist, e.kSn,o,mUt. 

French ieonomique, iconomitUy v. iconomiser, 4conomie; Latin 
cecdndmia, (xc6n6mlcus ; Greek oikonomed, to manage a household ; 
oik&nomia, management of a house ; oikdndmikds, ta oikOndmikck, 
economics : oik&n&mds, economist. (There is no such Greek word 
as oikonomizo.) "Economy** is that frugal and careful expendi- 
ture of money which is shown in a well-managed household. 

Ecstasy, plu. ecstasies (not ex- and not -cy, -cies). It is the 
Greek ek and stasis (a standing out [of oneself]). So 
apostasy is the Greek apo stasis (a standing off firom 
[the faith]). Ecsta.sy, a trance, rapture, a fit 
{It is not the Latin '* ex," but the Greek **ek-," which it 
always vyritten ec-. The last syl. is not -kis [-m], but -sis.) 

Ecstatic, e^.8tat^^A; ; ecBt&ticsA,ek.stdtf.i.kdl; ecstafical-ly, 
rapturously, in an ecstatic manner. 
The French forms of these words should be creftilly avoid- 
ed ; they are exta^ii. extatique^ part Latin and part Greek. 
Latin ecstdsis; Greek ^(kstaaia, ikstaiikds. 
Ecumenic or ecumenical [Council], e.ku.inSn\ik, e,ku,m^\i.kdl, 
a general [council of the Roman Catholics]. 
Fr. cecumSnique ; Gk. oikoumgnHOs (oikoumenS, the habitable woddX 
Eczema, ek\ze.maK a skin eruption, without fever. 

Greek ^ zi^na, a boiling out (z&i, to seethe). 
-ed, tie suffix of the past tense and past part, of verbs of the 
weak conj. Old English -od , -ed, Latin ^t[ttm1 or 
-dt[uni]. In adj. it denotes the ** subject of some aotton,** 
as renown-ed the subject of " renown." 



AND OF SPELLING, 277 

§ When added to a word ending in -d or -t it forms a distinct 
syL, as aid'-ed (2 sy\.), pound' -ed (2 8yl.),yif-«d (2 syl.) 

§ When followed by -ly or -n^ss, it generally forms a distinct 
syL, as confused (2 syl.), confusedly {conjujteddy, 4 syl.), 
blessed (1 syL), hUss.ed.ne8S (3 syl.) 

Edadoiu, e.day'.shUs, voracious; eda'doiukly, eda'dons-nefls ; 
edacity, t^das'A.ty, voracity. 
Latin edSxXUUf edax, gen. eddeis (glattonom). 

TMiHali^ gd^,ishi aftermnth, the grass which serves for pasture 
alter the main crop has been removed. 

Old English edUe. the aftermath, -iK converts verbs and adjectives 
into notLns. Ed is a corrtiption of et[an], to eat, hence edHae or 
«t-ise, food or [grass] fit for pasturage. 

Eddy, plu. eddies, ed'.diZf a whirl of wind or water, to form a 
whirl, (fee; ed'dies (third person tdngular, present tense); 
eddied, id'.did; ed'dy-ing. 
Old EngUsh ethu or ythu, a wave or flood {ethan or yihian, to flow). 

Bdentate, plu, edtotata, e.den\tate, e.den.tay\tah, animals like 
the sloth, armadillo, and anteater, which have no incisive 
teeth; eden'tat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), without fVont teeth. 

Vrench idenM; Latin edenUUvo, extraction of teeth, edentdtus, 
€ltx\dente9, without teeth. 

Edge (1 syl.), noun and verb. Hedge (1 syl.), noun and verb, 

Edg'-in^ (R. xix.), making edges, edge- trimming, outside row ; 

Hedg'-ing (Rule xix.), making or trimming a hedge. 

Edged (1 syl.), having an edge, sharp ; 

Hedged (I syL), inclosed with a hedge. 

Edge-less, without an edge. Hedge-less, without a hedge. 

To edge in, to insinua'e something into, to get in; 

To hedge in, to surround with a hedge. 

Edgewise (2 syl.), not edgeways. 

Old English toi^an], direction, manner. 
To edge on, a corruption of egg -on. 

Old English eg^ian], to incite, to urge on. 

Old EngUsh eeg, an edge : ecged, edged, sharpened : Welsh hogi, to 

sharpen ; hogiad, a sharpening ; hogal, a whetstone. 
"Hedge,'* Oid English hege, a fence ; hegt^ewe, a hedge-row. 
fThe d is interpolated in both cases J 

Edible, ei',di.b% capable of b^ing made food ; Eatable, fit or 
suitable for food. Edibles, e\di.Vlz^ things which may 
serve for food ; Eatables, foods. 

"Edible " LaUn gdKre, to eat ; idilxs or idiUis, idulium, food. 
"Eatoble," Old English et[anl to eat, and -able. 

Edict, a decree, a proclamation. (Latin edictum, e-dico.) 



# 



278 ERROItS OF SPEECH 

Edify, ^(^^t./^^, to instraot ; edifies, ^(2^^./2« ; edified, ^^t.yu2« ; 
ed'ifi-er(Rxi.); edi&G^Q(D^Sd\ufi.hay''jihun; ed'ify-ing. 

Edifice, pVu. edifices (Bnle xxxiv.), M'.t./l8, ed\i.flsJiz, buildings. 
Applied to large public buUdiugf. 

French Edification, Mifi>ce, v. Sd^fler ; LatiB OK^/IcMio, adil(flcium, 
eed^l^ficdre (cedes fadOy to make a building). 

Edile, e'.dile, an officer of ancient Rome ; edile-fihip, office of 
edile. (ship. Old English suffix = " office of.") 

Latin cBdilia. This officer had charge of the streets and paUie 
buildings, supervised the sewers, weights and measures, plays and 
processions ; regulated the price of food, &c. (caies, sing., temple). 

Edit, ed\it, to revise a book for republication ; ed'it-ed (Bule 
xxxvi.), ed'it-ing. 

Editor, (not -er), fern, editress or editor; one who revises 
a book for republication, one who controls the literary 
part of a periodical or serial ; editor-ship, office of editor. 
(ship, Old English suffix meaning " office of.") 

Edition, e,d%8h\on, a reprint of a book. An edition consists 
of no deiinite number of copies. In novels about 500, 
in school books about 2,000, in popular reprints about 
10,000, in newspapers about 20,000, while in books of 
doubtful sale 100 copies, would be fair average numbers. 
In large reprints it is usual to state the number of copies 
an edition covers, as " 31st edition, 167th thousand." 

French 4diteur, Edition ; Latin edttio, editor, v. ido, supine iditvm, 
to publish. (Note— ^do, to eat, has e short.) 

Educate, ed'.u.kate, to teach ; ed''ucat-ed (B. xxxvi.), ed'noat-ing 
(Rule xix.), ed'ucat-or (not er. Rule xxxvii.) ; education, 
ed\u.kay*' .shun ; ed'uca'tion-al ; ed'uca''tional-ly. 

French Education ; Latin edUedtio, ediicdtor, edUcdre, supine ed&eA' 
turn, to teach {ed&cdre, to pilot forth). 

It 18 curious to trace the ideas represented by imtyZi used 
to signify education. For example : 

To edify (Lat. €edes facto), to " make a temple " of the body. 

To instruct (Lat. in 8truo),to " cram" or " pile up" in the mind. 

To educate (Latin e-ducdre, ducdtor), to " pilot fbrth " the 
mind, or guide it safely through the dangers which beset it 

To train (Lat. traho), to " draw " or ** drag " out the jwwers. 

To teach (Anglo-Saxon tdcan), technical education, "to 
show" or teach by " showing " how things are to be done. 

To learn (Ang.-Sax. laran, Idr), to obtain " lore" or wisdom. 

To inform (Latin tn/an?io), to " form in " the mind. 

Tuition (Lat. ty£or), to put the mind in a state of ** defSsnceJ 

School (Greek) " spare time." 



»» 



AND OF SPELimO, 279 

Ednoe, e.dtu^, to extract, to bring to light ; educed' (2 syL), 

educ^-ing (Rule xix.) 

Latin edUeSre (not tiie siune verb m "edncftto," edUcdrt) (fi-dOco, to 
lead forth, to draw out). 

-ee (Fr. saffix), denoting the object of some action : as legatee, 
the object of a legacy; payee, on« to whom money is paid. 

Eel, heel, heal, ell, helL 

Eel, tie (1 syl.)) a fish. (Old English dl, an eel.) 

Heel, heU (1 syl.), part of the foot. (Old English h€l.) 

Heal, hele (1 syL), to cure. (Old English hdl[an].) 

Ell = 2, a measure of length. (Old English eln.) 

Hell, the place of ftiture torment. (Old English hell.) 

Bvery word (except eoflrer, eagU, and hearat) b^[innlng with ea-, ee-, 
hea-, and hu- is Anglo-Saxon. 

E'en, me (1 syL), contraction of the adv. even, 

-eer (Fr. suffix -ier, -iewr, termination of nouns), denotes one 
employed for or on a work, as engineer, 

E*er, ere, air, are, ear, hear, here, hair, hare, heir, year. 
E'er, air, contraction of ever. (Old Englisb efre or dfer.) 
Ere, air, before in time. (Old English dr, before.) 
Air, air, atmosphere. (Latin aer, the atmosphere.) 
Are, dr (to rhyme with far), (Norse plu. of Ang-Sax. bed,) 
Ear, e'r, organ of hearing. (Old English eare and ear,) 
Hear, hS'r, to apprehend with the •* ear." (Old Eng. hyrlan],) 
Here, he'r, in' this place. (Old English hSr,) 
Hair (1 syL, to rhyme with air), of the head. (Old Eng. ?uir,) 
Hare, hair, an animal. (Old English hara,) 
Heir, air, the next male successor. (Latin hares,) 
Year, ye'r, a period of twelve months. (Old English gear,) 
-ef (Latin prefix for ex-) before the letter -/. 

Every word b^;inning with ^- (except effendi) is from the Latin. 
Effiace, ef.fase^ (not e.fase'), to strike ©ut, to rub out ; effaced' 
(2 syL), effac'-ing (R. xix.), effac'-er, efface'-able (ce and 
-ge retain the final -e before -able), efface'-ment (only 
five words drop the final -6 before -ment). 
French effcuxr, effapdbU; Latin ex fades, [rubbed] from the surface. 

liffect (noun and verb), ef.fect' (not e.fecf), the result, the out- 
come of a cause, infiuence, to accomplish. 

Affect, to assume, to move the affections ; 

Effects, chattels ; in effect, really, in reality. 

Effected, ef,feW,ted, accomplished; 

Affected, af.f^.ted, moved in the heart, artificiaL 



280 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Effect'-ing, accomplishiog ; Affecf-ing, pathetic. 

Effect'-er, better effect-or; efFect'-ible (not -ahle\ 

Effective, ef,fS1^Mv ; effective-ly, effective-neaB. 

Effectual, ef.fek\tu.al; effec'tual-ly. 

Effectuate, ef.fek\tu.ate, to accomplish, to bring to pass; 
effec'tuat-ed (Rule xxxv.), effec'tuat-ing (Hule zix.) 

Efficacions, ef\fi.kay**^hu8^ producing the effect expected ; 

effica'cious-ly, effica'cious-ness. 
Efficacy, plu, efficacies, if-Ji.ka.9y, if.Ji.ka^Xz (R, xliv.) 
Efficient, i/Ji8h.ent; efficient-ly, effident-ness. 
Efficience, if.fish'-ense; efficiency, if.fl8h\en.sy, 

French ^et, efficace, effectuer, ^eoHtS, ^cient; Latin effeetio, 
Rector, eiffectum, efficddiaa, efficax, gen. ^cddi, ▼. <tfEoia (e/ [ex] 
f&ciOt to make out of). 

Effeminate, Sf.fim'.i.nate (adj. nnd verb), womanish, feeble, to 

make womanish ; effem'inat-ed (R. xxxvi.), effem'inat-ing 

(E. xix.), effem'inat-oT. effem'inate-ly, effem'inate-nesB ; 

effeminacy, plu. effeminacies, if.fim\i.na.inz. 

French effemiiU. v. effeminer; Latin effeminate (adv.), ^emmattu, 
^ffeminaiio (Jimina, a woman). 

Effendi (Master), a Turkish title which follows a proper name, 
about equal to our Esq.. as **Ali Effendi." 

Effervesce, if.fer.vis', to froth up; effervesced' (3 syl.), 

effervesc'-ing (R. xix.) ; effervescence, if\fer,vi8'aerue ; 

effervescent, ef.fer.ve8".8int ; ef fervesc'-ible. 

French effervescence, effervescent; Latin effervescens, gen. e ffwvttua UU, 
effervescentia, effervesco (inc»^pt. of effefi'veo, to grow hot). 

Effete, Sfjeeft worn out, sterile. (Lat. effetus ; foetus, oflBquring.) 

Efficacious, if. fi.kay. shits ; efficacy, <S;c. {See Effect) 

Effigy, plu. effigies, ef.fije, if.fi.jlz, one's representation. 

To bum (or han<?) in effigy, to bum (or hang) the image. 

French ^gie; Latin effigia, ▼. effigidre (Jingo, to fa^^hion). 

Effiorescent, if .fijo.rh** jsent, flowenng; effioresoenoe, ifjlo,* 
ris*' .sense, {-se- denotes inceptive action.) 

Effluvia, plu. (the sing, ejfiuvium is not much used), effigy joLSh, 
exhalation, the disajreable smells which rise firom ill- 
drainage and putrefying matters. 

Effluent, ef\fiu.ent ; effluence, ef.fiu.ence, 

French ^uence, effiuent, effluvt; Latin ^HAoium, tfffnnMa (^^[aO 
fiuens, flowing out fromX 

Effort, ef.fort, endeavour, exertion ; effort-less. 

Jfrench effort; Latin ef [ex] fortU. the strong [thing] pot forth. 

ESronteTY, ef\frdn.tirry (not e.fron'.te.ry), impudence. 

.French ^ff'rmUerit; Latin ^ lex] fronte, out-conntenan<rtng. 



AND OF SPEfJjING, 2«1 

Eifalgenoe, tfJWf.jence^ Instre, splenrlour; effulgency, plu, 
-dee, ifjaVJSn^lz; eflhilgent, ff.fuVj^t; eflhil'gent-ly. 
Latin ^fiUgens, gen. ^ffiulgentU (^ [ex] ftUgeo, to shine out). 
Effusion, ef,fii\zhun, a spilling [of blooii]; effusive, ef.fu\z\v; 
effa'sive-ly; effuse, ef.fuze^; effused (2 syl.), effus-ing. 
French tiff^uion; Latin effuno^ e^ffundo, sup. eiffOaum, to poor out 
Eft or efet, if'M, a newt or small lizard. . 

Old EngUsh efeU. In Sussex, &o., called ^et by the peasantxy. 
Eftsoons (only used in poetiy), soon, soon after. 

Old English ^-tdna, soon after. 
Egg, one of the 14 monosyllables (not ending in /, Z, or s) 
-with, the final consonant doubled (Rule vii.) 

To egg (followed by on), to incite; egged, egd; egg'-ing. 

"Egg" (nonnX Old English ctg; aegea hwite, the white of an egg. 
"^X" (verb). Old English egg[ian], to incite. 

Eg^lantine, eg\lan.tine, the swe^t briar. 

Tt. Sglantier, the tree : dglantine, the flower ; Lat. rosa eglanteria. 

Egotist, ig\o,ti8tt one who talks about himself; egoist, ig'.o.isty 

one who believes nothing to be ctrrtain except Uiat he 

himself exists. 

Egotism, iSg'.o.tXzmy the habit of self-praise ; egoism, ^g^.o.- 
izm, the faith of an egoist. 

Egotistic or egotistical, ^g'.oJKs' .tXk, ^g^o.tls" ti.Ml, self- 
conceited; egotis'tical-ly; eg'otise, eg'otised, eg'otiS-ing. 

French Sg&i»me, folate; Latin ego, I (AH Greek sufiBbc "one who/' 
■ism Greek snffix "system " 

Egregious, e.gr^^Lvs, supereminent (in a bad sense). 

Egre'gions-ly, egre'gious-ness. 
Latin egriffiua (e grUge {Uetwil, picked out of the flock). 

e\gre88, act or right of departing. Ingress, tbe act or 
right of entering; egression, e.griah'^un ; ingression. 
Latin egrreutM, egreaaio, ▼. egridior {e [ex] gradior, to walk out). 

e^.grit, a small white heron. (French aigrette.) 
80 called from the *' aigrette " or plume in the head. 
Egyptian, e,jip\8hunj adj. cf Egypt, Egyptian language; 

Egyptology, t.jlp.tdV'.o.jy, study of the archaeology of 

Egypt; Egyptologist. e\jip.tdV\o.gUt. 
French egyptienne; Latin Mgyptius, JEgyptus; Greek Aigvptdi. 
Eh ^ at interTOgative of doubt Is it not so? 
Ah sari exclamation of pain, surprise, &o. 
Hey t What is it you say ? 
Ha, hdh I take care. Ha ! ha ! laughter. 
Heigh-ho, hay. ho or hlJhd I expresses weariness. 
He! or be! he! expresses seom. 




ERRORS OF SPEECH 



X [down], %\der (not ^,der\ down of the eider duck. 
Gtomuui txder; French eider, M/tndon^ eider-dowxL 
;ht, atty a number. Ait, ate, a river-iBland. Ate (1 syl.), 
past tente of 6aL Hate, to dislike. 

Eighteen, ate\teen; eighteenth, at^.t«enth ; elghteen-mo, 
plu, eighteen-moB (R, xlii.), ate.teen\moze. -mo is the last 
syl. of deci-mo (ten) added to the English teen (^ten). 

iiither, S^,thSr. Ether, eWh^ (a Tolatile liquid). 

Either, e\th^, one of two, correlative of or. 

Neither, nedhSr, not either, correlatiye of nor. 

Each, etch, both one and the other of two articles. 

§ It is wrong to use either when the choice lies between 
more than two things. 

§ Either you or I am wrong; Either yon or I are wrong (f). 
Either you or I are wrong is the better grammar, that is, 
either you or I [toe] are wrong [one 0/ im] ; but custom 
has sanctioned the rule, that Uie verb is to agree with the 
noun or pronoun nearest it : " Either you [are wrong] or 
I am wrong.'^ Similarly, "Either you [...] or he u 
wrong ; " " Either he [...] or you are wrong." In French, 
the same construction is observed with or, Ac, as with and, 
" Either/' Old Sng. oegther, "Neither," Old Eog. nathor or mtther. 

Ejaculate, ejdkf.u.late, to call out; ejao'ulat-ed (Rule xxxviX 
ejac'idat-ing, ejac'ulat-or; ejaculation,^ jaA;'.ii.{ay''.«Mifi 
vociferation ; ejaculatory, e.j(Wu.la.t'ry, 

French ^aculer, ijaculation, 4J€uulatoir€, <;aeu!aieiir. 
Latin ^dcCUatio, ejdeOXare (ejde&lo, to hurl out). 

Eject", to cast out; ejecf-ed (Bule xxxvi.), ejecf-ing, ^jeof- 
(Ilule xxxvii.) ; ejection, g.j^.«7mn; eject-ment (in La' 
a writ to recover possession of land. 
Latin ^eetio, Rector, ^jicio, supine Rectum (e jacio, to throw out) 
Eke (1 syl.), to add; (noun), a piece adde 1 to a hive to hoi 
and increase its capacity, (adverb) likewise; ekee, 
eked (1 syl.), ek-ing (Rule xix.), t.king. 
Old English ede, likewise : edca, an addition ; eetcfan], to eke. 

-el, -eel, (Latin el\i8\ belonging to, capable of: cru-el, belc 
to the cru\de'\, raw or fierce ; hdt-el, belonging to tt 
or host ; genteel, belonging to the g^ntr)- liens'], 

-el (Latin elJ{y>s] diminutive), lib-el, a little book (K6«r, a 

Elaborate, e.ldb\o.rate (adj. and verb), highly finished, 
cated, to bestow much labour on ; elah'orat-ed (R 
elah'orat-ing (R. xix.) elab'orat-or, elaborate-' 
xvii.), elab'orate-ly; elaboration, e.UW.o.ray'',s: 
Fr. ^laborer, Elaboration ; 1*1. eldhOrdtio, eldb&rdtor, eULlOr 



AND OF SPELLINO, 283 

Elain or Elaine, e.lay'Xn (3 sjL, not e.Ume* nor e.lay'.ine), the 

liquid principle of oils and fats. Also written Olein and 

Oleine, ol\e.ln. The fatty principle is Stearine, 8tt.a.rin. 

" Elain," Greek daian, olive-oil (elaia, the oliye-tree). 

"Olein," Latin dleum, oil with the termination -ine, which denotes a 

simple substance, as chlorins. 
" Stearine," Greek gti&r, suet, hard fat. 

Elapse, e.ldps, to intervene, to pass away; elapsed, elapsf; 

elape'-ing (Bole xix.) 

Latin elapsio, eldJbor, supine elapswn (« [ex] lo&or, to slip away). 

Elastic, «.2a/.t{%, resilient ; elastical, e.las'.ti.kdl ; elastioal-ly ; 

elasticity, e,ld8\ti8''8i.ty, resiliency. 

French dlastique, iUuticiU; Greek elaund, to draw out. 

Elate, e.late\ to puff up; elat'-ed (Bule xxxvi.), elafed-ly, 

elaf-ing (Bule xix.); elation (not elasion), e.lay'^hun 

(not a French word), joy and pride of success. 

Latin dctUo [tf [ex] fero, suf. « [ex] latvm, to carry out [of oneself J). 

Elbow, SV.ho, the joint of the arm between the shoulder and 
wrist, a turn like the arm bent, to push or jostle ; 

labowed, SV.lode ; ellww-ing ; ellx>w-room, ample room. 
At your elbow, close at hand. 

Out at elbows, shabby, reduced in circumstances. 
Old Eng. tlnboga, the elbow (eln hoga, bow of the arm ; Lat. vhia). 
Elder, H',d^, a tree, a ruler of the Presbyterian church, a senior. 
Eld, old. Eldj an old person (noun); old, aged (adj.) 
El'der, prior in years ; Older, more aged. 

El'dest, first born ; Oldest, most aged. 
Elder and eldest have no relation to number of years, the 
eldest bom may or may not have lived more years than 
the youngest. Thus " my youngest son is now twenty, 
his eldest brother, or my eldest son, died in infancy." 
Similarly : " tis elder brother died in infancy," the num- 
ber of days or years that the child lived is beside the 
question. Elder and eldest refer to priority of years; 
older and oldest to duration. 

"Elder** [tree], cormption of Ellar. Old Eng. eUam, the elder-tree. 
"Elder" (senior). Old English eald, old; ecUdw (an elder), yldrcL. 
(comp.). yldeste (super.) 

^ ^^orado, el do.rdh\do or el do.ray\do, a country of fabulous 
wealth. The country which OreUa'na, lieutenant of 
Pizarro pretended to have discovered in South America. 
Spanish el dorado, the golden [country]. 
*l«campane, SV.e.kam'.pain, the plant hSlSn'ium. So called, 
says Pliny 21, 33, because it is feigned to have sprung 
from Helen's tears. The French call it orU de cheval. 
lAtin inMa (for hM^nium) eampdna, Helen's bell-floweT. 



284 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Electy edekff to oboose^ The elect, those who are chosen. 

Elect'-ed (Bule scxxvi.), elect'-ing, elecf -or, /i?m. elecfress, 
one who has a right of electing, one elected to rule in a 
German electorate; elec'tor-al. 

Election, e.lik\8hun; electioneer, e.l^'.8hun-eer^, to use 
exertion to promote the election of an M.P., &o. 

Elec'tioneer'-ing ; elec'tidneer'-eir, one who electioneers. 

Elective, e.lek'.tlv; elec'tive-ly ; electorate, e,Wc^.to,rate, 

Elite, a.leeif, the flower of society. (See Eligible.) 

French Section, ileet%f^ Electoral, Slectorat, ^leeteur, ileetreta, ^UU. 
Latin electio, elector, eligo {e-lego, to pick out). 

Electricity, plu. electricities^ e\lek.tri8^\i.t%z ; elec'tric or eleo'- 
trical {ado.)i elec'trioal-ly ; electrician, e\Uh.tr%»V'um^ 

one skilled in the science of electricity; 

"EiecintYi e.lSk\tri.fy ; electrifies, «.Z^.<H.^«; eleottified, 
e.lek\tri.Jide; elec'trify-ing (Rule xi.); electrifiaUe, 
e.Wff ,tri.f%'\a.Vl ; electrification, e.leW.Wlfi.ha'y" ahun ; 

Electrise, e.lek\trize ; elec'trised (3 syL), eleo'tadiB-ing 
(R. xix.), elec'trls-er; electrisation, e.Wt\trLzay"jtTwn: 
electris-able (these are French forms, tlule xxxi.) 

Electrine, e.lek.trln, pertaining to amber. 

Latin electrum, amber ; -ine {-inus), pertaining to. 
Electrode, e.lek\trode, the direction of the electric stream. 

Greek iUktrdn and hddos, the road or way [of the electric ■tream). 

Electrolysis, e' .lek.troV\i.8l8, decomposition effected by elec- 
tricity. (Greek SlektrSn and lusis, dissolution.) 

Electrolyte, e,lek\troditej a substance which can be decom- 
posed by electricity ; elec'trolyt'lc. 
Greek SlektrOn and Itiomai, to be loosened or decomposed. 

Electrophorus, e.l^\tr}jf\S.ru8 (not e,Wc\tro,fc^*jnu), an 

instrunient for collecting or condensing electricity. 
Greek ilektrdn and phdrio, to convey or carry [electricity]. 

Electroscope^ edek\trd.8kope, an instrument for taking the 
existence, character, and force of electricity; elmrtio- 
scopic or electroscopical, e.lik\tro,8k5p''A.kdl (a^j.) 
Greek iWctrdn and 8k6p€o, to surrey, to examine [electrldty]. 

Electrotype, edek^.trd.tipe, a deposited metallic impreesioii 

obtained by electro-galvanism, 
Greek 6Uklr&n tUpos, a type or image [obtai&ed by eleotrkili|% 
Electmm, better electron, e-lik^.trdn, a natural alloy. 

Electro-, -chemistry, -biology, -dynam'ios, •] 
-metallurgy, -plaling. 



AND OF SPELLING, 2J»5 

Electrometer, e*. lSk.tr omf.e.tSr, an instrument for measariog 
the tension or quantity of electric fluid ; electromefrical. 

Greek iWeMn and mStrUnt a metre or measure [of electricity]. 

French ilectrique, Electricity, SlectrisablCy ilectriaaiion, 6lectriur, 
iUetromttre, dlectrophore, Electroscope; Latin electrum; Greek ilic- 
irdfn, amber. Thalds (b.o. 600) noticed the electrical property of 
rubbed amber In attractiiig small substaaces. 

Eleetoary, plu. electuaries, e.ViJtf,tu.a.riz, an opiate confection. 
Latin electiMurium; Greek ek leicho, to lick np. 

EleemoByiiary, eV .e.e.m68'' .i.ner ry (seven syllables, not six). 

Latin eUinnosyndTiu*, eleimosynaria, an almoner; Greek iU&mdaunSf 
pity {^e6, to have pity). 

Elegance, H'.e.gance; el'egant, eregant-ly; elegancies (no 
sing.), SV.e.gdnMZt embellishments. 
Fr. iUganee, iUgani ; Lat. eUfjoM, eUgantia (e-Iego, to pick out). 

ElAgy, plu. elegiee, &,'.e.giz, a funeral or mournful song ; elegiac, 
(LejWdh (not el.e'.ji.ak) ; eregist, one who writes elegies. 

Elegise, iV.e.jize (Rule xxxii.), el^egised, el'egis-ing. 
Fr. dUgie, iUgiaque; Lat. i^gla, iUfgldcus (Gk. iligeia, iUgeids). 

Element, ^r.«.fnent, an uncompounded or simple body; el'emental, 
pertaining to first principles ; elemen'tary, rudimentary. 

The elen^ents (of Aristotle^ fire, air, earth, and water; (of 
alchemists) salt, sulphur, and mercury. 

Out of one's element, out of one's sphere. 
French iUmint, 4l£menta4re; Latin Omentum, EUmentdritu. 

Elemi, iV,i.viy (not e.le€'my)^ a resinous substance brought from 
Ethiopia; elemine, SV.e.mln^ the crystallised resin of 
el$mi sometimes used in lacquer. 
Frendi iUmi; Italian, Spanish, &c., elemi. 

Elephant, {maU) bull elephant, (fern.) cow elephant. 

Elephantine, SV.e,fan*'t%n, very large, pertaining to ele- 
phants; elephantoid, eV.e.jan\toid or elephantoidal, 
il\e,fdn.toid\dlf having the form of an elephant. 

Elephantiasis, SV.e.fdn.t%\a.8ls, a disease affecting the legs 

and feet which swell and look rough like an elephant's. 

French iUphanty iUphantxasiSt elephantin; Latin eUpJumiidcus, 
tUphantii&siSy eUfphanttu; Greeik. iUfphcu. 

Eleyate, il\e.vate, to raise up ; erevat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

erevat-ing (Rule xix.), erevat-or, erevatory ; elevation, 

l^,e.vay''.8hun, height, exaltation. 

French ^Ztfver, iUvaiion, iUvaXeur, iUvaioire; Latin eUMtiOf eliodfre 
{e I^vo, to raise from [a lower state]). 

EleTon, e.Uv'.en (a numeral); eleventh, e.Wv'.enth (an ordinal), 
eleventh-ly (adv.) 
Old English endleof, eleven ; endl%fla or endl^a, the eleventh. ^ 



iS ERRORS OF SPEECH 

filf, plu. el^es (not elfs). Nonns in -If make the plural by 
changing -/ into -»«», as "df" elves^ "self* selves^ 
"shelf" shelves, "calf- ealvtt, "half" hahfes, "wolf" 
wolves (Kule xxxviii.) 

Elfin, SV.fxn; el'flsh {-ish added to nouns means "like," 
added to adj. it is daoL.); el'flsh-lj, •I'fish-neis^ elf-lock. 
Old English df, plu. e\f(u, eJftn; Frendi iif and Hfty pla. tlftB. 
Elgin marbles, el.gin {-gin as in " begin "), Greek sculptures in 
the British Museum collected by Lord Elgin. 

EUdt, e.W.U, to draw out ; elicit-ed (Rule xxxvi.)* elicit-ing ; 
elicitation, e.U8\i.tay".8hun (not French). 
Latin elieitatio, elMo, supine elMtwn (« [ex] laeU, to lure out). 
Elide, e.lidef, to " strike out" a vowel or syllable; elid'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), elid'-ing (Rule xix.) ; elision, e,lizh\uii, 
Fr. ilider, ilinon; Lat. €llaio, eUdenSf didd, sup. eitdum (« [ex] kedoy. 
Eligible, H'.i.jl.b% suitable, qualified ; d'igibly ; eligible-nees, 
iV^i.jtb'Lness ; eligibility, ^Vd.ji.hW'.i.ty, suitableness. 
French iUgibU; Latin iUgo (e [ex] Ugo, to pick out). 

Eliminate, e,l%m\i.nate, to cnst out, to get rid of; elim'inat-ed 
(Riile xxxvi.), elim'inat-ing (Rule xix.), eliminatian, 
e.Um' .i.nay'' ^hun, rejection, a getting rid of. 

French Elimination, iliminer ; Latin dimindiiOt e{{mfndr« (e [ex] 
limen, [to turn] out of doors). 

"EliBionf e.lizh'.un. (/Sf<>£ Elide. ) 

Elite, a.Uetf, the " pick " of society, the best men of the army. 

French 6liU; Latin electus (e [ex] lego, to pick out). 
Elixir, e.lix'.ir, a compound tincture ; elix'ate, to extract by 
boiling; elix'at-ed (Rule xxxvi.), elix'at-ing (Rule xix.); 
elixalion, e' Xix. d^' .shun, decoction into tincture. 
Fr. ilixir {" elixation " is not Fr.); Latin dixir, eUtogrt, to seettM. 
Elizabethan, e.liz\a.beeth'\ant the style in vogue in the reig? 
of Queen Elizabeth. (Cbiefly applied to arehiUcture.) 

Elk, a moose-deer. (Old English etch.) 
Ell, L, hell, eel, heel, heaL 

Ell, a measure of length ; L, one of the four Hqnids. 

Hell, the place of future torment. (Old English hell) 

Eel, Ble (1 syl.), a fish. (Old English dl) 

Heel, part of the foot. (Old English Ml) 

Heal, hele (1 syl.), to cure. (Old English h4S[an\.) 
Ellipse, plu. ellipses, el.llps', elMp^sez (not eJlip^, an OTal fi 

EHipais, plu. ellipses, el.lip\sis, &c. (not e.lip'Mtf Sso. 

Ellip'tic or ellip'tical, pertaining to an eUipse ; 

Ediptic, ek.lip\tik, the apparent annual path of the 



AND OF SPELLING. 287 



Ellip'tical-ly (not t.llp'.ti.kal.ly). 

Ellipsoid, etlip' ,8oid, a solid fignre formed by the revolation 
of an ellipse abont its axis. (Gk. eUeipsis eidoty ellipse-like.) 

Ellipflaidal, eV.lipfoV'ddl, a^j. of ellipMid. 

EUipBOgrapb, eHip\8o.graf, an instroment for describing 

a semi-ellipse. (Gk. elleipsis grapho, to describe.) 

French ellipse, ellipsoide, elliptique, ellipticitd; Latlii eUipHs; Greek 
^fUeipntf a defect (el kipo, to leave behind). 

Elm (1 8yl.» not el'm), a tree. (Old Eoglish elm; Latin ulmtu.^ 

IBlocntiaii) ^.o.ku'\8hnn, oratory; elocn'tion-ist, a teacher of 
elocution; elocutionary, el'.o.ka".8huji.a,ry ; 

Eloqnent, eV.o.quent; el'oqnent-ly ; eroqnenoe, oratory. 

French ilocution, Eloquence, Eloquent; Latin eldcHtio, eldquium, 
trUfquenHa, eW^fuens, gen. eldquentis, y. elOquor, to speak out. 

Elongate, e.ldn'.gate^ to extend ; elon'gat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 

elon'gat-ing ; elongation, e\Un.gay*\8hun. 

Fr. ^xmgaiion (term in Agiron ], the angle at the earth made by a line 
drawn to the sun and some other planet ; Lat. elongcure {JLongua). 

Elope, e.lope\ to run away with a man with the view of mariviug 
him, without the consent of parents or guardians ; 
eloped' (2 syl.), elop'-ing (R. xix.) ; elopement, e.lope'ment. 
Genuan enfkmfen, to run away ; entlaufung, elopement. 
El'oqnent, el'oqnent-ly ; eroqnence. {See Elocution.) 

Else ^1 syL), besides, otherwise, other person or thing ; elsewhere. 
Old English dies, else ; elUs-hwcer, elsewhere. 

finodate, e.lii .8i.date, to make clear, to explain ; elu'cidat-ed, 
elu'cidat-ing, elu'cidat-or, elu'cidatory ; elucidation, 
e,W M.day'\8hun ; elucidative, e.lu'.si.day.Viv. 
Frenoih ^Ittcider, 6Vwsidat%on; Latin eluciddtio, elucidofre (Jmx, light). 

®ude, e.ludefy to evade, to escape; elud'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
elud'-ing (Rule xix.), elud'-er, elud'-ible ; 

Delude', to deceive, delud'-ed, delud'-ing, delud'-er. 
Elusion, e.lu,8hun, evasion. Delu'sion, deception. 
Elusive, e.lu\8iv, evasive ; elu'sive-ly. Delu'sive, deceptive. 
Elusory, e.lyf^o.ry, unreal ; elu'sori-ness, unreality. 
Delusory, de.lu\8o.ryy tending to deceive ; delu'sori-ness. 
French 4lvder; Latin eWMo, eludSre, snp. elunun (liido, to play). 
^^Eii, eV.van (in mine8), a dyke of porphyritic rock crossing or 
interfering with the metal. 

^▼eg, elvz, plu. of elf. (See Elf. ) 

^ysian, eMz'.i.an (not e.lizK.an nor e.lizh' .e.an). 

Elysium, e.Viz'.i.um (not edizh'.e.um), the abode of bliss. 
(The **y" shows the word to he of Greek origin.) 

Lat Elysium, elysvusiad].) ; Gk. ilusion(hi6, to loose [from the body]). 



2«« ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Em- (Latin in-, French and Greek en-), a prefix before -&, -j), or 
-m, and meaning in, into, on, 

Em- (Old Eng. prefix), means *♦ to make,** " to collect into". 
(Much confusion arises from the slipshod use of «m- and 
tm-, but they are widely different in meaning. **Em-" 
(our native prefix) means to make, to collect into ; but 
" Im-" is either tlie preposition in softened before b,p, and 
m, or else a negative joined to an a^jectiye,) 

'em, a contraction of them, 

(Look under im- for words not inserted wider em-,) 

Emacerate or macerate, e.mas'se.rate (q.v.) 

Emaciate, e.mdshf .S.ate, to become thin, to lose flesh ; emaciated, 
e.vfuish\S.dMd (Rule xxxvi.); emaciat-ing (Rule zix.); 
emaciation, e.mush'.S.d'^shun, leanness. 
French 6maci6, dmaciation; Latin emacichre (e maeer, to make lean). 

Emanate, em\a.nate (not eminate), to issue from ; em'ana-ted 
(Kulexxxvi.), em'anat-ing; emsaiB.Uon,em\a.nay''jhun. 
Fr. Smaner, Emanation: Lat. emdndtia (e mdndre, to flow outX 

Emancii)ate, e.m^n\8i.pate, to set at liberty ; eman'cipat-ed 
(H. xxxvi.); eman'cipat.ing (R. xix.), eman'oipat-or ; 
emancipation, e.mdn'.si.pay^'^hun; emancipa'tionigt. 

Emancipist, e.man'.si.pist, an Australian convict who has 
regained his liberty and become a free man. 

French imanciper, Emancipation; Latin emancip&tio, emancipdrt, 
Mandpium is mantt-capio, taken in the hand as a rightful poieee- 
sion ; e-mancipium, is "delivered out of" the hand. In Borne, a 
father freed his son thus : He first sold him to a stranger, where- 
upon he lost all rights oT^^r him, and the stranger had him as a 
"slave-chattel." The stranger then mannmited him as he would 
any ordinary slave. Hence to emancipate is "to give up poesee^ 
sion," but manumit is to "set free" Imanu mittire). 

Emasculate, e.mm'.ku.late, to unman ; emas'culat^ed, emas'ca- 
lat-ing, emas^culat-or; emasculation,e.maa'.^.2a^''^Mm. 

French EmasctUer, &maMulation; Latin em/uc&lator, emoec^ldrs 
(e mas, [to remove] from the male kind). 

Embalm, em.harm\ to fill a dead body with spices, Ac; 
embalmed, em.barmed' ; embalming, em,barm',ing ; 
embalmer, em.barm\er; embalm'-ment. 

Fr. em^umer, embaumeur, emhaum£merU ; Latin im [in] (oMhman, 
[to put] balsams or balms in [a body]. 

Embank', to inclose or protect with a bank ; embanked' (8 qrL), 
embank'-ing, embank'-ment. 

Old English banc, a bank, and prefix em-, "to make** [a bank]. 

Embargo, plu. embargoes (Rule xlii.), em^bar^.goze, an cider to 
prohibit a ship's leaving port or trading for a stated time. 



I 



AS'D OF SPELLING, «» 

to pnt this restraint on a ship; emhar'goed (3 syl.), 
embia^go-ing. {See Quarantine. ) 
(Followed by on; "There is an embargo on..." *' to pnt 
an embargo on...** French mettre embargo sur.,.) 

fi^MUiiah embarifo, ▼. emhaargar; French em5ari7o. 

to go or pat on board ship; embarked' (2 syl.), 
embark'-ing ; embarkation, em* iar.kay'' jihun, 
(There is no reason why the **k" should he changed to t 
in ** ewharkation*' ) 

Wnach embarquert embarquemeiU (** embarkation " la not French). ' 
em.haf'ras (double r and double «), to perplex; 
embaT^raased (3 syl.), embar'rass-ment. 

French emibamu, embamuser (barren a barX 

plu. embaasiea, em\ha8.8iZj the charge of an ambas* 

sador, an ambassador and his suite, an express message 

■ent ofllcially to a foreign nation ; em'bassage (3 syl.) 

(It is very inconsistent to spell "ambassador" with "a** 

and ** embassy " with " e." See Amend, Emendation. ) 

Fr. omftosMde, ambassador; Med. Lat. amboMia; Keltic ambael, a 
minister ; in Italian both are spelt with a, bat in Spanish with e. 

Embattle, em.bdt^.t% to put in battle array ; embattled, «m.. 

baf.fld; embattling, em,bat\tling ; 

Bmbaftle-ment, an indented parapet; embaftlement-ed 

or embaftled, furnished with battlements. 

Fr. embataUUr; Welsh baiel with em-, " to collect into" [battle array]. 

Bnibay', to enclose in a bay ; embayed' (2 syl.), embay'-ing. 

Old Engllwh hyije, a bay ; French baie, with em-, *' to make.*' 

Embed", to lay in a bed of sand, earth, (fee. ; embedd'-ed (Rule 

xxxTi«), embedd'-ing (Rule L), embed'-ment 

Old English bed or bctd, with em-, " to collect into" [a bed]. 

EmbelliBh, em.belV.ish, to beautify; embell'ished (3 syl.^, 

embell'ish-ing, embell'ish-ment, embell'ish-er. 

Frendi em5ettir, em&eUiwettr, embdlisaemtint i Latin heUuSf "pretty," 
with em-, "to make" [pretty]. 

Ember days, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of Ember weeks. 
Emb^ Weeki, corruption of German quatember, a contrac- 
tion of qtLatfuor tem'pora {quaV- tempor% foirr times [a 
year], Quadragesima Sunday, Whit Sunday, Holyrood 
Day in September, and St. Lucia's Day in December, 

EmbezB (no sing,)^ em',herzy cinders or ashes still hot. 

Old Ens^h dmyris, hot ashes. 
Embezzle, em,be3!'a% to pilfer; embezzled. em,b&s\g*ld; 
embezzling; embcB'zle-ment, embezzler, 
Korman embeasUer or beseiery to' filch. 
Embitter, em,Mt^.ter, to make bitter or sad ; embittered, ?m.. 
bif.terd; embitter-ing. (Not tm&itt^, seeEm-.^ 

Old English Mter, bitter, with em-,*' to make " Cbltterl. J 

r 



290 ERRORS OF SPEECn 

Enablazon, emJblay^ .zon (not emMcLz' .on)^ to make heraldic 

designs, to deck in gorgeous colours, to land, to reveal ; 

embla'zoned (3 syl.), embla'zon-ing, embla'zon-er, 

embla'zon-ment, embla^zon-ry. 

French hUu&nnerf hloBon (Oerman hUum^ to prooUim by henld, who 
announced the coat armour of each knight, hence called Uowmry). 

Emblem, ^m'.bUm, a type; emblematio or emblematical, 
hn\hVi.mdif'Xk, i^m\bVi.mat",i.kdl; emblemat'ical-ly. 

Emblemise, em'.hle.mizey to represent emblematically ; 

em'hlemised (3 syL), em'blemis-ing (Bule xix.) 

French emhlime^ emblimatique; Latin emblema; Greek ^mbUmtk. 
(There is no siLch Greek word as emblemizo, Kule xzziL) 

Embody, emMd'.y, to incorporate; embod'y-ing; embodied, 
enU)6d'.id (Rule xi.); embodl-ment. 
Old English bodig, a " body," with em- " to ooUect into " [a body). 
Embolden, em.bowV.den, to make bold ; emboldened, em.b&wV- 
dend; emborden-ing, embol'den-er. 
Old English b^d, with em- " to make ** [bold]. 
Embonpoint (French), an.bo'n,pwoin't in good plight. 

Emborder, em.bo7^.dert to adorn with a border (not emboarder); 
embor'dered (3 syl.), embor'der-ing. 
C' Border" should be bordure. It is not an agent,) 
Old English bord, a border ; French bordure^ with emr, ** to make." 

Emboeom, em.booz\um (not em.buz\um nor em.boze\um)f to snr- 

round with trees ; embos'^omed (3 syL), emboB'om-iag. 

More correctly imbod'om, imbos'omed, imbos'oming. 

Old English bdsm, the bosom, with im- for in, [to hold] in the boflom. 
To " embosom " means to " collect into the bosom,** of " to make a 
bosom." A charch is imboMmed in trees, but children en^bosom 
flowers ; i.e., collect them into their bosom. 

Emboss', to ornament with stamped patterns in relief; embowed^ 
(2 syl.), emboss'-ing, emboss'er, emboss'-ment. (Not im-.) 
French bosu, a "knob" or "protuberance," with em-, "to make.** 

Embonchnre, em\boo,shure' (in French an' .boo\shiii^, (As the 
word is quite naturalised, it is mere affectation as well as 
wrong to call it arrn- or an^-boo-shoor^.) The month of 
a river, the opening of a chimney, &c. 

Embow (not imbow) (" bow" to rhyme with grow\ to make into 
a bow; embowed' (2 syl.), embow'-ing. 

Old English bedh, anything made into a ring, hence a "bow," rASk 
em-, " to make" [a bow or bay]. 

Embowel, enubSw^U (" bow " to rhyme with now), to take ont tlie 
bowele ; embow'eled (3 syl.), embow'el-ing, embow'el-er, 
embow'el-ment, evisceration. 

▲n ill-formed word, from Latin e [to take] "ont,** sad fba 
boel, a boweL Debowel (de privatlye) wuald be bettw, tor i 
can only mean " to put bowels in," and not to " take theni ««<.' 



AND OF SPELLING. Ml 



Embowar, ewLbiSw'.^ ("l»ow" to rhyme with now\ to shelter 
with a bower ; emhow'ered (3 syl.), embow^er-ing. 
Old English 6tir, " a bower/' with ei»-, ** to niAke" [a bower]. 
Embrace' (2 syl.). to hug, to clasp in the arms ; embraced' 
(2 syL), embrae'-ing (R. xix.), embrac'-er, embrace'-ment. 
French Mvt&roMer, embroMtemeid Qmu, the arm, Latin Jtrdc K i u m). 
Xmliraoery, emJtrac€^.e.ry, an attempt to bias a trial by bribery. 
LawLat. embraccaJtor ; Law Fr. embrOMmr, one goilty of 8nboroati>>n. 
EmbrMnire, em.hray' .zhur, an opening in a wall designed for 
men to shoot through at persons outside. 
Frenidk «m5fKU«re, t. embrouer, to fire from. 
Embrocatioii, em\bro.kay''^hun, a fomentation, a lotion. 

Fr. tmbrocatUm; Gk. em hridio, to foment (brieho, to wet the toffaoe). 
Emlxoider, em.hnnj^.der^ to ornament with needlework; em- 
broidered, em.hroy\derd ; embrdy^der-ingjemfarosr'der-er, 
embroi'dery, ornamental needlework. 

French broder, broderie; Welsh brodio^ to embroider; brodiog, em- 
tooidttred; brodiad, embroidery. Em^ "to make" [broderie]. 

Embroil (2 syl.), to involve in a quarrel; embroiled' (2 syl.), 

embioil''-ing, embroil'-er, embroil'-ment, disturbance. 
Fr. tmJbrotnlltrf embroviUement {brouillerf to throw into confusion). 
Embrown^ to make brown ; embrowned', embrown'-ing. 

Old "BiweUfch briknj *' brown," with em- " to make" [brown]. 
Embrae, enuhru' (not imbrue), to stain with blood ; embm'-ing 

(Rule xix.); embmed, eM.brude\ (See Em-.) 
Graek &rtf[tos], " gore," with etiir *• to make " [gory]. 
Embryo, plu. embryos, em\hn,oze (Rule xlii.), the rudiments of 

organic bodies, a crude foi-m, {adj.) rudimentary; em- 

bzyonio, em'.hriMWky relating lo embryos ; embryology, 

em\bri.oV\o.gy, the science which treats of embryos; 

embriologist, emf,bri.oV\o.gist, one skilled in embriology. 
Gk»ek embriixni IdgdSj a discourse about embryos. 
Embryotomy, em*.bri.ot".o.my, a Csesarian operation. 
Oreek embrSum tdnU, a cutting out of an embryo or fcetus. 
Emliryo-flac, the cellular bag which contains aD embryo. 

(The "y " shows that these words are from the Greek, hut 

embryon would be mme correct than " embryo" which is 

a phonetic spelling of the French word.) 
Frenob, Spanish, Latin embryon; Italian em&ryone; Greek embr&dn. 
EmendatioB, e\m^i.day^'^huny correction of faults; emendator, 

e.ml&n.da\tor ; emen'datory, 
Amend', to correct faults ; amend'-ed ( R. xxxvi.), amend'-ing, 

amend'- ment, amend'-able, amen'datory. 
This double form of prefix is to be regretted, the " e'^Jbrm is Latin, 

the "a" form French. A menda means "without fault" or 

" faultless : " e menda means " purged of faults. " 
lAttn enMndS/TBt to purge of faults ; French amender, om^ncf ement, ^ 

amendabU. The Latin prefix is to be preierxed. ^M 



m ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Emerald, (im\esuld (not (im\e,ra,l), a precious stona (green); 
Emerald Me, Ireland, noted for its verdure. 
Ok. smaragdiis: Lat. miaragdtu; ItaL tmeraldo; Span. e$mamldo. 
Emerge, e.merge\ to rise np to the surface, to issue from ; 
Immerge' or immerse' (2 syL), to plunge under water. 
Emerge'^ emerged' (2 syl.), emerg'-lng (Rule xix.), 
emerg'ent, emer'gent-ly ; emerg'-ence. 

Emer'genqy, plu. emergencies, e.met^^gen^iz (Rule zliy.>, a 
special case unexpectedly "merging out of" the usual 
routine, a pressing necessity (not imnUrgency), 

Emersion, e.mef^^hun, a rising out of water, (fee; 

Immersion, a plunging into or under water. 

(*• Emerge" is followed by from, ** Immerge," " Immene," 1^ in.) 
French Emergent; Latin emergens^ gen. -gentis, emergo, supine emer- 
sum (e mergo, [to rise] out from a plunge under water). 

Emeritus, e.mer^ry.tus (not em.e.ri\tu8)f one pensioned off after 
long services. Generally applied to college professors. 
Latin emiHtum, a pension tor service ; emirUus, (adj.) 
Emerods (plu.)^ em\e,r5dz (ought to be hcmorroids), bloody piles. 

Gk haimorroidea {haimorroid, bloody flux, haima rhi6, to flow blood). 
{In compound words ending with rTiio^ the "h" is dropped. Thus 

Liddell and Scott very properly give the word atfJkdp/HHa, and not 

the vicious form alfioji/ioia, Juemorrboda,) 

Emersion, e.mer^.8hun, {See Emerge.) 

Emery, em\e.ry, a hard mineral substance used for polishing 
metal wares. Emery paper, Emery dotii. 

French Smeri ; Latin «mirts ; Greek smwria or amiria. 

The rocks of Emery, cap. of Naxos (Gyclades), abound in this mii Bfr nl 

Emetic, e.mH'.ik, a provocative of vomiting ; emeficaUy. 

French imiHque: Latin emetlcua; Greek (meo^ to vomit. 
Emeute (French), d.mute\ a riot, an uprising. (Latin emotuM,) 
Emigrate, em'.i.grate (same as mif grate), to leave one's nativfl 
place to settle in another; em'igrat-ed (Rule xxxvi.>t 
em'igrat-ing (Rule xix) ; em'igrant, one who emigrates 
emigration, em'.i.gray" ^hun ; em'igrater. 

French Hnigrer, Smigratian, imigrant; Latin emigran$, gvn. mpm^'i 
grantiHf emigratio, tmigraxt (e migro^ to migrate from.) 

Bndnent, em'.i.nent, famous. Im'minent, threatening. 

Em'inence, celebrity. Im'minence, an impending dang^^^ 

Eminency, ptu. eminencies, em\i.nin,8U (Rule zliv.) 

Em'inent-ly, conspicuously. Im'minent-ly, menacin^^ 

Your Eminence, the title of address given to cardinals. 

French Eminent, Eminence; Latin etnlnerUf geiLemXnmUiM, 

(e mineo, to hang out conspicuonsljr). 
French imminent, imminence; Latin immCtiens, g«n. 

imminentia {in mineo, to hang over menacing^). 



AND OF SPELLINO. 2M 



Emir, t.mtef, a Tnrkish title. The descendants of Mahomet 
are called emirs. (Arabic amix^ a commander.) 

Knlflsary, ptu. emissaries, ei}»'.u.<a.Hf (R. zliy.), a secret agenu 

Emjfldon, «.m{sV.itn. {B%t Emit.) 

Emit, «.m{f , to discharge, to throw out. Em'met, an ant. 

Emitt'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), emitt'-ing (Rule i.); emission, 

e.mish'.un; em'issary (g.v.) 

French tfmettr«, (fmi^non^ iiMMaXtt; Latin ^miuAriHM^ «miM<o, 
tmUta, supine emiMO* (< mitto, to send forth). 

Emmet, em\mU, an ant. Emit, e.mU\ to discharge. 

Old English amde or €tmette, ctmeU-hyllt an ant-hilL 

EmoUiate, ^.m^r.2i.at«» to soften; emolliat-ed (Rule xxxvi-X 

emolliat-ing (Rule xix.) ; emollient, i.mdl\li,ent ; emol- 

lition, ^,m6l.lUh' .un^ the act of softening. 

French imolUtni; Latin emoUiena, gen. emoUienUi, mnotlUi&, emot- 
lire {moUio, to make soft, with « intensive). 

Emolimient, e,m5V.u.ment (only one I), profit, stipend; emoln- 
ment-al, e.m5V.u.m^\tal, 

French Emolument; Latin emdlUmentwn, profit arising from grist 
(enuSKdre, to grind thorooRhly ; mtfia, a mill). 

Emotion, e,mS'.8Jmnf excitement; emo'tion-al, sensational. 
Fr. imolion; Lat. emStio, «mdMO, snp. emOtum {nUfveo, to move). 

Snpsle, enLpaW (not em-pail), to put to death by driving a 

stake through the body; emp&led' (2 syl.), 6mp8l'-lng 

(Rule xix.), empal'-er, empale'-ment (Rule xviii. b). 

French empaler empaUment ; Latin palum, a stake. Being French, 
«ia- is better than the Latin prefix tm-. {Set'Esnr.) 

^■puuieL Should be impannel {q.v.) It means [to put] in 
the roll or parchment. {See Em-.) 
Utin panntM, doth oif any sort : Greek pinoB, with im^, "in." 
™P8ror, fem. empress, eitC.pi.roTy em'.press (not emperess). 

ftench empereur, imp^atriee; Latin impifrdtar, imp^rdttix, ▼. im- 
pfrwrty to cmmand (im [in] jxtro, to provide for [getting a tiling 
wau], kence " to give orders,*^ " to comm«nd.*' 

plu. emphases, em\/djUj em\fdjee$, stress of voice 
on a word or syllable ; 

^"Phm'se , em'.fajize; em'^phaslsed (3 syL), em'phasZs-isg 
(Role xix.), em'phaslli-er (Rule xxxiii) 

B^iatic, m./af .1* ; emphatical, em.fatf.i.kal; empbaT- 
«l-ly. (The -ph- points to a Greek source.) 

^nekoipMMs, emphdUk6$; Lathi emphOtU, empMHeus. 
Tatn is no Greek verb corresponcttng to emptuuite •.Bale xzxL) 

(^ ayL), em'peror, fem. empre«, hut imperiaL impe- 
naMj; inpe'rioiu, impe'rioiis-ly, impe'rious-iiMi, 

Mm w f iri iii^^ mperdtar, fem. imp^fnUrix; French «iiif4r«, 



294 ERRORS OF SPEKCB 

Empiiio, em.\pi.fi'k (ought to be em.pi'M'k), a qaack ; empbical, 

em.pir^ri.kdl, tentative, nnscientiflc; empirlcal-ly ; 

empiTicifiixi, €7n,piT^Ti,HgMt^ 

French empirique, empirinM; Satin eMplriM, emgrtrieiw; Greek 
empeirikCs, empeiria, experience(em[en]j»eiratf, totryonCsomeoBe]). 

Emplead, em.pleed\ to indict, to charge with a crime. 

Fr. pla4d, Lat. ptaeXtiun, a "plea/* with em-, '*to make" [a plea]. 

Employ', to keep at work, to use ; employed' (2 syl.), employ'- 

ing (Rule xiil), employ'-ment ; employ'-er, one who 

employs ao other; employee, em.ploy'xe^ or employ^ 

fFrench), an.ploH.yd, one employed by another. 

French employer, emploi : Latin im [in] plico, to fold in. 
This word ought to be spelt with imr, bnt we hare taken it wttk Ha 
faulty spelling from the French. 

Emporium, plu. emporia, or emporiimis, a place of trade. 

Lat. emporium, an entrepot (Gk. empdria, traffic, emptfrtfs^ a mefchantX 
Empower, em.pow\er ("-pow-" to rhyme with now)^ to authorise; 
empow'ered (3 syl.), empow'er-iiig. 
French pouvoir, "powar,** with em-, "to giye to one" [power]. 
Empress /em. o/ emperor, em^.press, em'.pesor; em'pire (2 syl.). 
but imperial, %m.pe'.ri.al; impe'riaV-Iy ; im];>erioiia, 
im.pt.ri.uB; impe'iious-ly, impe'rious-ness. 
French empire, empereur, impirairice, imperial. 
Empty, plu. empties, em'.ty, em\t\z, void, to exhaust of eon- 
tents ; emptied, em'.ted : emp'ti-ness (R. xi.), emp'ty-ing. 
Old English cemti or emtig, t. agmt[ian] or amtigiian]. 
Empyema, em\pi.e^\mah, a collection of purulent matter in the 
cavity of the chest. 
Fr. empyime; Lat. em,pyimA; Gk. emputfnui (em [en] puon, pot). 

Empyrean, em.pi-ree' .an (not em.pir'ri.a/n), the highest heayen, 
supposed by Ptolemy to be pure elemental fire. 

Empyreal, em,pv/re.al (ought to be em\pi.ree' .aV^ 
Lat. empyrceue ; Gk. empitHifs [our&nds], ie. em [enlpwr, made of ftre. 
Empyreuma, €m\pi.roo\mah, the smell which rises from or- 
ganic substances burnt in close vessels ; empyremnalic, 
em\pi.ru.mdf\lk ; empyreumatlcaL 
Fr.em2>yreume, empyrewmatique; Gk. empitrett^, tosetonllrefpttr.flreX 
Emu or emeu, ^.muj the ostrich of Australia. 

Emulate, em'u.late, to vie with; em'ulat-ed (Bule xxxri), 
em'ulat-ing (Rule xix.), em'ulat-or; emulatioiiif <m'.ti.- 
lay'^^hun; emulative, em\u.la.tiv ; emnIatiY»4y. 

Emulous, em\u.lu8 ; em'ulous-ly, em'uloiu-iMeB. 
French imulation; liatin cemHUtH^, cemiUdtor, mmi&hm,r. 
Emulsion, e.mfiV.8him, a lubricating milky liquid; 

e.mvl'.g^v : emulgent, e.mUVJ^t, the art<?ry and vein 



AND OF SPELUirO. 2t>5 



wbich supply Uood to the kidneys, wbere the ancients 
thought it was milked or strained. 
Fr. imMigw^ tfrnuMon, &mulaif; JM. nmlgir^ (/nul^eo, to voOk). 

(a Freneh form of the Anglo-Saxon em-), signifying ** to 
make/' "to collect;" it stands before any letter except 
b, j>, and m. {See Hmr,) 

£&- (a Gte^ and French form corresponding to the Latin in-), 
sometimes it is intensive, and sometimes means in or 
into. It should never be attached to Latin words, 
except they come through the French. 

-en (affixed to nouns). Latin -enlvsl -anlml " one of," *' one 
belonging to " : citiz-en. 

-en (affixed to verbs), denotes causation, " to make :" asfatt-en, 
sweeUen, length-en, short-en, 

-en (affixed to adj.), means "ma'le of**: gold-en, lead-en. It is 
also the affix of the past part, of " strong " verbs, as 
" rise," risen ; " break," broken, 

Snaible, enji'.h% to make able ; enabled, en.a',h'ld ; ena^bMng. 
Latin hXMlii, ''able," with en- *'to make" [able]. 

S&act, en.acf (not e.nacf) to decree, to pass into law ; enaet'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.) ; enact'-ing, enact'-or (R. xxxvii.); enao- 
tive, enMd'.tiv ; enacf -ment, a measure made into law. 
Lat. aeitk, " legal acts or decrees," with an- " to make " [an act or law. 1 
Enamel, en.S'nf.H, a hard glossy surface resembling crystal, to 
coat with enamel; enam'elled (8 syl.), enam'ell-ed 
(Rule i.), emam'ell-er. 
French ^maU, a composition made of calcined glass, &o., with en-. 

Enamour, ^Mm'.er, to charm ; enam'oured (3 8yl.),enam'our-ing. 
French anumr, " love," with en-, ** to make " or create [love]. 

Enarthrosis, en\ar,Thrd'\sl8, the insertion of one bone into 
another, so as to make a ball and-socket joint. 
Fr. HuMihrose ; Gk. arthr&n, *' a socket-joint," with en- "to make." 

Encage (3 syL), to coop in a cage; encaged' (2 syl.) encag'-ing 
(R. xix.) Better incage, to shut up in a cage. (Fr. cage.) 

Encamp^ to pitch tents, to dwell in tents; encamped, en.camp1f; 
encamp'4ng, encamp'-ment. 
Latin campus, " a tent," "a camp," with en-, "to make '^ [a camp]. 

Encase' (S syl.), to put into a case, to enclose ; encased' (2 syl.), 
enoas-dng. Incase-ment, a putting into a case or cases. 
French encaiaser {en caisse). Not incase, as it is a French word. 

Encaustic, en.kaus^tlk, a method of painting with wax burnt 

in with hot iron (adj.), as encaustic tiles. 

French encaustique; Latin encau8H<yu8, encausttce; Greek egkatigtiki 
(eg [en] Icaid, to bum into). 



»6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Encave' (2 syl.), to hide in a cave ; encaved' (2 syl.), encaV-ing 
(Bale xix.)> encave'-xnent. (Better incave^ being Latin.) 
Latin e&via, a cave, with the Latin inreflz in- not the French €%-. 

-ence or -ency (Latin -entia) added to abstract verbal nouns: as 
exeell-enee, excell-ency. 

-enoe forms the termination of between 200 and 300 words, but 
there are not above half.a-dozen ending in -tme : as eon- 
derue, immense, dispense, expense, prepense, and recom- 
pense (Rale xxvi.) 

Enceinte (French) ah*n.8ainf {-nt nasal, but not angjsangt), 
Encephalon, en^Hf .aMn, the brain, the contents of the cranium. 

Encephala {plu.), en^f\a.lah, limpets and other moUnsos 
with a distinct head ; encephalons, en.sSf.a,lu8 (a^j.) 

Encephalic, en'^e.fdV\ik (not en^if,a.lik), belonging to 
the brain. 

Encephalgia, en\8^.fdl''Ji,ah, chronic pain of the head. 

Encephalitis, en'-8^f-a.li'\tis, inflammation of the brain 
{-itis, Greek termination, denotes inflammation). 

Encephaloid, en^Sfadoid, resembling the materials of the 

brain. (Greek egkephaWs eidSs, brain-like.) 
French eneiphdU; Greek egkifphdUfs {eg [en] hUphOU, in the erantomX 

Enchain', to bind with chains ; enchained' (2 syl.), enchain'-ing, 

enchain'-ment. (Not in-, being French.) 
French endiainer (ckair^, Latin edUna, v. edUndre, to chain). 
Enchanf , to charm, to fascinate, to bewitch ; enchaaf-ed 

B. xxxvi.); enchanf-ing; enchanfing-ly, delightfully; 

enchant'-er, fern, enchant'ress ; enchant^^ment. 

(Not in-, being i^om the French.) 

French enchanter, ent^nteur, fern, enehanteresae, t$uiiOMtmmt; 
Latin incantdre, incantdtor, incantaanerUum. 

Enchase' (2 syL), to set in a frame, to adorn with embossed 
work; enchased' (2 syl.), enchas'-ing. (Noc in-, being fV.) 
French enchdsser {chaaHa, a frame ; Latin capaa, a box, t. eapio). 

Enchiridion or enchiridimn, plu. enchiridia, en'.ki.rid^\i,^ (or 
.um), en\ki.rid^\i,ah, a mannal. 

French enchiridion: Greek enchlrtdion: Latin mehiridUim. (ta dMr 
[what can be held] in the hand). 

Enchorial, en.kd'.riMl, applied to the ordinary writing of the 
ancient Egyptians. The sacred writing was in lilsro- 
glyphics, hV-e-ro.gUf'-iks, 
Greek egchdrtda, domestic (fihdros, a district, a place). 
Endrde, en^er^.k'l, to snrround; endrded, enj9f^.kld; ea« 
circling, en,8ef^.kling. 
Old £ng. drcol or circul ; Fr. eerele, with en- to make [a eirel*]. 



AND OF SPELLING. 297 

"Rw^^wtiftt en.kKf.ik, a word joined to another so closely as to 
seem a part thereof: as "prithee," where the prononn 
thee is thrown on the verb pray; "wiJly nilly," where 
the pronoun ye is joined to llie verbs will and mZ2=will 
not. Other examples are ienX sha*n% wo'n% mas'n't. 
Flrench endiiique; Latin enelUleus; Qnek egkliWeds (eg [en] kUnd, 
to leftn on anoiherX 

EnoloBe, en.klozf; enclosed' (3 syl.), endaa'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Endonue, en.kld^jskiir, envelopment, as the ''enclosure" 
of letters in envelopes saves much trouble ; that which is 
endosed, as your letter with its " enclosure " came to 
hand this morning ; that which encloses, as an envelope 
is the ** enclosure " of a letter. 
Trench das. (Latin daudOf to shut np ; Old English duaa, eloeeX 
Inm, plu. enoominms (very rarely enoomia), en.k(y.mi.iimM 
(en.k5.muah)y high praise; enco'miast; encomiastio, 
en.k5^mi.as'\tlk ; encomias'tical, encomiaa'tical-Iy. 

Latin eneSmiadety enoGmxasiicM, enodmium, plu. encomia; Oreek 

Eion, pla. egib^mia, egk&mlds {hOmdBt a revel) in honour of 
^uflj, en kdmOt, a hymn to the victor in a [Bacchic] revel, 
a eulogy or panegyric. 

I'pass, en.kum\pa8 (not ineomfptus), to surround ; enoom- 

paaeed, en.kiim'.past; encompass-ing, en.kum\pds.ing. 

French en oom/paMer, to compass-in [on all sides]. 

ong.kore^ (not en.kore'), a call for a repetition, to demnnd 

a repetition; encored, o7ip.fcor<i'; encor'-ing (Rule xix.) 

This !■ one of the French words quite perverted in our language. 
What we call *' encore," is &i« in French, and encore in French 
means yet, dill (adv. a continuation), as iZ rCed pas encore venu, 
he is not yet come ; f attends encore, I am still waiting ; je n< 
Vattenda pas encore, I do not expect him yet. 

Enoonnter, en,koun\ter, a chance meeting, a combat, to meet 
unezpectedlv, to meet in a hostile manner ; encountered, 
en.koun\terd ; encoun'ter-ing. 
French eneontre {en eontre, in contrary [directions], in opposition). 
EnooDZBge, en.kufrage, to embolden; encour'aged (3 syl.); 
. enconr'ag-ing (R. xix.), encour'age-ment (only five words 
drop the 'eheforement,v\z.acknowledg-mentyabridg-ment, 
lodg-mentf judg-ment, and argu^ment, Rule xviii., IT). 
French enoowrager, eneowragement. (See Courage.) 
Enczinite, en'.krtnite, the stone-lily, and other similar fossils ; 
encrinitic, en\kfi.nit".ik, (ailj.) or en'crinit'aL 
Grinoidean, plu. crinoideans, crinoidea, kri.noi'.d^.an, 
kri.noCdS.anz, kri.noi'.di.ah, fossils having a lily-shaped 
disc supported on a jointed stem ; they are — 
Encrinit^i en'kri.nlte8, when the stem is cylindrical ; and 
Pentacrinites, pen'-ta.kri,nite8, when it is pentag'onal. 
Oreek Iritum, plu. hrwUki, *' a lily," with -ite for lithos a stone, and 
the prefix an- " to make into " [a lily stone], -oid is eidoi, like. 



298 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Bnoioaoh' (d syl.), to intmde npon another's rights (fMlowed 
by <m or upon)\ encroached^ (3 sjl.), eneroiifOh'-iiig, 
encroach'ing-ly, encroach'-er, encroaoh'-ment. 

French cuxracher, to hook on [soraethincH [cfoc, a hook). The French 

Erefiz is preferable, and -invaeh is a ymy vicious form of ** crook." 
low Lathi enorocAomen^iMik 

Encmst (should be incnist, Latin incroBtaret Frenoh ineruster). 

Encumber, en,kUm' .hety to burden, to clog; encnm'hered (8 syL), 
enoum'ber-ing, enouml>6riDg-ly, encmn'ber-er. 

Encumbrance, en.kum'.brarue (not encuniber-ance). 
Encumbrancer, en.kum'.bran,8er. 
French encomJ)rer; Latin incumbire, to lie l^Km. 
Encyclical, en.8lk\li.kdl, sent round, as the Pope's eaojrclical 
letter, the letter ** sent round " to all his biahop^i. 

French encydU^M: Latin eneyeliua (The -v- shows it to be G-reek). 
Greek egfoukUda^ drcolar (eg [en] kvJUod, to more in a circle). 

Eneydopedia, encydopndia, cyclopcBdia, cyclopedia, mLty'- 
klo.pee"-di-ah, sy^-klo.pee^'-di-ah, an alphabetie^d sum- 
mary of every branch of knowledge; ency'dope'dian 
iad(j.) or ency'clope'dical; encydope'dist, one who com- 
piles an encyclopedia, one who aids in such a compila- 
tion; encydopedism, en.8i\klo.pee'\dizm. 

The better form is without the prefix tn- ; the word is then Greek 
kuklds paideia, a round of instruction. " Encyclopasdla" means 
" encyclical instruction," or instruction sent round like a drcolar 
{eg [en] kuklioa, revolving, going in succession, periodicalX The 
idea is " a book or number of books containing tl^ whole range or 
round of knowledge," and not an " encyclical dictionary of instmc- 
tion." It is not smt ro%md like a circular at aU. ' 

Encyst' (not incyst. It is Greek not Latin), to enclose in a 
cyst; encyst'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), encyst'-ing, endosed in 

a cyst, consisting of cysts. , 

Insist, insist'-ed, insist'-ing, to urge with authority. 

" Encyst," Greek en kustiSf a bag or pouch (the -y- shows it ia-Ghnek). 
" Insist." Latin in sisto, to make a set stand on [what yon si^r]. 

-end (an Anglo-Saxon termination of masculine nouns), denotes 
*• an agent." Surviving examples very rare. 

-end. Old English ende, Latin e7vd[u8], termination of active 
participles, as rever-end, Latin rever-endu9y to be re\-«red. 

End, the finish, to finish ; end'-ed (R. xxxvi.). end'-ing; end'-lesa, 
without end ; endless-ly, end'less^ness ; end'wisa (not 
endwaySj German weise, Old English wiSt direetion). 

The be-all and end-all, the only state of being and its 

entire termination. 

Old English ende, v. end[ian\ past endede, past part, eiwleil, 
endless ; endleaalice, endlessly ; endUcunea, endlf 
endmost ; endxmg^ an ending ; endvUe, endwise. 



Al^D OF SPELLING. IM 



1 



Bodaaiage, enA&w.'.ag€, to injnre; endam'aged (3 fiyl.)* en- 
dam'ag-ing (Kule xix.), endam'age-nieitt (Rale zviii., IT). 

Old English dem ; Latin damwum, "hnrt," with ei»-. "to make or 
ocmfer " Linitur] ; French endfymmag^ 

Endanger, enJtain\jir^ to expose to danger; endan^gered 
(3 syL), endan'ger-ing, cndan'ger-ment. 
• French dam/ger, with tt^ ** to make or pnt into ** [dangcrl. 

Bndtar, en^dere', to make dear ; endeared' (2 syl.)* endear^-ing, 
endear^ing-ly; endeared-nese, en,d9Qr^ .edoiess^Bi, xxxvi. ) ; 
endear'-ment (-ment, the ''cause of," *Hhe state of ")» that 
which produces fondness, the state of being dear. 
Old English dt&r, "dear, helored,** with Wr, *'Xo make" [dour]. 

Encfeavonr, en.dhii'jor^ an effort, to use effort, to attempt; 
endeavoured, <n.<ieT/.or<2; endeay'our-ing. 
Fr. d0voir, ''dutj,'* with en-, '*to make :** i.e., faire devoir, to attompt. 

Endemic, en.dhrffXk [disease], a local [disease]. 

French endimAqat ; Greek end^m68, in the place, at home, t. en- 
dimio, to live in a place. In Oreek the -de- is long. 

Endennic, [medicine] to be applied to the skin. 
Oreek en derma [to he nsed] on the skin. 

Endive, en'Mv, a vegetable. (Fr. endive, Lat. intybus or intiibum, 

JinAamnf (2 syl.), to write on the back of a document; endorsed 
^ qrl.)* endors'-ing (Bule xix.), endors'-er, the person 
who writes his name on the back of a bill, and makes 
himself liable for its payment ; endorsee, the person to 
whom the bill is assigned or delivered ; endorse'-ment. 

French endoa^ endosser, endossement, evidosseur (doe, Lat. do$tum or 
dorgum, the back, [to write] on the back). 

Endogens, en'.do.jenz, plants like palms, grasses, and rushes, 
whose growth takes place from within, and not by ex- 
ternal concentric layers ; endogenous, en,dqj\e.nu8 (a^j.) 
Greek endon gend, to produce within. 
Efldogeiiite, en,dcj\ejiute, a fossil palm, rush, &c. 
Greek endon gend, with -ite; that is, lithoe, a stone or foeslL 
Endophloeum, en\d6.jiee'\um, the inner bark. 
Greek tnddn phlMds, the inside bark. 

Bttdopthyllons, en.dSf\U.lus, evolved within a leaf or sheath. 
OreA «suU^ phulldn, within the leaf. (Should be en. dSJKV. liu, ) 
Endopleuia, en\do.pW\rah, the inner covering of seed. 
Or«^ endiyn pleura, the inner side [of the seed sheath]. 
Endorhizal, en'do.n'\zal, applied to those rootlets which 
burst through the coverin','8 of the seed before they elon- 
gate downwards. (Better without h, being a comp. word.) 
Greek mddn rMm, root within [the seed]. {See Emerods, n$U,) 



300 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Endosmose, en'.d68.mo8ey the transmission of gases, &e., to 
the interior of porous substances. 

Ezosmose, esfJbs.mose, the transmission of gases, &&, to the 

exterior of porous substances. 
Ok. ind&n damds, iropnlBion inwards ; ex tfmu>9, impulsion ontwaids. 
Endosperm, en\d5.8perm, albu'men of seeds. 
Greek enddn tpermaf within the sperm or embryo-sac. 
EndosporouB, en\dd.8po'\ru8f applied to those fungi which 

have their spores (1 syl.), contained in a case. 
Greek enddn spOra, spores [contained] in [a case]. 

Endostome, en\dd.8tovit the passage through the inner 
integument of an ovule (2 syL) («£5ma, a mouth). 

•«ndouB (Latin termination -endtu), ** calculated to produce": as 
trem-endou8, "calculated to produce trembling or tremomr.** 

Endow, erudow' (-d5w to rhyme with note), to settle a permanent 

fund on [an institution], to furnish; enddwed' (3 syL), 

endSw'-ing; endow'-ment, a fund settled on [an itistitu- 

tioD], talents ; endSw'-er, one who endows. (See Endue.) 

Norm, ervdouer; Fr. doner; Lat. do«, "a dowry, "with en- "to make." 

Endne, enAu', to invest ; endued' (2 syl.), endu'-ing, B. six. 
(Gk. form). Indue, indued', indu'-ing, B. xiz. (Lat. form.) 
Greek tmduo; Latin induo, to put on [clothes]. 

Endure' (2 svl.), to bear, to suffer ; endured' (2 syl.), dndmK-hig, 
endur'ing-ly, endur'-eif, endur'-able (1st Latin coiq.), 
endur'able-ness, endur'ably, endur'ance; but 

Indurate, in'.dH.rate, to harden; in'dnrat-ed, in'dnr&t-iiig; 

induration, in'.du.rai/\8hun, 
Fr. endurer; Lat. inddratio, indurgrt to grow hardened {dwnu, hard . 
Eneid, better JEneid, e.neeWd (not e'.nSXd)y Virgil's epic poem 
about iEneas {E.nee\(i8). 
-id (a patronymic), "pertaining to,** "concerning'* [iEneaa]. 

Enema, ejnee\mah (not en\^.Tnah)y a clyster, an instrument used 

for medical injections. 

This word, being the Greek en hiimi^ " to send into," ought to be 
emhima, according to our English custom oi forming such wocdn 

Enemy, phi, enemies, en^cmlz, a foe ; en'mity, plu. enmittet. 

Inimical, inAmf.i.kal, hostile ; inim'ical-ly. 

French tnnemi (wrong) ; Latin inCmteiw, inCmfeCMo, Inliiiliet. 0«r 
word enemy is bad, and the French word worse. As emy maana ** a 
friend" (Latin amicus), "en emy" should mean "to makeafiknd,** 
the Latin in- (negative) amicus (not a friend) is oonsijttant. 

Energy, plu. energies, en\er.gU (Rule zliv.), vigoroas eflbit; 
energetic, en\erjitf\lk ; energetical, evCerjelf'JLkSL 

Energise, en'.tr.gize, to infuse vigour into; ea'erglwd, 

en'ergis-ing (Rule ziz.) 
Ft. mergie, tfnergi^ue; Lat. ener^iia; Qk. erflfon, work. (Set B. zzxL) 



A\D OF SPEfJJiVG. sot 



Bnflorvttte, en',er,vate (not e.ner^.vate)y to enfeeble ; en'eirat-ed 

(Bnle zxxvi.), en'ervat-ing (Rule xiz.)> enervation, 

en\er.vay'\shun; en'ervator (Rule xzxvii.) 

FreiM^ inerver, Mervaiion; Latin tnervdtiOt enervaioTf tnervdn 
(enervut, to deprire of nerve). 

Enfeeble, en/eel'.b% to weaken; enfeebled, enJeeWld; en- 

feeHbling, enfeeble-ment, en.fee\b*l.ment. 

French affaiblir, affaiblisaement ; faxbUt older torm/aQ>le, " feeble," 
with en- " to make ** [feeble]. 

HnfBOfl^ en,fif (by lawyers), en.feer (by others), to invest with 

a fee or fief; enfeoffed' (2 syl.),enfeoff'-mg, enfeoff'-ment, 

the deed which oonveys a fee or fief. 

Trench >7</V 1^^ iMtin feodum, a fee or teojS.feoffametUum, a feoff- 
ment, feoffdtor, a feoffer, feoffdtus, a feoffee. Our word in feodum, 
" a fee or fecff," with en- " to convey " [a fee]. 

Enfilade, en'.ftldde't to rake with shot or shell lengthwise; 

enfilad'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), enfilad'-i^g (Rule xix.) 

Vrench enfiUtde, v. enjiler; Latin filum, "a thread or line,** with 
eii- '* to make" [a line with shot and shell]. 

Enfiiroe' (2 syL), to constrain; enforced' (2 syl.), enforp'-ing 
(Rule xix.), enforc'^er, enforce'-ment, enforce'-abl^. 
Vrench forcer, force, with en- " to make or impart" Lforce]. 

Sn&anchifle, en,frSn'.chiz, to invest with civil nnd political 

rights, to liberate ; enfran'chised (3 syl.), enfran'chiis-ing 

(Rule xix.), enfran'ch!s-er, enfran'chlse-ment (R. xviii.) 

French affranchir, affranchissement ; Low Latin /ranc^ema, finKn- 
eKUSi-as {frartoue " free," with en- " to make " [free]). 

Engage, en.gdje', to occupy; engaged' (2 syl.), occupied, 

bespoke in a dance, promised in marriage ; engag-ing, 

en,gdje.ing (Rule xix.); enga'ging-ly, engage'-ment 

(Rule xviii.); engaged-ness, en.gdje' .ed.ness (Rule xxxvi.) 

French engager, engagement; Old English loatd, "a pledge," with 
en- '*to make" [a pledge] ; Latin vddimSnium. 

Bngarriflon, en.ga'/ri.son (a corruption of engamison), to put into 
garrison, to furnish with ganison ; engar'risoned (4 syl.), 
engar'riaon-ing (double r). 

French and German gamison, a "garrison," with en-, "to make," 
"to supply with " [a garrison] ; Low Lat. gamiHo ; Dutch waarieon ; 
Anglo-Saxon V3dr, an enclosure, v. vjdrian, to ward or guard. 

Sogender, €n.jtn'.der, to form, to produce : as Meteors are en- 
gendered in, the atmosphere ; angry words engender strife. 
Engendered, en.jen\derd ; engen'der-ing, engen'der-er. 

Fr. engendrer; Lat. genHre, supine, ginitum, to beget : Gk. gino, 
eg [en] gign&mai or eg [en] ginomai, to be produced in [something]. 

>, en'jin, a machine composed of several parts ; engineer, 
en'.gl,nee/, a maker of engines, one whose vocation ia \iie* 
eonstruction of roads, forts, docks, d^c. 'MiHtaxy eii- 
gineer, one employed on military works; Oivil englne^x. 



-802 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

one employed on works not of « military character; «n'-' 
gineer'ing, the bnsiness of an eagineer. 

Engine-man, «n'-jln.man, one who works an engine ; 

Jinny, contraction of engine^ with -y, diminutive, a little 
engine; vls dk spinning jinny. 

French imgiiiieur, g4nie, trigiii; Latin inginiwrn^ a contrivance. 
Engird", past engird'-ed, past part, engirt [or engirded], to gird. 

Old Eng. gyrdian\y past gyrdde^ p. p. Qyrded^ with en- for emb-, aboot 
Bnglifth, In'.glishy pertaining to England {Ingland), the language; 

The English, the people of England. 

An Englishman, phu Englishmen. *' Englishmen** is the 
definite plu., as 2, 3, 4, &c., Englishmen, but The English 
is the indefinite plu. (Rule xlvi., ^, 

An English-woman, pbi. English-wometiL. 

Anglecise, an^gleMze, to make English, to convert to the 
form and character of English words, <fec.; angledsed, 
an'.gle.8lzd ; an'gleciS'-ing (Rule xix.) ; 

Anglicism, an\gle.clzm^ an English idiom. 

Anglice, an\gli.se (adv.), in English. 

Anglican, an\gli.kan (adj.), English : as the Anglican CkwreK 

Old English Bnglitc, Englisc-man, Engla4and, Angol, one who lived in 
Anglen. It is a pity tiiat the initial A- has been substituted for 
£- in these latter words, as it dogmatises on a doubtftd question. 

Engorge' (2 syl.), to swallow greedily; engorged' (2 syL), en- 

gorg'-ing (Rule xix.), engorge'-ment (Rule xviii.) 

French gorger, to gorge; Latin gwrgat, a glutton, gur^JUio, Um 
windpipe. En gorge means [to put] into the gorge or throat. • 

Engraft', better engrafE^ to insert a part of one tree into another; 
engraff-ed, better engraffed' (2 syl.), engraft'-ing, better 
engrafT-ing, engraft'-ment, better engraff-ment, en- 
gn^ft-er better engraff-er. 

French en greffer, greffenr^ grtffe (Greek grro.'pM, to scratch). Ap|riiad 
originally to budding. "Greffe/* being French, the prefix <»- is 
better than the Latin prefix iiv. 

Engrain' (2 syl.), to dye deeply, to dye in grain; engimined' 
(2 syl.), engrain'-ing, engrain'-er. 

French «n grineler, to grain leather, grenevy to grain : Latin gnM m m, 
the coccus or scarlet dye, hence the phrase : A knave In ymia^ a 
knave though dressed in scarlet. 

Engrave, past, engraved, past. part, engraved or engnv?en ; 

Engrave' (2 syl.), to cut characters or drawings on metal, 
stone, or wood ; engraved' (2 syl.), engrav'-ing (B. zixj, 
engrav'en, engrav'.er. An engraving, a design engrwred. 

Ofaaloography, haLkbg'.ra.fy, engraving on copper. 
C^reeh cAoUbos 0raph6, to wtU« on bran or copper. 



AND OF SPELLING. a03 



Cttyptography, glip'.tdg.ra.fy, engraving on precious etonea. 
Ghreek glu^tiiB ffraphd, to write on a precioiu stone. 
LithogKKpliy,(t.rAd/.ra.^, engraving on Stone. (Gk. lithSs.) 
Xylography, xy,l6g\Ta,fy^ engraving on wood. (Ok. mil&n,) 
fShicography, zin.kog\ra.fy, engraving on zinc. 

Aqnatinta, a'-kwa.V(n'-tah, engraving to resemble Indian 
ink drawings. {Aquafortis is nsed instead of gravers.) 

He^BOtinto, plu. mezsotintoes, med'-zo.tln'.tozet middle or 
half>tint engravings. (Italian mezzo tinto.) 

Old Eaglfali ft(tf[an] ; Greek grapkH$i; Freneb grafter, graveur. 
etLgrose/' (not en.gr68\ to monopolise, to copy docu- 
ments in lawyers' writing; engrossed, en.gro8t ; en- 
gross'-ing, engross'-er, engrose'-ment. 

French grosse, grosiir, grossoyer (engrosser hat quite another mean- 
ing). Onr ward is gross " large " with e9»- " to make" [a copy in 
laige writing], " to make or occupy " [a large or undue share.] 

Engulf (being French, en- is better than in-, which is Latin) 

to swallow up ; eng^ulfed^ engulf '-ing, engulT-ment 

French engonffrer, to swallow up : Latin gurgeif, a whirlpool. Onr 
word is a total mistake. To " engouf* has nothing to do with 
gu^f, a bay (Greek hOlp&s, a bosom), but is a French perversion of 
ihe Latin gurges, a whirlpool, from giila, a gullet Greek guH6s 
or gavios, a long-neeked wallet. 

EntaAnee' (2 syL), to increase [the value or price] ; enhanced' 

(d syl.),enhano'-ing, enhanc'-er, enhance'-ment (E.xviii.) 

Norman enhAurtoer (Tiaunoer, to raise ; French, hauaser. Similarly, 
hansitre is the old form of Tiaussiire, a hawser.) 

Enharmonic, evf.har.m^n^'ik (in Music), applied to notes which 

change their names only : thus CJ = D!?", GJ = Ab. 

On keyed instruments, these note's are identical, but 

tJieoretically CJf : D7 : : ifg : H^. {See Diatonic.) 

Greek enKarmdnikds [mddds], the enharmonic mode, wlAch proceeded 
1^ quarter tones. The three " modes" of Grecian music proceeded 
(1) by whole tones, (2) by half tones, and (8) by quarter tones. 

Enhydroiut, en.hy\drus, containing water ; 
Anhydrous, an.hy\drus, without water. 
Greek envdros, with water {fvvdpot not ivvdpos); anudros, without 
water {&Pv8pos not dp{/8pos) ; hudor, water has an aspirate, but it 
is lost in the compound, and could not be expressed. 

Enigma, e.nlg'.mah, a riddle ; enigmatic, e.nlg.mdf'Xk ; enig- 
maticsd, e.nlg.mdf.i.kal; enigmatlcal-ly, enig'matlst. 

Enigmatise, e.n^g'.maUize, to reduce to an enigmatical form; 
enig'matised (4 syl.), enig'matls-er, enig'matis-ing. 

Enig'ma, a riddle in which the puzzle lies in remote or 

obscure resemblances. 
CoDnn'dnun, a riddle in which the puEzle lies in a '(xm. 



S04 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Gharade, a word dissected, so that each syllahle forms a 
word. If of two syllables, the first syllable is called my 
first, the next my second, and the entire word my wJwle. 

Log'ogriph, a word which, deprived of different letters, 
makes olJier words : as glass, lass, ass, gas, sal, gals, &a, 

Be'huBt a puzzle expressed in hieroglyphics. 

Biddle, a general term, including any puzzling question 
of a trivial nature, the solution of which is to he guessed. 

Puzzle, a sensible object, the intricacy of which is to be 
discovered, or the parts of which are to be pieced together. 

"Enigma," French inigms, inigmatique; Latin amigma; Qntk. 

ainigina, ainigmatiatSa, &o. {ainds, a fable). 
"Ck)nandrum,*' Old English cunnan dredim, cleyer-fon. 
"Charade," so named from the inventor. 
" Logogriph," Greek Ufgda griphda, a word pnzale. 
''Bebus.'^ These were poUtical squibs by the basochiena of Puis, 4f 

rebus qua geruntur (on the current events of the dsj). 
** Biddle," Old EngU&h roedels, from rcedan, to interpret. 
" t*uzzle/' Welsh posiad, a questioning, v. poaiaw. 

Eojoin' (2 syl.), to command, to bid; enjoined' (d syL), en- 
join'-ing, enjoin'-er, enjoin'-ment, but injunoticni. 

French enjoindre, injonction; Latin injungo, to command, ii^umMo, 
(It would be better to retain the same prefix throughout, and wriu 
injoin for enjoin. French is our great source ci error.) 

Enjo/, to take pleasure in ; enjoyed' (2 syl.), enjoy'-ii^ (BL xiii.), 
enjoy'ing-ly, enjoZ-ment, enjoy'able (Rule xxiii.) 
Fr. jouir: Lat. gaudeo (Ennius uses gait), with en-, "to make" [Jo7l 
Enkindle, enMn\d% to set on fire; enkindled, en,kln'Jl^ld; 
enkin'dling. 
Welsh cynne, " ignition," with en-, "to make** [an ignition]. 
Enlarge' (2 syl.), to increase in size; ex^larged' (2 syL), en* 
larg'-ing (Rule xix.), enlarge'-ment (Rule xviii.) 
Latin largiu, **large/' witl^ en-, " to make** Qarge]. 

Enlighten, en.lite\en, to throw light on ; enlighf ened (8 syl.), 
enlight'en-ing, enlight'en-«r, enlighfen-ment. 

Old English lihtung, "Ughting," with en-, "to make" [a lUhtliigi 
(The -g- is interpolated, and the term en- stands for hia* [xa^ 

Enlist', to enroll; enlist'-ed (R. xxxvi.), enlisf -ing, enlisf-ment, 
voluntary enrollment. 
Old Eng. list : Fr. liate, " a roll," with en-, " to make up** [a Uii). 
Enliven, en.Vi.v^, to cheer ; enli'vened (3 syl.), enli'Ten-ing. 

Old English W, "life," with en-, "to make, to give" [IttoJ. Tha 
term -en is for -un' [-ung] added to verbal nouns. 

Enmity, plu. enmities, en'.mi.tiz (Rule zi.), hostility ; enmij, 
Tplu, enemies, en\e.m\z (Rule xi.), a foe ; 

Inimical, \n^m\%.kal, hostile ; inim'ioal4y. 
(It U to be regretted that the Latin prefix in- Jhot nol 



AXD OF SPELLING. 865 

been preserved throughout. The French have a similar 

ineonHstencyj though not in the same derivatives.) 

French inimitie, tnnemie (I !) ; Latin infmieCtia, initnictu (inamletif, 
not a friend). 

Ennoble, en.nu\bX to make noble; ennobled, enmd.Vld; 
enno'bling, enno'ble-ment. 
French etmoMtr or anoblir. anohliMtment ; Latin nOMlis, "noble,'' 
with en-, " to make" [noble]. 

Ennui, ah'n'.we^ (not ang'-we nor ong\we), weariness. 

Frendi ennui; Italian noi-are, to weary. 
Enormoas, e.nor^.mOs, very great ; enor'mons-ly. 

Enormity, plu. enormities, e.vor^.mi.tlZt an atrocious crime. 

French inormit^t inorme; Latin iinorm,iJt<i»t'<enormi8 («[ex]iioniia, 
oat of rule ) 

Enough, sufficient in quantity. Enow, sufficient in number. 
Sugar enough, cups enow; t^a enough, spoons enow. 

nrhis distinction, very general 40 years ago, is now almost obsolete,) 
The adverb and adj. differed in the Anglo-Saxon period, genog (jtdv.), 
genoh (adj.) " Enough " very absurdly combines both forma. 

En passant, ah'npahs'jtah'n (Fr.) in passing, cursorily. 

Enqnize' (2 syl.), to ask ; enquired' (3 syl.), enquir'-ing (R. xiz.), 
enquir'-er, enquiry, plu. enquiries, en.kwi'.riz ; better 

Inquire (2 syl.), inquired' (2 8yl,),inquir'-ing, inqui'ring-ly, 
inquliy, plu. inquiries, in^qui' riz (Uule xliv.) 

Inquisition, in.qul.zi8h'.un ; inquisitive, in.quiz'.i.tiv ; in- 
quis'itive-ly, inquisitive-ness, inquisitor, inquisltory. 
'{It is far better to spell all these words with the Latin 
prefix in-, although we have in French the word enqu6rir. 
Lai inquirifre, supine inquisUum. to inquire ; inquisttio, inquisitor. 
Enrage' (2 syl.), to exasperate ; enraged' (2 syl.), enrag'-ing. 
Ft. enrager; Lat. rdbidre, rdbies, with en-, "to make" [in a rage]. 
Enrapf , thrown into an ecstasy. 

Enrapture, en,rup\tchiir, to delight greatly ; enrap'tured, 

enrap'tur-ing (Rule xix.) 
Enravish, en.rdv'.ish, to throw into nn ec«?tasy; enrav'ished 
(3 syl.), enrav'ish-ing, enrav'ish-ment (generally u.sed 
without the prefix en- ). 
Latin rapttts. raptura, rdpio, supine raptum, to ravish. 
"Ravish" is from the Fiench ravir, ravissant, ravisxement. 

T!nr ifth% to make rich; enriched', enrich'-ing, enrieh'-er, 
enrich'-ment, accession of wealth. 
French enrichir, enrichissement {richesse, riches). 
Enrobe' (2 syl.), to nrrny, to invest ; enrobed', enrob'-ing (R, xix.^ 

French en robe, to put in robes ; Low Latin roba. 
EmoU (not «nroZ, Rule x.), to put on a roll or list; enrolled' 
(2 syl.), enroll'-ing, enroll -ment. 

French enr&Ur, r6le ; Latin rdfUla, with «»-,*• to make" up \a toWV 

u 



806 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Ensang^ne, en.8un\gv)in, to make bloody; ensan'gumed (3 syL), 
ensan^'gniin-ing (Rule xix.) 
Latin sanQuineus, ** bloody," with e»i- "to make" Ibloody]. 

Ensconce, en.sl(dn8e (no word in the language ends in -orue, 
and only six words in -ense. Rule xxvi.), to hide, or 
cover behind a sconce or screen ; ensconced, enjikonst ; 
ensconc'-ing (Rule xix.) 
German sdumze^ "a fortification," with ««-, "to make" [a sconce]. 

-enBe,,the termination of only six words in the language, four 
of which are compounds of "pense": condense and im- 
mense ; dispense, expense, prepense, and recompense. 
There are nearly 300 words ending in -ence, most of 
which would have been better in -ense. 

Enshrine' (3 syl.), to put into a shrine ; enshrined' (2 syl.X 
enshrln'-ing (Rule xix.) 
Old English 8crin, with en- " to make " (the subject of a shrine]. 

Enshroud' (2 syl.), to put into a shroud; enshrond'-ed (Rule 

xxxvi.), enshroud'-ing. 
Old English xnid, "a shroud," with ei»-, "to make" (a shrond]. 
Ensign, en'.nne, the flng of a regiment, an infantry ofScer who 

carries the ensign ; ensigncy, en'. sine. sy (-cy, "office"). 

French enseigne; T.atin signum Imilitdre], "an ensign," with en- "to 
make or carry " [the ensignj. 

-ensis (Latin ensis, an office), as aman'ueuiis^ a mami, one at 
hand; -ensis, one who holds the office of an "a raanu." 

Enslave' (2 syl.), to make a slave; enslaved' (2 syl.). enalay'-iiig 

(Rule xix.), enslav'-er, enslave'-ment (Rule xviii.) 

German sclave; Low Latin aclavua, with en-, "to make" [a slave.] 

Ensnare' (2 syl.). ensnared' (2 syl.), ensnar'-ing (Rule xix.) 

O, E snedre ' ' a snare, " with en-, ' ' to make " [one the prey of a snan]. 
Ifut being Latin, thd prefix en- is preferable to in-. 

Ensue, en.su\ lo follow ; ensued' (2 syl.), ensu'-ing (Rule xix.) 

Fr. ensiiivre ; Lat. ins4fqui, to follow as a consequence {in tiquorX 
Meaning "to arise out tif," it is followed hy from (Fienoli dc% 
Meaning " to come next," it is followed by on. 

Ensure, Insure, Assure, en.shure', in.shure', as.shure*. 

En-, in-, or as-sured' (2 syl.), en-, in-, as-suring, shw^-inf, 

Ensurance, insurance, assurance, -shure\ance. 

En-, in-, as-surer, -shure'-er. 

Of these three forms insure is by fnr the worst. 

"Ensure," Fr. sAr (Lat. securas), "sure," with en-, "to make** [sore]. 

"Assure," French aasnrrr ; Low Latin OAswranda, ▼. asmrdn 
vtts [ad] securdre, to secure to one). 

Strictly speaking the policy "holder" ensures, the poUey "jlver** 
assures; the former "mak^s his property sure" by taking <mt a 
poUcy, the latter "secures to him" certtdn sums of money on fixed 
terms. Similarly from the standpoint of a policy hxMsr th* ollloe 
ia an " ei^urance," i.e. «a q^ca "vVAoh makes fa£n aeewre againal 



AND OF SPELLING. »07 



loss, but from the standpoint of the actuary it is an " aaannuioe,'* 
i.e. an office which " secures to its clients" certain soma of mon^ 
tn proportion to annual payments. 
^'Insure" is bad Latin, bad French, and bad English. 

it, -ant (Latin participial endiDgs), an agent: as student^ 
informant, -ant denotes a word of the let Latin conj., 
-ent a word of some other conj., but the rule is very 
loosely followed, especially when we have gone to the 
French for our Latin. {See Rule xxv.) 

EntaUatnre, en.tab' .la.tchur (not entahUture* It is not tdbUtt 

a little table, but Latin tabula, contracted to taVla), the 

whole top part of a pillar, including the architrave, 

frieze, and cornice. 

Latin tdkbUJMwm, a sraffold, stage, or storey ; en-, ''to make,** hence 
enidblaturtf that which makes a stage, storey, or complete part. 

Entail' (3 syl.), lands, <Src., fixed on certain descendants, to fix 

lands, &c., on certain descendants [as the eldest son] ; 

entailed' (2 syl.), entair-ing, entail'-ment, followed by 

on or upovii but in French by d. 

French taiUer ; Low Latin talliatum [feuduin\ a fee-tail, toZKum, 
" a fee-taU," with cfi-, " to make" [a fee-tall]. 

Entangle, en.tdn'.gX to ravel; entangled, en,tan\g^ld; en- 

tan'gling, entan'gler, entan'gle-ment. 

Norse tatig^ tangle, sea-wrack, called tang in Grerm., en-, " to make ** 
[a tangle like sea-wrack]. 

Enter, evf,tery to come in. Inter, iruter^, to bury. 

En'ter, en'tered (2 syl.), en'ter-ing, en'trance (2 syl.), en'try. 
Inter', interred' (2 syl.), interr'-ing, inter'-ment. 

'* Enter," is used both transitively and intransitively : Thus we say 
He entered the fuyuse, or entered into the hovM .- t>nt when used 
to signify " engage in," to be " an ingredient of," it is always 
followed by into : as / tntered into partnership vMh .... ; lead 
enters into the composition of pewter ; and when it means to 
*• begin," it is followed by on ; aa / enter on my tenth year . . . 

Frendi entrer, entree; Latin intrdre, intrans. 

"Inter" would be belter with double -r; Lat. in-<erra(in the earth). 

Enteritis, en/tS.'n\tit, iofiammation of the inti'stines. 

6k. ent^ra, the bowels ; -itia^ denoting "inflammation" [of the bowels]. 
Enterprise, en'. ter. prize, on adventure, an undertaking ; en'ter- 
pris-ing (adj.), adventurous, bold ; en'terprlsing-ly. 

French entreprise ; Latin Uiter pr^endo supine prfhensum, to take 
in hand with others (entre is reciprocal in composition). 

En'tertain', to treat with hospitality, to amuse; en'tertained' 

(3 syl.), en'tertain'-ing, en'tertain'ing-ly, en'tertain'er ; 

en'tertoin'-ment, a fe^ist, an amusement 

Vrench eniretenir, entretien, maintenance, to hold things together. 

(Our use of this word is widely apart from that in France. No 
Frenchman would consider " en tretenir" = donrter {'/lospitoiu^, oi 
ditertir. The French idea of "keep*' conveyed by thia -wox^^a 
not oompUmentaij, except when applied to things.) 



i 



308 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

ISnthral, enJhrawV, to make cnptive ; enthralled" (2 syL), en- 

thrail'-ing (Rule iv ), enthrall'-er. enthral'-ment. 

Old VngUsh thraXl, "a servant,'* with en-, "to make" [a fhraU]. 
'* iDtliial " is nonsense. The double I should be restored. 

Enthrone, to invent with sovereij^rnty, to install ; enthroned'' 

(2 8yl.)> enthron'-ing, enthrone'-ment ; enthronizatioiL 

(H. xxxii.). en\thru.ni.zay**shun, installation of a bishop. 

Lat thrdnus; Oreek ihr&ndit {thrdnos, a bench, t. thradf to fit down)* 
Enihronizo, to seat on a throne. Our word is from the Greek. 

JBnthnsiasm, en,Thu\8i.azm, zeal, fanaticism ; 

Epthusiast, en.rlntM astt one av^dently devoted to some 

object: enthnsiastic, en.rhu*.8i,u8"Mk ; enthusiastical, 

en.rhu' .8i.a8'\ti.kal ; enthusias'tical-ly. 

Jiatin enthtLsiatmus, enthusicuta ; Greek enttunuicunidaj enOum- 
siastSi, enthousiastikds ; Fiei<ch enthousioHme, enthouncutet tnihin^- 
nasme (en theoa -aftnos, the state of being in a god, i.e. inspired.) 

Enthymeme, en'.rh\.mem, a syllogism with one of the prem'issc^ 

suppressed : As, [dependent creatures should be homble] 

We are dependent creatures, and therefore shoiUd be 

humble. The major prop, in brackets being suppressed. 

French enthymtme; Lat. enthymema; Greek enthumima (en (Avium 
[one preniissj in the mind [unly]. 

Entice' (^^ syl.), to allure: enticed' (2 syl.); entic-ing, en.ticef.ing ; 

enti'cing-ly; entio-er, en.tice\er; entice'-ment (R.xviii.) 

This is a French word which has received with us quite a new 
meaning. In French it means to incite, not to " alltire or sedaoe.** 
The word is attiser, to stir a hrt^, or rather to " touch the burning 
logs to make them burn better " Uison, a burning 1 g). Spanish 
atizar, to stir a tire ; tizon, smouldering wood ; ^sonero, a poker. 
Italian tizzone, a firebrMntl. Our idea seems to be derived from the 
custom of enticing birds, &c., by lighted brands, i.e. [to attract] to 
the firebrand, cU [toj or en [intol tiaonf Lthe burning brand]. 

Entire' {i syl.). complete, unadulterated; entire'-ly, entire'-iiMi; 

entire'-ty, integrity, entire state. 
Freni-h entier; inUger, entire (in t<igo or tango, not toudiedX 
Entitle, en.ti'.t'l, to qualify, to give a title or a right to [someone] ; 

entitled, en.ti'.Vld; entitling, en.tV.tling, 

Old Eni?li8h titul. "a title," with en-, "to make or give" [a title]; 
French intii\iUr; (Latin titOXilLs, a title). 

Entity, plu. entities, en'.ii.tlz (K. xliv.), existence, a real being. 

Non-entity, plu. nonentities, what has no real being, a per- 
son of no influt^nce (a no-one). 

French entiU ; Latin ene, gen. vntitf an entity or real being. 
Ento- (Gre«'k prefix), within. 

Entozoon, p'M. entozoa, en'-to.zo"-6n, en'-toJiS^-ah (nol 
en\to.zoon"), an animal which lives within the body of 
otlier animals, especially in the intestines; ^^'■^fl imifl^ 
en^-to.zo''-ik, adj. (not m'.to.zoik), 

Oreek enida zCon^ an animal wl\iitlnVtii« body of other awimeh]. 



AXD OF SPELUKG. »(» 

Entomology, en\to.mAV\o.ffy, treats of the Instorv nnd bahits of 
insects; entomologist, en^tomfil'\oJiHt; entomological, 
en'-to-fno.lqj"'i-kul / en'tomolog'ical-ly. 

Greek enUmon Ufgdt, % discourse about insects : French tnt&mologit, 
Entomoid, en\to.moid, like an insect. (Gk. entSmdn eidos.) 
Entomolite, enAiim' .o.llU^ a fossil insect. 

Greek enHlmOn, lUhos^ an insect [of] stone, i.e. fossilised. 
Entomorphagons, en* .to.vwr^'.fa.gUs^ insect-eating. 

Greek eaUfmon phdgo, to devour insects. 

Entomostradan, plu, entomostracana, en\to,md8'\tra.kon, 
one of the entomoatraca, pert>iining to the... ; en'.to.mos'^- 
trd.kinz ; entomostraca, en\to.m6»*',tra.kahy a sub -class 
of crustaceans. 

It will be observed that th^se wnrds beginning with ento- art* not 
connected with the Greek prefix en.to-, within, but with entdvMyi^ 
an insect, which is en-femnein, to cut into LP^rtH], as "insect* is 
in $€etum (Latin), cut into Lparts]. 

'Eai0BB0on^en'40JBd'*'dn; eniozo&f en' -to.zo'*-ah» {See above, Unto-.) 

EntzailB {plu,\ en'.tiulz, the intestines. (Sing, rarely used.) 
French entraiZ^es ; Low Latin enteralia; Greek entira. intestines. 

Eiitra2n''mel, to ob^tru'-t, to entangle ; entram'melled (3 syL), 
entram'mell-ing (Rule iii., -el), entrammell-^r. 
(These words should not have double I.) 
Tr. tramail, a drag-net with en-, * ' to make " [the captive of a drag net]. 
Entrance, en'.trance (noun), en.trunce' (verb). 
En'trance, place of entry, admission. 

Entrance'' bet'er entranse^ to ravish with dolight; en- 
tranced' l»etter entransed' ('2 syl.), entranc'-ing belter 
entrans'-ing, entranoe'-ment better entranse'-ment. 

"Entrance," French entrer: Latin intrans, infrdre, to enter 
"Entrause." If this Lb from the French tvi-nse, the meaning has 
been quite i-erverted. Trannc means " a p <nic,*' not an ecstacy : 
but probably it is the Lntin iraruet}, translitis, an ther form of 
*' transport, which is transporto. {Traruf-Uu^, past or gone over : 
trana-portus came'l "ver ) The allusicm is t ■ the ni«tion that 
the spirit in a "tr>aise"is carried or passes out of the body. 
(See 2 Cor xa, 2-4.) 

Entiapf't to catch in a trnp ; entrapped' (2 syl.), entrapp^ing 
(Rule lii.), entrapp'-er. 

Old English treppeor trappe, " a snare/' with en-, "to make" [the 
captive of a snare J. 

Entreat, ^nJreef, to solicit ; entreaf-ed (3 syl., Rule xxxvi.), 
entreat'-ing, entreat'ing-ly, entreat'-er. 

Entreafy, plu, entreaties. en.tree\tU (Rule x\iv.) 

Ykencfa as traiUry iMin in iracto, to struggle for &omethiD«. 



.T!0 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Entree, oKn'dray' (French), the right of entry, a " Buhsidiary '^ 
dish of meat handed round to the guests. 

Entremets, ahn'tr.tnay (French), dainty side-dishes. 

In French an entrSe is a relish sirred at the ftegrivrntngof dinner to 
"whet the appetite;" and an entremets a reU&h served after the 
main joints have been removed {tntre mets, a dl^b between [dinner 
and dessert]). Our use of these words is very si p-shod. 

EntrexK>t (French) alCn'tr'jpo^ a warehouse, a storehouse. 

This is entre depdt, a half-waj dfipOt, lieu ok Ton tmI en dip<li det 

marchandises (jue Von veut porter plus loin. 

Entresol, ah'n'tr'.sole (French), a room between the ground- 
floor and the premier itage [prem'.g.a a.taij']. 

Sol, the groun'1-plot or floor ; enire sol, between the ground-floor and 
the first floor or best apiurtment. 

Entrench'' (not intrench), to make a trench round [something]; 

entrenched' (2 syi.), entrench'-ing, entrench'-mentk 

Intren' chant, not to be cut cr wounded. 

This last word shows that tntrenc^ Rhonld mean "not out.** and 
therefore never should have been used for the word entrench which 
is tra7u;h4e (French) '* a tieneh," with en-, " to make^' [a trenohl. 

Entropium, en.tr6p\i.um, a turning inwards of the eyelashes. 

Greek en trdpi, a turning inwards. 

Entrust, to eonflde to another ; entrust^ -ed, entrust'-ing. 

Old English treoth, "a pledge," with en-, *' to make" [a pledge). 
To " entrust," is to confide somethmg to another '* as a pledge." 

Entry, plu. entries, en'.triz (Rule xliv.), a place by which persons 
enter, the right of entrance, registration in a book, taking 
possession of real property, a writ of possession. 

Single Entry, a system of book-keeping in which the items 
are posted only once, generally under the buyer's name. 

Double Entry, a system of book-keeping in which every 
item is posted twice, once on the Dr. side and once on 

the Cr. side, under reverse conditions. 

French entree (by double entry, en partie dovible; hj single entry, em 
partie simple). (See £ntw and Entrance ) 

Entwine, en.tieine\ to wreathe ; entwined' (2 syl.>, entwl&'-ing 
(Kale xix.), entwin'-er, entwine'-ment (better with tn-.) 
Old Ei^;. tv)in[an], to twine : in-ivtHne, to twine together, 

EnuGmerate, e,vu\me.rate, to reckon up one hy one; enn'me- 

rat-ed ( R. xxx vi. ) ,enu''merat-ui g, enn'merat-or ( R.xxr?iL); 

enumeration, e.nu\me.ray''Mhun; enumeratiYei, -410. 

French Snum^er, &num4ration, 6num6rai\f ; Latin iTwi'hnilhlfiii, 
enHmirdtor, enHmgrdre, supine enHnUhrdtvm, to reckon up^ 

Enunciate, e.niin'. state j to make known ; enun'ciat-ed(R. xzx'vLX 

enun'ciat-ing ; enunciation, cnun^sta^'^hun; e 

ciat-ive, e.nun' .sta.tvo ; enun'dator, ennn'datory. 
Latin enwicidiio, avTopo&ition; enunciattvus, enuikdator, 
(enuncio, to announce akoud, io ^^adQ«a.\ 



AND OF SPELLTNO, «11 

Enure, iSfuBre' (better than inure)^ to habituate; ennred' (2 syL), 

enur'-ing (l»ule xix.) 

Norm. Fr. wrt, "practice," with «n-, *'to make or effect" [by practice]. 

Envelope {noun)^ en'.ve.lope. Envelop {verb\ en.veV.Sp (R. IL) 

Envel'op, envel'oped (3 svl.). enverop-ing, enverop-ment, 

to cover witli a wrapper, to cover entireiy. (One l, one ji.) 

En'velope, a wrapper for letters, <fec. 

French envelopper (with double p\ enwloppe, tnveloppement; Italian 
vUuppo, a bundle or packet ; inviluppare, to wrap up. 

Enven'om, to impregnate with venom; enven'omed (3 syl.), 
enven'om-ing. 
Fr. envenimer (1 1); Lat. Milium, with en-, "to infuse" [poiaonj. 
Enviable, «n^^'^.a.2l7; enviova, en'.vi.us, (S«e Envy.) 

Environ, fn.vWrnn, to encompass. Environs, en\vi.ronz, suburbs; 
envi'roned (3 syl.), env^ron-ing, envi'ron-ment. 
French envtronner^ environs (plu.), virtTf to torn round. 
Bn'voy, plu, envoys, en'jvoiz (Rule xlv.), a state messenger; 
exi^oy-ship, the office of envoy {-ship, Old Eng. office). 

En'vy, vexntion at another's good, to feel vexed at another's 

good, to grudge ; envies, en'.viz (Ird pers. sing.) ; envied, 

en'.vid; en'vi-er, en'vi-able, en'viable-iiess, en'viably; 

envious, cn'.vl.iis ; en'vious-ly, en'vious-ness, envy-ing. 

French envie, envier^ envieux : Latin invidia, invidiosunt r. invidio 
(to see into one). ' Envy" means a looking too closely into another. 

Emrrap, en.rap\ to cover (and tie up with stJ-ing or cord); 

enwrapped, en.rapt'; enwrapp-ing, en.rap'.ing (Rule i.) 

Old English rdp, "a cord," with en-, "to fasten " [with a cord]. The 
force of en- is to convert the nouu into a verb. 

Eocene [p riod], e'.o.seen (in GeoL), the earliest of the four ter- 
tiary iieriods, wliich consist of the following divisions: 
FUstocene, pli.8to.8een. nearest the earth's surface. 
Greek j>leistds kainCa, the most receiit. 
Pliocene, pli.cseen, more recent than the group below. 
Greek p2ei^n kainOs, more recent than the "miocene." 
Miocene, mV.o.8eeny less recent than the two groups above. 
Greek meiAn kainos, less recent than the "pliocene." 
Eocene, ^.o.8een^ the dawn of modern [ti i es]. 
Greek ids kainos^ recent dawn ; i.e., the dawn of modern times. 
Eolian, S.r/.li.an (ought to be e.dV.Lan), pertaining to iEoIns 
{E'.d.ltL8)y god ot the winds ; wSlolic, e.oV.ik (not e.d\llk)j 
pei-tMining to .Slolia (E.oV.i.ah), in Greece. 

Eolipile, e.oVXpVe, an hydraulic instrument. 

Latin ^oH pVa, the ball of >^lus. Its object is to exhibit the con- 
vertibility of water into steam. 

(Fr. termination of nounsj, an instrument: aa truucHcotv. 



312 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

E'on (in Platonic philosophy), an attribute. The Platonists 
taught that Deity is an assemblage of eons (attributes); 
the Gnostics taught that eons are corporeal '* out-comes" 
of deity, fellow. workers in creation. (Greek ai6n.) 

Ep-, for epi' (Greek prefix before a vowel), on, upon, during. 

Bpact, e\pakty the excess of the solar over the lunar year. The 
annual excess is nenrly eleven days. 
Greek gpoMOs, adventitious {epi agd, to bring upon or add). 

Epaulet, ep\tiw.lett a badge worn on the shoulder; ep^'anleti-ed 

(Ride iii., -t), furnished with epaulets. 
French Epaulette (Spaule, Latin acdpiUa, the ibonlders). 
Epergne, t.pem\ an ornninental dish for the centre of a dinner 

table, generally elevated and furnished with branches. 

This is an example of a French word used by ns in a sense Quite 
foreign to its French meaning. What we call an " epergne, the 
French call a snrUmi ; what we call a " surtout" they call a par- 
desstis. The word should be spelt epargne. 

French ^pargne^ parsimony, a treasury. Our epei^e is a little 
"treasury" of sweetmeats, fruits, and flowers. Caisse d'6pargn€f a 
savings bank whei e very small deposits are taken. (Cierm. •parwn.) 

Eph- (Greek prefix epi-), before an aspirate. 

Ephemera (plu,), effem'.e.rah, a fever, insect, <fec., lasting only 
a single day; ephemeral, effem\e,rul, evanescent. 
Ejphemeris, plu, ephemerides, effem^e.ris, ef\e.mer^'ry.dees, 
an alman.ic of the daily pf)sitions of a heavenly body: as 
the ephemerU of the sun, &c. ; ephemerist, effefii',e,ri8t, 
one who studies the daily motions of the pLinets by 
means of an ephemeris. {-phe- long in the Greek.) 

Greek ipMinSrin, ^phimeria, plu. ifphimeridfy : Latin ephimiria 
ephStiieron, plu. ipfieraera; French dph4mh'e, ipMnUridu. 

Ephesian, Effe\zh%,an, periaining to Ephesus {Ef'fe.8tu), 

Ephod, if.od, a frarment worn by the Jewish priesthood. 

Epi- (Greek prefix), on, upon, during, consequent on. 

Ep- before a vowel : as epact {ep agd). 

Eph- before nn aspiiate : as ephemera (eph hSmera)* 

Epi- before a consonant : as epiderm (epi derma). 

Epic [poem], a narrative in h'-roio verse : as Homer's Hiad and 
Odysaey ((ireek), Vir<j:ir8 ^»etd (Latin), Tasso's c^ertttolem 
Delivered and Dante's Divina Comedia (Italian), Camden's 
Liwiad (l*or'Ugiiese). and Milton's Paradtttf Tsoat, 
Latin eptctts ; Greek eplkOa ; French ipique (Greek ^pdis, a woidX 
Epioarp, ep'.i.karp, the outer skin of fruits; 

Sarcocarp, saf'.ko.karp. the fieshy or edible part of fimits* 
En'docarp, tlie stone or kernel of fniits. 

Greek epi karpo^, upon the fiuit; sarkd karpoi, fleshy fruit; eiido 
karpoH, inside the iT\dt. 



AND OF SPELLING. 813 

Epicene, ep'Ajtten (in Gram,), common to both sexes. 

Latin epicoBnua^ of both genders ; Greek epi hoindt, in common. 

Epieiiie, ep'.i,kure, a man addicted to the plensnres of the 
table; epicurean, ep\i.ku.ree'\an (not ep'.i.fcfi".r^^n), a Ij. 

Epicoiism, ep\i.ku'\rizm, the habits of an epicure ; 

Epicureanism, ep',i.ku.rei".an.izm, the tenets of Epicurus. 

Epicorize (B. xxxii.)* ep'd.ku.rize, to live like an epicure ; 
eplcnrized (4 syl), eplcurlz-ing (Rule xix.) 

Latin Epicurus ; Greek EpVc&aron, a Greek philosopher who tanght 
tliat '* happinesd is ihe end an l aim of life/' but " happiness " has 
been perverted into the pleasures of the table. 

Eplcyde, ep.U8%\k% a little circle whose centre is on the circum- 
ference of a greater circle. 

Epicycloid, ep'AMk^\loid, a curve described by the movement 
of the circumference of one cirrle on the circumference of 
another; epicydoid-al, ep*.i.8i.kloid"-ul (ad}.) 

Oxeek epi kuklda, upon [another] circle; "epicycloid" is epieyeU 
ddas, resembling an epicycle. 

Epidemic. Endemic. Contagiotuk 

Epidemic, ep'.i,dem'\ik, a temporary disease attncldng many 
persons at the same time (Gk. epi dimos, upon the people) ; 
epidemical, ep' .Ldem" .i.kCil ; epidemlcal-ly. 

Eipidemology,^'-t-(f«.n7f!^!"-f!^.j7/, a medical treatise on the sub- 
ject of epidemics ; epidemological, ep'-i.dM-o.lqj^'-i-kul, 

% Epdemic disease, a disease of a temporary character not 
limited to one locality. 

Endemic disease, a temporary disease limited to a locality. 

Contagious disease, a disease communicated by contact. 

An epidemic is diffused by disease spores (1 syl.) in the air. 

Greek gpidSmd*, popular, general, diffused throughout the nation. 
An endemic is due to bad drainnge, or other local conditions. 

Greek endimos, at home, lucal, limited to one spot 
A contagion is communicated, like the plague, by contact. 

Iifttin oontdffio {eon taQo, Le. tango, to touch together). 

I^demdc Endermic, ep\i.der'\m\ky en\dei^\mXk, 

Epidermic {adj,\ pertainin«,' to the outer skin or ciitiole. 

Endermic {adj.)t something put on the skin to be absorbed 
by it. (Greek en derma, [put] on the skin.) 

Epidermal, ep'.i.der^'.mul, sanie as epidermic. 

Epiderm or epidermis, ep\i.derm or ep\i,def' .mlSt the scsxf , 

the cuticle {ku'.ti.k'l) or outer skin of the body. 
Gk. epi derma, [the skioj upon the akin ; Fr. <pidermique, ^pidertiva. 



nU ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Epig^tric, pertaining to the upper part of the abdo'meo. 

Epigastrium, ep\Lga8'\tn.um, popularly called ** the pit of 
the stomach." (No connection with the word gaa.) 

Gk. epi gastir, upon or above the paunch ; Fr. 4piga8tr$, ipigcuMqiu, 

Epigee, ep'ujet same as Perigee (q.v,) 

EpigenesiB, ep\i.j^",e^U, Evolution, e',voM*\8hun, 

Evolution is that theory of generation whirh considers the 
germ to pre-exist in the parent, or " Whose seed is in 
itself" {Gen, i. 11, 12), and this germ being " evolved ** 
becomes an offspring. 

Epigenesis, the theory which considers that the germ does 
not pre-exist, that "the seed is not in the parent stock,'* 
but is produceiJ. Thus, in a flower, according to this 
theory, the '• embryo " does not pre-exist in the parent 
flower, but is generated as well as evolved by the fecun- 
dating organs of the plants. 
Gk. epi genesis, [the germ] bom after [the parent stock had ozlatence]. 

Epiglottis, ep'.i.glot^'.tis, the valve which covers the orifice of 
the windpipe when food or drink is swallowed ; epiglottic. 
(The "-0." is long in tJie Greek glGttis.) 
Greek epi gldttix, on Lthe root of] the tongue ; French ipigHotU. 

Epigone, e.pig\d.ne (in Bat,), the cellular layer which, in mosses, 
covers the young seed-case. Epigoni, e.pig.fi.ni^ the seven 
sons of seven Grecian chief-^, who conducted, without 
success, the first mythical war against Thebes. 

"Epigone," Greek epi g6n4, upon the seed [case]. 
"Epigoni," Greek epi-gdnoi, off.>^pring. 

Epigram, ei/.i.gram, a single idea in verse so contrived $8 to 
surprise the reader with a witticism or ingenious turn of 
thought; epigrammatic, ep\i,grom.mut" .ie (douUe »), 
of the nature of mh epigram : epigrammatical (doable mX 
ep\i.grdm.mdf\i.kal ; epigrammat ical-ly. 

Epigrammatist, ep\i.grum*\ma,tist, a writer of epigrams. 

Gk. epigrammaifipi grapho, [an inscription] written upon [somatbinfDl 
" In-scrlption " (Latin in seribo) and "epi-gram" (Greek epiffra^bt) 
both mean •'written-on" [something]. 

Epigraph, ep'.i.grdf, an inscription on a building, a eitation 

hendiiig a chapter, a motto on the title-page of a book. 

Greek epi graphd, written upon [the building, chapter, fto.] 

Epilepsy, ep'.i.lep.sy, the '* falling-sickness"; epileptic, ep'.iXfy"^' 
tik, afi'e cted with epilepsy ; epilep'tical {-U- long in Gk.) 
Greek epilepsia, epiliptikds {epi tombdni), to siexe on [<»ia]). 

JE|{>iIogue, ep',iX6g^ an address in prose or verse made to the 
audience at the clo^e o^ & Oirania. 



AND OF SPELLING. 815 



Ftelo£^e, pro\l6g, an address in prose or verse preceding a 
poem or drama. 

The Tile endirnr of these words shows we btve taken them from the 
French. The -ue is quite un-English and wtirse than useless. 

Vtench epilogue and prologue; Greek epi^^ and prdldgds; Latin 
epiUigue and prdldgua, 

Epi^iany, e.pif.a.ny, a church festival held on the ftth Jann- 
ary, to commemorate the visit of the "wise men from the 
East" to the child Jesns. 

Greek epiphdnia, the mnnirestation [of Christ to the Gentiles] ; epi 
phain6, to show oneself, to present oneself to others. 

I^phyte, ep\i,fitey a pnrasitic plant; epiphytic, ep.i.fXtWk 
(a4j.) A parasitic animal is an epizoon, ep\i.zo''u)n. 
Greek epi phuUinf [a plant growing] on a plant. 

^pjfloopacy, e.pW.k^.p'i.syy church government by bishops, the 
order of bishops in a country ; episcopal, e.pW.kd.pal, 
pertaining to bishops ; epis^copaJ-ly; episcopalian, «.2){«^- 
ko.pay'\lLanf a member of the episcopal church of 
EngLind; episcopalianism, e.pi8\ko.pay''.li.an.izm, the 
iqrstem of church government by bishops ; episcopate, 
e.pis'.ko.patet the office, order, or rank of bishop. 

6k. ipiskdpds. " Episkopos," Gk. epi fikdp^o; "Inspector," L*t. in 
spCcfo; aud *' Overseer," Eng. over see, are about equal in meaning. 

Epiflode, ep\i.8ode, a digressive narrative interwoven into the 

main narrative of an epic poem, &c. ; episodic, ep'.i.8od'\ik, 

of the nature of nn episode; episodical, ep\i.8od".i.kdl; 

einsodical-Iy. (Has no connection with ode.) 

Greek epeisddldn, an adventitious part of a narrative poem (epi 
ei$-dd08\ The entrances or the chorus in the ancif^nt Greek dramas 
were caMed eisodoi (th«* roads in), the ep-eisode is the > art between 
these eisodoi, hence called epi-eisddoi, or intervening matter. 

Epigfle, e.pX8'% a letter ; epistolary, e.pls'Jfi Id ry (adj.) ; 
epistolographer, e.pi8\to.log" .r a. fer ; epistolog'raphy. 
Greek epistoU ; Latin epistdia, epistdldris ; French ipiatolographe. 
^taph, ep'A.tuf^ a monumental inscription ; epitaph'-ist. 

6k. tpHaphXHn; Lat. epM&phiuin {epi taj^Ufs, [written] on a tomb), 
lipithalaminin, ep'.i.Tha.lumf'.i.um, a bridal song. 

6reek ^ithdldmium {epi thdldmidn, [a song] on the bridal subjectX 
^thet, ep'.i.TMtf an elucidative word ; epithet'-ic. 

Greek epitMtda {epi titMmi, [a word] added to [another]). 
Spitome, e.pltf,o,ine, an abridgment, a summary. 

Epitomise, e.pitf.o.mUe; epit'omised (4 syl.), epit'omiS-ing 
(Rule xix.). epit'omls-er, epit'omist. 
Greek ipitdmS (epi Umnd, to cut into, to gash) ; Latin epitdms. 
^tooon, ep'.i,zo'\on (not ep.i.zoon'), a pamsitic animal; epizoo^t, 
ep\ijzo,8tf\lk. A parusidc plant is an epiphyte, ep'.i.Jit*- 



816 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Entozoon, en\to.zd' .on, an animal which lives inside another. 

Greek epi z66n, [an animal living] upon [another] animaL 
(Every word beginning with epi- isjrom the Greek.) 

Epoch. Era. Age ; e'.pbk, e\rah, age (1 syl.) 

An epoch is not continuous, but is simply that point of time 
marked by some important event, from which fature 
years are counted. 

An era is continuous. It starts from some epoch, and con- 
tinues till a new epoch introduces a new era. 

An age is a ppriod of time distinguished by some charac- 
teristic, but not ushered in by any epoch or striking event: 

Thus the birth of Christ was the epoch from which the 
Chrisiiiin era began* 

The present peri-d is the " age of coaL" We have had the 
golden age, silver age, iron age, and age of bronze. 

Greek epdcJii (ep'e\)i}ecJid, to hoM back, to n^op, to pause, because the 
preceding era "stO| s" at tho new epoch, from whicli a new eia 
he^Sj; lAtia epdcha; F tench ipoque. 

Epode, ep'.dde, the third and last p.irt of an ode; ei>odic, ep.od'.ik, 
Greek ep6d^ {epi add, i.e. aeidd, to sing an addition song). 

Eponym, ep'.o.nlm, a race or tribe name from some founder. 

Anonym, an'-o.nlm, one without a name. 

Pseudonym, su'-do.nlm, a lalse or assumed name. 

Synonym, shi^o.nim, a word of the same meaning as another. 

(We have followed the Latin forms in ih^se words, but it would be httrd 
to say why Ontlnia vhu preferred to the more regular dnOma.^ 

"Eponym" is no Latin word, but is formed on the Latin tiype. 
Greek ep fepi] dnfuna for dudina, fr»»m [a man's] name. 



((I 



'Anonym," Lat an&nymus ; (ik. an [NnenldnAma, wit hont a 

'Pseuilonym," L&t. pseu idnymv^ ; Gk pstmdis dnilma, false nvint. 
'Synonym," Greek nun CiiHiim {another name] wi^h your ownnaoM. 

Epsilon, ep.ai' VHn (not ep'.s\.lon), the Greek short e (e). 
Greek ps'dCs, naked, bare ; v. pslldd, to rub quite bare. 

Epaom Salt (not Epaom saltn), sulphate of magnesia, origiwHy 
obtiined by evaporntion from certain springs in Epeom 
(Surrey). The manulai-iureJ tirtii^le is caile«l Epaomite. 

(-ite, in chemistry, denote a salt formed from an add with anllfl- 
able ba-e. Epsomite has magnesia for its base.) 

Equable, ^'.wci.VU even, uniform ; eq'oable-ness, eq'uably 
\jadv.) ; equability, ek.wuMVW.ty, 

Equal {noun nnd verb), e'.kwiil ; e'qnalled (8 syL, Role iii., 
-al), e'quall'ing, e'qual-ly {adv.), equal-i 



Equal-ise, e.kwulize (Rule xxxi.); e'qual-lMd (8 fl^L), 
e'qualis-ing; equalisation, e\kwul.\j:ay** jshun. 



AND OF SPELUmi, «17 

Equality, plu. eqnalities, e.kw}!)V.l,Viz (Rule xliv.) 

(" Equalled " and '• equjiUIng " ought to have only one " L") 
Latin aqualiSt aqwUltas, ceqvdbflia, aquaWitcut, r. asqudrt, 
Eqiianimity, el',kwd.nlm'\i.ty, steadiness of temper. 
Latin cegudnfmYioA {aquua anfmiM, evenness of mind). 

Equation, e.kwd'^hun, an algebraic process for discovering an 
unknown quantity. Take this very simple example : If 
10 lbs, of sugar cost 5«., what is that per pound f 

Iiet X represent a pound of sugar Then by the terms given lOx = 6s. , 
or 60d. That is the equation, and z the unknown quantity whose 
value is to be discovered. i>ivide both sides by 10, and we get 
10T-10» = 60d.T-10, 0Tz = 6d.—Ans. 

Equate, e.kwdte', to reduce to an equation; equaled (Eule 

xxxvi.), equat'-ing (Rule xix.) 
French iquation; Latin c^fwUio (cequua, equal). 

Equator, e,kwd\tor, the great circle which hypothetically divides 
tlje glnbe into two hemispheres, one N. and the other S.; 
equatorial, e'.kwdM'/r^'riMl: eqnato'rial-ly. 
French iquateur, iquaiorial; Latin aqu&tor {ctquua^ equal). 

Equerry, an officer in a piince's household, who has charge of 
the horses. (L^ouble r a blunder.) 

(This is a disgraceful word, being in the first place a perversion of the 
French icurie, a stable : and next a blunder for ecuyer, the gentle- 
man master of the royal stables.) Latin equut^ a hurse. 

Equestrian, e.kw^'.tri.an^ a horseman. 

Lat. equestris, pertaining to a horse ; Fr. Squestre. Our word is ill- 
chosen, because equestria (Lat ) means the benches in the theatre 
appropriated to the knights, and equestrian should be its adj. 

Equi-, e'.kwi- (Latin aquU), equal. 

fBvsry word, except equip and its derivatives, beginning with equi-, is 
from the Latin, or Jiaa been formed of Latin elements, j 

Equiangular, e' .hwi.dn'\gu.lart having equal angles. 

Latin cequi-anguldris {ceqmu angilltis) ; French dquiangls. 
Equidistant, €^.kwi.dis".tant^ at equal distances. 

Latin oequi-distans {ex cequo distans) ; French Equidistant. 

Equilateral, e'.kwi.ldt'*.e.ralt having equal sides. 

Lat. cequi-ldt^dlis (aquus Idtus, gen. Idti^ris); French iquUatiral. 
Equilibrium, e' .kwi.lW .ri.um, equal balance. 

Ijatin oequirliJbrium {aquus libra, a balance) ; French iquil'ibre. 

Equimultiple, e^ .kwi.muV .ti.pX an equal multiple, a number 
multiplied by the same multiplier as another. 

This word exists neither in Latin nor French. It is compounded of 
eequir and -multiple (French). Latin muUlpHco, to multiply. 

Equine, ^k\wine, pertaining to the horse. EquidsB, ^.wi.dee, 
the horse tribe. (Latin equlnus ; ^qtiuSySk horse.) 



31S ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Equinox, e'.hwl.noXy the time when a solar day has the sun 
twelve hours above the horizon, and twelve hours below 
(March 21st and September 23rd). 

Equinoctial, e'.kwLndk'^sJuil, occurring at the time of the 
equinoxes, pertaining to tJie equinoxes ; equinocTtial-ly. 
Latin cequi-noctium, cequi-noctidlis ; French iquinozet iquinoaAiU. 

Equi^, ckwlp', to fit out with all that is required ; equipped' (2 
syl.), equipp'-ing (Rule iv. " Qu ** = kw, is treated as a 
consonant); equip'-ment ; equipage, e/c^u7^.j)a^«. 

Fr. iquiper, iquipage, iquipement (tsqaif^ a boat or nkiff). It origin- 
ally meant a ship furnished with its coouplement of boats. Boqui^oft. 

Equipoise, e'.kwl.poize\ equilibrium, equality of weight. 

This word exists neither in Latin nor French. It is compounded of 
vequi- and pondus. French poids (weights). "Avoirdupoise** 
shows the same word, poise for poid*. 

Equiponderant, e'.kwi.pHn'^de.rant, being of the same weight; 
oquipoaderance, 4i\kwi.pon'\de.rance, equipoJQO. 

French iquixxmdArafd^ ^qvipond4rance ; Latin CBqui pondirU, ▼. 
pondgrd/re^ to weigh [equally]. 

Equisetacess, ek'.wi-se.tay'^-se-e, the horse-tfiil and other plantB 
of the same order ; equisetum, ek'.wij{ee".t7im^ a single 
. specimen of the order ; plu. equise'ta or equise'tuiiiB. 

Equisetite, ek' .wtsee^'.tite, a fossil equisetum. 

Latin equlsitum and eguisStis 'eq;id sSta, horse's bristle). In BoU, 
-aceee denotes an order of plants. In GeoL, -He denotes a fossil. 

Equitahle, ik\wl.td.b'l, just, fair ; eq'uitable-uesg, eq'^uitably. 

Equity^, e/t'.wl.ty, justice even if not in conformity with the 
rigid letter of law ; Court of equity, plu. Courts of equity, 
courts in which justice is administered according to jire- 
vious judgments, with discretionary power in the judge. 

Latin <eguUas (oequus, equal) ; French ^quitable^ iqaiii. 
Equivalent, e.kioiv\a.lent, equal in vnlue, compensation; 
equiv'alent-ly, equiv'alence, equiv'alency, plu, -lenefes. 

Lat. cequivdlentia, cequivdlens, gen. iEquivdlerUis ; Fr. i^ivalenL 

Equivocal, e.kw\v'.o.kiil, doubtful, beaiing two meaniugB; 
equiv'ocal-ness, equiv'ocal-ly. 

Equivocate, e.kwiv'.d.kate, to quibble ; equiv'ocat-ad (EL 

xxxvi.), equiv'ocat-ing (R xix.), equiv^ocat-or(R.xxxni); 

equivocatory, e.kwlv'.o.kd.Vi-y ; equivoque, i[k^AiA.vohe, 

a quibble ; equivocation, e.kwiv'.o.kai/^shun, 

Latin aquivdcus, (equtvdcdtio, cemiivdcdtor {ague tdeo, to call ttro 
things equally [by one namel); French Equivoque, 

-or (termination of verbal nouns) means an agent, a doer: as 
ruler; (added to nouns) and meaning an agent, it is aomiv 
times -uter : aa maU>8ter ; padded to names of places) it 



AND OF SPELLING. 819 



means an inhabitant of that plnce: MLondon-er; (after 
t- and $') the termination of verbal nouns from the Latin 
is generally -or: as act -or , spons-or, 

-6r, the comparative affix (Ang.-Sax. <er, before, superior) : as 
grtat-er, {The superlative affix is -est.) 

This comparative is used with almost all monosyllables 
capable of compnrison : as full, full-er. 

With most dissyllabic adjectives accented on the final syl. : 
as genteel', genteeVer, 

With adjectives of two syllables in which the last syllable 
is elided : as able, dbUer. 

With many adjectives of two syllables ending in -y, 

^ If an adjective corner under Kule i., the final consonant is 
doubled : as red, redd-er. 

If it comes under Rule xi, the -y is changed to -<: as 
happy, happi-er. 

If it comes under Hule xix., the final -e is dropped : as 
polite, polit-er. 

Bia, e|KX^ age; ^.rah, e\p5k, age (1 syl.) 

Era, a succession of years dating from some important eyent. 

l^poch, an important event from which an era begins. 

Age, a period of time characterised by some leading feature. 

The birth of Christ was an epoch, from which the Christian 
era begins. 

The irofi age is a period of history characterised by inces-^ 

sant wars. 
Latin <tra, epocha; French ^e, 4poque, age (Latin cgtas), 

Vindicate, e.rad'.i.kate, to root out; erad'icat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
erad'icat-ing, erad'icat-or (Rule xxxvii.); eradicahle, 
e.rud\i.ka.b'l; erad'icable-ness, erad'icably; eradication, 
e.rad' .i.kay" .shun ; eradicative, e.rud.i.ku.tiv, 

Latin trddicdre^ supine erddicdtum (e radix, [pulled up] from the 
roots) ; French Eradication. 

^i**, e.race'y to scratch out ; erased' (2 syl.). eras'-ing (R. xix.) ; 
eras'-er; erasure, e.ray\zhur; erasable, e.ray'.8a.Vl (Rule 
xxiii.) ; erase'-ment, effacement. 
Latin tradSre, supine trdsua; French raaer, to shave. 

"••air; e'er, air; ear, cV; air; are, r; heir, atr; here, 
he'r; hear, JieW; hair; hare (1 syl.) 

Ere, atr, before in time, sooner. (Old English <^.) 

B*er, contraction of ever. (Old English afer.) 

Eur, 2'r, organ of hearing. (Old English edr.) 



320 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



Air, atmosphere. (Latin aer,) 

Are — r (Norse plural of the Anglo-Saxon heS), 

Heir, atr, the next male successor. (Latin hare»») 

Here, Mr, in this place. (Old English h6r^ 

Hear, /teV, to apprehend with the ** ear." (Old Eng. hir\an\) 

Hair of the head. (Old English lubr,) 

Hare (1 syl.), a quadruped so called. (Old English Aomo.) 

Erect, e.rekf, upright, to raise, to build, to set up ; erect'-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), erecf-ing, erecf -nesa, erect'-ly, erecf-aUe 
(R. xxiii.) ; erectile, e.rektWl, that which may be erected. 

Erect'-er, one who erects ; erecf-or, a muscle which erects. 

Erection, esiW^lmUy an upraising, a building, &c. 

French irection^ irecteur (mu<>cle) : Latin trectiOt ereeiar, enetuif r. 
erlgire, supine erectum (e rego, to guide forth). 

-erel (diminutive) : as cock, cockerel^ a little chanticleer. 

Eremite, er^re.mite, a hermit. (The -re- is long in Greek.) 

Gk. erimlUs (jerimia, a desert). " Hermit" is a perversion of wremiii, 
Erin, er'ririt Ireland. (Keltic Eri or lar and innis, Western iaUuMl.) 
Erisa, e.rV^ah, a flower. 

Greek ereiko, to break. Supposed to break the stona in the Wiwfi^fr 

Ermine, er^.mln, one of the weasel kind, a fur; ermined (9 bjL) 
French hermine, Le. d'Arminie, the animal from Armenia. 

Erode, erode', to gnaw away; erod'-ed, erod'-ing; erod'-ent. 

Erosive, e.ro'.8iv; erosion, e.ro\zhun, 

French irosion; Latin erodena, gen. erddentis, r. erSdint ev^nt 
(e rodo, to gnaw off or out). 

Erotic, e.rot'.tkt pertaining to love : as erotic poetry, love songj. 

French irotique; Greek erdtlkds (poetry of ir6s, love, o long). 

Erpetology better herpet^logy, Jier^.peAdV'.dgy, that part of 

natural science which treats of reptiles; erpetologiBt 

better herpetolog^t, her\pe.tol'\o.gut. 

Cpxe erroneous spelling, as usual, is from the French.) 
French erpHohgle ; Greek herpitCn, a reptile {herpd, to creep), witk 
logos, a diacourse on [reptilesj ; -ist^ Gr«ek -ist^a, one who. 

Err, to wander, to be in error. (One of the 14 monosyUablet 

[not in /, I, or a] which double the final letter: as add, 

odd; burr, err; bitt,butt; ebb, egg; buzz and whiztfTLiiL) 

Err, erred (1 syl.), err'-ing, err'ing-ly, err'-er, one who ens; 

Error, er\ror, a mistake; erroneous, er.rS'Mi.tu; em*' 
neous-ly, erro'neous-ness ; err'or-ist. 

Errand, ^.rand, a message ; errand-boy, a boy messenger. 
Errant, ^.rant, wandeiiug; errantry, Sr^.ran,trj, 



jiND OF SPELLING, 321 

£mtio, ^.rai^Xky having no fixed orbit; enatical, irsHt,' 
i.kal (not e.ratf.i.kal) ; errat'ical-ly. 

Enaf ic, phi, erraf ics or erratic blocks (in GeoL\ boulders. 

Enatnm, plu, errata, er.ray\tah, a printer's error. 

Fr. emr^ errani, errante, errantry^ enxUwn, and enxUa : Lai erraiw, 
gen. errantis, errantia, erratum, and errata, errdre, to wander. 

Ene (1 syL) same as Cktelic (gay\lik\ native Irish and Highland 
Scotch. {Ene, a contraction of ErinUh, Irish,) 

Ent, first (super, of ere^ Aug.- Sax. dr, drra (comp.), 4tre8t (sup.) 

Bmdite, ^ru.dite, learned ; er'udite-ly; erudition, -dUh^'.un. 

French irudii, Erudition; Latin erOdUio, er&dlre, sup. eruditum 
(e [ex] rudU docttLs, [to convert] from ignorance to leandng). 

Emglnoas, e.ru'.ji.nu8, resembling the rust of brass or copper. 

Frendi 4rugineux; Latin cerugo, rust of brass, CBrQgtn6su$, 

Eruption, e.rup',8huny an outburst of a volcano, flood, Ac, a 

breaking out of spots or pustules on the skin ; erup'tiye. 

Lmption, a bursting in ; as the sudden invasion of a 

country ; irruptive, ir.riip'.ttv ; irruptive-ly. 

French iruptUm, iruptif, irruption, irruptive; Latin eruptio, v. 
entmpo, supine eruptum {e rumpo, to burst out from) ; irruptio, 
irrumpio, supine irruptum (ir [inj rumpo, to burst in). 

-ery, -ary (Latin -eria, -aria, termination of nouns), denotes a 
place for : as buttery, a place for butter ; library, 

Eryngo, S.rin'.go (not erynga), the sea-holly and similar plants. 
Gk. iruggidn (iruggos, the beard of goats), referring to the thistlj bead. 
Eryripelas, ^.i.8ip'\^.ld8, a fiery redness of the skin ; erysipe- 
latous, er^.i.8tpeV'.d,tii8, a4j. (-y- shows it is Greek.) 

Greek ir&tis pilas, drawing near. '* Parce que cette maladie s'£tend 
ordinairement de proche en proche." — Bouillet, Latin erysipilat, 
St. Anthony's fire ; French ir^sipHe (wrong;, 6risip6lateux, 

Erythema, er\i.rhe".mah, a superficial redness of the skin; 
erythematous, er^.i.Tlie".ma.tu8, adjective of the above. 
Erythrine, ir^.trhrinet a mineral of a red colour. 

Erythrite, et'.tThrite, a flesh-coloured variety of felspar. 

(The -y- shows thai these words have a Greek origin.) 
Greek iruth&ma, a blush {^ruthrds, red). 

■<8| the plural termination of nouns ending in -8, -8h, eh (soft), 
and -X : as " gas," gases ; " gl^ss," glasses ; " fish," fishes ; 
"church," churches; " fox," foxes^ When ch = k only -4 
is added : as " monarch," monarclis (not monarches). 

^ In the 3rd per. sing., pres. tense, indie. jnood, the same rule 
holds : as to " bias," he biases ; to " guess," he guesses ; 
to "clash," clashes; to "enrich," enriches; to "box," boxes. 

-« was the plural masc. of one of the two "strong" Ang.-Sax. de- 
clensions. It was changed to -ta after the Conquest, in conloTrnvV^ 
vith Uie French plural, and ultimately supplanted othet lonsa, 

X 



ERRORS OF SPEECH 



-, the prefix en- or ex- before -j», •«, aud Bometimes -e, -1 

icalade, i/M.lade'\ an attack on a town, dkc^ by scaling- 
ladders, to scale by ladders ; e«'eftlid''-ed, etfciSiiL'4ag, 
French aealade; Latin «»to, with «- tea], to attack wUh laMwri, 

JMmpe, i»Jkaptf, avoidance, to evade; eecapod' (It syl.), 
eicap'-ing (Rule six.), eacap'-er. 

Escaiie'-ment, a contrivance in docks and watches by which 
tlie circulating motion of the wheels is converted into 
a vibratory one ; 

Escapade, es'Jca.pard^ (not e8',ka.paid\ the "fling* of a 
horse, a freak involving impropriety and mischiel 

French ttcapade, ichapper, ithampemtnt : Latin e [«z] piifallf« tr 
negative, and eapio to take, to fail to take. 

BBcarp, &(.karv' (in Fort.), the steep slope, to form a slope; 
escarped' (2 syL), escarp'-ing, escarp'-ment, ground rat 
away nearly perpendicularly to prevent an enemy firom 
climbing up it into the fort above. 

The noun is generally called the scarp, and is opposed to 
counterscarp. The scarp of a rampart slopes down to 
the ditch or fosse, and the eownterscarp iK the exterior 
slope of the ditch. Thus in V> ^^^ ^oug line is the 
'* scarp," the short one the " counterscarp,'* and the spao* 
between the " ditch." 

Fr. eaearper, eavarpemmt: Ital. acarpa, a slope ; (Lat 9oalpo, to cat^ 

-esoe (Lat. -e8c[p\ added to verbs) is inceptive : as effervetet, 

-esoence (LRtin -escentia), -sc- is inceptive, and -eicence Med 
to nouns indicates an inceptive state : as convalaeeiitet 
a state of health gradually improving more and mora 

Esdieat, es.chete^ real property which lapi^es to the overioi' 
through fHilure of heirs or by forfeiture, to revert to tb 
ovrrlord or to the crown ; eecheaf-ed (Rule xxxti' 
escheat'-ing, escheaf-or (Rule xxxvii.), escheafor-iV 
(sliip, Old £ng. '* office of"), esdieat'-able ; eacheaf-tf 
French ichoir; Low Latin escAceto, escastor, ucasMa, esdieataBdtf 

Eschew, S8.tchu\ to avoid ; eschewed' (2 syl.), eschew'-ing: 
German »cheuen, to shun, with e, "from"; Norman uduver, toft* 

Esoort, (noun) es'.kort, (verb) Si^.konf (Rule L), an attend*' 
cortege; to conduct someone as an attendant, teat 
on a portion as a guard of honour ; eaoort'-ed. eBOOrtf 
French escorU, tacorUr; Latin tcorUa, a traveller's bag or oloa' 
Escritoire. e8',kr%.twor, a writing-case or desk. 

French ^crifoire (icritures; Latin scriptara)^ acriptwrMiui, r 

£B01llent,&^fc1S.l^t, fit for food. QPr, esculent ; Latesotfl 



AXD OF SPELLING. 823 

EMSutcheoii, ib.kiitfjh&n, the shield of coat.annoiir, the oraa* 
mental shield of a key-hole ; eeeatcheoned, is.k&lf.shiind. 
Fr. ScnMon^ 6tusmm,fU; Lat. «cft(uiiH a ahlrid ; Ok. Mdo», a hide. 

-ese (French -Uy -oist -aU ; Latin -ensU), means " belonging to," 
" a native of" : as Chinese, 

EaophagiiB, e^sSf'M.gua, the gullet ; eaophagotomy, e^df'&.goV- 
d-my, the operation of cutting the gullet. 

Stench <B8ophag«, This wretched compovnid is made up of the future 
tense of phiro [oisd, t shall ranr], and j^Utgds, a glutton. The 
meaning is " I conyey food" [to the stomach], but phdg6, "I eat," 
has BO noun like phdij6», meaning *' food.'* 

'* Bsophagotomy " is cMopAogos temndt to out the esoidugus. 

Esoterie, ig^,o.t&t"rik, private. Exoteric, ex'.o.tir^'rik^ public; 
esoterical, ee^o.tir^^riMl ; eeoter'iGftl^ly. 

EK>terieB, &\o.t^'Hki, mysterious or hidden doctrines ; 

Bzoterics, ea^.o./^'rift«, those parts of mjsteriee which may 
be tRUght to the general public. 

Freneh ^tot&rique ; Gteek es&UrikSt (u(Uirds, iuner). 

Fythagtyras stood behind a curtain when he lectured. Those disciples 
who wert-. admitted within the veil were termed esoteric^ and the 
rest exoteric. Aristotle called those who were admitted to his 
abstruse morning lectures hii twterie disci]»le8, and those who 
came to his popular evening discourses his exoteric auditors. 

Btpalier, ^.paUyer, a fruit tree trained to stakes. 

Ft. espaUer ; Lat. paltu, " a stake," with es- [en-], trained to a stake. 
.Eqp^dal, fy,pi8h\dly chief, particular; especial-ly. 

Vnach special ; iMtta »p^otdli8. (The initial e- is to soften the a) 
Xspionage, S8.pS;.o.narj ; espied, espies, &g, {See Espy.) 

Hq^la&ade, is^plS.ndde' (in Fort.), an open, epace outside the 
glacis, a promennde between the sea and the houses 
facing it, or between the ramparts and the town. 
ft. taplcmade; Lat. planum, with es- [en-], "to make" [a level plane]. 
)use, es.pdwz* (-pouse, to rhyme with cow*), to betroth, to 
adopt an opinion or cause ; espoused' (2 syl.), espous'-ing 
(Rula xix.), espous'-er, espous'-al; 

Eqxmsals (no sing.), es.pdw\zdlz, marriage, betrothal. 
French dpousailles, 4pouser; Latin sponsdlia (gponsa, a bride). 
It de corps, es'.pre de-kd'/, the spirit of clanship. 
This is £ng.-lfr. ; the French phrase is etprit de parti, party spirit. 

r, is.py', to discHm; espies, Ss.pize' ; espied, es.pide' ; 
espi'-er (Rule xi.), espl'-al, but espY-mg, 

SspionAge, is.pee^o.ndje or es.pe^o.ncerjet a prying into the 

acts and words of others, the employment of a spy. 
Fr. ipUr, e&pUytmage; It»l. apiare, to spy ; Lat. spgeio, to view. 
"^iqne (French termination of adj. ; Latin -iscus), "like," "after 
tibe manner of" : as picturesque, picture-like. 



.'^4 F.nnORS OF SPEECH 

* » 

EBquimau, plu. Esquimaux, or Eskemo, plu, EBkemos, Es'Mjmo, 
E8\ke.mdzef natives of the northerD seaboiird. 

Esquire, ^.kwii^, a young gentleman attendant of a knight, to 
car>y his shield, &o.{e8cu, Latin scutum^ a shield); now 
appended to the address of the untitled younger sons of 
the nobility, to untitled ofQcers of the royal court and 
household, to counsellors of law [not serjeants'jj to un- 
titled justices of the peace, sheriffs, gentlemen holding a 
commission in the army or navy below captain, graduates 
of the universities not in holy orders, &c. By courtesy, 
appended to the address of lawyers, surgeons, professors, 
merchants, bankers, gentlemen living on their means, 
and to almost everyone above the lower middle dass. 

-ess, the female of a male animal : as lion-ess, 

1. All the twenty-two nouns which add -ess to the male without 

change or contraction are French, and -ess &= -esse (Fr.) 

2. Ten of the words which contract the masculine noun by 

omitting the last vowel before adding -ess are French, 
and -ess represents -ice. The exceptions are " chantr-ess " 
for charUeuse, with enchantressle], negressle], ogressle"], 
8. Three are Anglo-Saxon : huntress, mistress, and songstress. 

4. Six have a common basis, to which -er or -or is added for 

the male, and -ess for the female: adulter-er, adulter-ess; 
cater-er, eater-ess ; emper-or, empr-ess ; govem-or, 
govem-ess; murder- er, murder-ess; sorcer-er, sorcer-ess. 

5. The following are irregular: duke, duchess; U»d, laa; 

marquis, marchioness ; master, mistress and miss. 

French -e«M, -ice, and -euse; Italian -esm; Spanish -€»a and -isa; 
Anglo-Saxon -is«e; Latin -tas and -dssa, &c. ; Greek -issck 

Essay, (noun) is'sy, (verb) is^say' (Rule 1.); Assay'. 

Es'say, plu. es'says (Rule xlv.), a short prose compoBition 
on some practical or mornl subject ; es'say-ist. 

Essa/ (verb), to try ; essayed' (2 syl.), essay'-er, easay^-lng. 

Assa/, to prove metals ; as8ayed^ assay'-er, asaay^-ing. 

French essayer, n. esaai (both meanings); Latin exigw, to try, to 
prove ; (ex ago, to drive out [what in dross, &c. j) 

Essence, es'.sence (Rule lix.), a volatile oil, the conoentrated 
virtues of a p'ant, drug, &c., the real being divested 
of nil logical accidents; essential, €S.8ih\shdl, neoessairy; 
essen'tial-ly ; essentiality, i8.8en\8hX.al'\l.ty, 

French essence ; Latin eJ^sentia, esaentialia. EssenCO is the opposite 
of absence; the «>ne is es I in] ens "being in," and the ottMBrob*- 
ena " being without." Ens is the present part of esse, to be. 

Establish, es.tab'.llsh, to settle, to found permanently ; estaV* 

lished, estab'lish-ing, estab'Iish-ment. 

French itablir, itablissement ; Latin stdMlio, stcMUmmUmm, 



AND OF SPELLTNd, SO'i 

Sstate, is.tateff real property, conditioD, caste. 

French itat ; Latin MUttua. 
Erteem, respect, to respect; esteemed' (2 syL), 68teem'-iiig. 

Estiniable, ^M.ma.Vl; es'timable-neda, es'tiiiiably. 

Estiinate, es'Atmate ; es'timat-ed (R. xxxvl.), es'timat-ing 
(R xix.), es'timat-or (R. xxxvii.) ; estimat-ive, Ss'M.md.Hv. 

Estimation, esWi^mtiy" ^hun, regard, esteem. 

French e«(tmer, estivH, eatinuible, estimation^ estimateur ; Latin 
(KsHmdtw, astlmdtor, cesttrndre (Greek eis timd, to hold in honour). 

Ertlieticci (no sing), ese.rhStWks, the perception of good taste in 
nature or art. (The second syllable in Greek is long.) 
Greek aistlUttkda [beauty as it is] appreciated by the senses. 

EBtiange, ^.trdnge, to alienate; estranged' (2 sy].), estrang'-ing, 
estrange'-ment (Rule xviii.), withdrawal of affection. 
(Followed by from.) {Strange with ee- [en], "to muke^o 

Estrapade, ^\tru,j)ard' (French), the violent yerking of the hind 
legs when a horse tries to get rid of its rider. 

Ertreaf (2 syl.), a duplicate of the fines, &c., in the rolls of 
court, to make... ; estreat'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), estreat'-ing. 

tjatin txtradum^ an extract : extraho, supine exlrcuium, to draw out. 
Ertnary, &\tu.a.ry, the mouth of a tidal river, a frith. 

French esttuiire; Latin cutudrium (cuiuore, to boil or rage). 

-et (Latin -etltut] added to nouns), " one who," " a place where 
or with " : as prophet^ banquet, 

-et (French -etteX diminutive, as locket^ packet^ pocket. 

Et csstera, et s^t\e.rah (written thus (&c. or etc.), and so on. 
Put at the end of a list of articles to denote that all simi- 
lar ones are to be included. (Latin, " and the rest.") 

Etch, to engrave by the action of an arid; etched (1 syl.), 
etdh'-ing. etch'-er, etching, 2>^- etchings^ designs etched. 

German aetzen, to etch, corrode, or fret. 
-ete (Lat et[u8], added to adj.), "subject of an action :" complete. 
Eternal, g.ter'.naZ, everlasting ; eter'nal-ly; eternity, e.ter^.nUy. 

Eternise, e.te'/.nize (R. xxxi. ); eter'nised (.1 syl .) , eter'nis-ing. 

French dtemel (wrong), 4temi8er, 4temellement. Stemite; cetemttas, v. 
(Btemdre, atem/am (ffowm uid the affix -tumus^ as in divrtumus). 

Etesian, e.teef .z\.an, [winds], the Mediterranean monsoons. 

Artesian, ar.tee*.z{.an, [well], one made by boring till a 
perpetual spring of water has been reached. 

Ft. rfi^sten (wrong); Lat.et^ios; (jt\i.iUsiai{itei6stmim6s,y^a,r\j\tin^). 
" Arttsian," so called frm Arteaium, i.«., Artois, in France. 

Ether, i^.rhSr, a light volatile liquid obtained by distillation of 
alcohol with an acid, a fluid which pervades the atmos- 



336 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

■■■ ■ ■!» — ^— i— i w i^ n ia.a MiMM ■ ■■ i i ■ IM ■■ , . ■ ■ ■! ■ ■■■■■■ i i i ■ ^ 

phere, and is supposed to be connected with light and 
heat ; ethereal, e.The'.r^Mlt celestial, extremely rarefied ; 
ethe'real-ly ; ethereality, e.The\rSj&fJl,ty, 

Etherealise, 1,tM .r^M.llze ; ethe'reallsed (5 syL), ethe'- 
realls-ing (Rule six.), etheriform, e'.rhgrXform, 

Fr. 4ther, 4thir6: Lat. ctlher, asthgretu and aethirius; Gk. aithih', 
aithirios. It will be seen that etherial would be the better spelling. 

Ethics (no sing:), eth\lk8 (Rule Ixi.). moral philosophy. 

Ethical, eth\i.kal, pertaining to morals ; eth'ical-ly. 

Fr. ithique, 4thiques; Lat. ethica, ethfcus; 6k. ithtkda (ithO»y 

Ethiopian, e\TM.o'\pi.an, a native of Ethio'pia; Ethiopic, 

e\Thi.Sp'\ik, pertHining to Ethio'pia. An E'thiop. 

Frenoh Ethiopien: Latin JBthidpia, ^tM&pteiUt JEtMop§; Greek 
AithiUpla, Aithidps {aithos dps, burnt face). 

Etiinical, Hh'.ntkal, relating to the different races of man ; 
eth'nical-ly, eth'nic ; etluiicism, ith\ni,cizm, heathenism. 

Anthropology, Ethnology, Ethnography, Archfeology. 

? Anthropology, dn\Thro,p6l".5.gy, the general term which 
embrnces the other three, treats of man in his social 
condition. (Greek anthrdphs Idgds^ treatise on man.) 

1. Ethnology, Sth.noV.o.gy, that part of Anthropology which 

treats of the origin and dispersion of the different races 
of man, their characteristics, physical features, &c, 
Greek ethnOs Ufgds, treatise on nations. 

2. Ethnography, ^th.nog'.ra.fy, that part of Anthropology 

which treats of the works, the geographical position, the 
cities, literature, and laws, of the different races of man. 
Greek ethnHs grapho, to describe [physically] the nations. 

3. Ardissology, ar^.M.6V\5,gy, treats of the antiquities of a 

people. (Greek tprchaide Idgos, treatise on antiquities.) 

Ethnog'raphy; ethnographic, ^tK.no.graf*\lk: ethnograph- 
ical, eth'.no.grdf.i.kdl; ethnographer, eth.ndg\ra,fSr, 

Ethnorogy; ethnological, S%h\no.lcj'.i.kdl; ethnol'ogfet 

French ethnique, ethnographique, tthiwgraphie, e^fu>graph€, tUuio- 
logie; Latin ethnicus; Greek Hthnds, a race or tribe. 

Ethology, ethnology, etiology. 

Ethology, ethM'.S.gy, the science of ethics, shows the bear- 
ing of external circumstances on the character. 
Greek iftMs Idgds, treatise on manners and habits. 

Ethnology, eth.ndV.5.gy, Irexts of the human race in its 

social condition, or as a family of nations. 
Greek ^thnds ldg6s^ treatise on nations. 
Etiology, e.ti.6V.6.gy, treats on the causes of disease. 
Greek aiUa Idgdt, treatlBe on causes. 



AKD OF srELLTNO. 827 

Btliol'ogy; eOKdogical, ith\6.l6f'\l.kdl a^j. of ethology. 

BChnorogy; 4t]iiiological,^eV.fi^.{/(/M.ibdl; ethnol'ogist. 

Etiology; etiolbgical, ^,ti.o,lSj".i.kal, ac^. of etiology. 
BUdate, ei'M^d.ldte, to blanch by exclusion of li^ht ; e'tiolat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), e'tiolat-ing ; e'tiolation, ^.tl.S.lay'^shun. 

Wwaoh itvoUr^ itiolement ; Greek aiihd, to light up, to glisten. 

Etiquette, &f.%,ke1f (Fr.), the conventional forms of polite society. 

Tbe word means a ticket containing directions to be obsery^d by 
those who attend court. 

Etymology, plu, etymologioB (Rule xliv.), ^tf.Lm6V'.o^, the 
derivation of words ; etymologist, i*f .i.m6V\o.ji8t ; 
etymologioal, iSf,umo.loj'\ukul ; etymolQg'ioal-ly. 
Etymologise, St^ .i.m6V\o.j\ze (Rule xxxi.), to searoh oat 
etymologies ; etymol'ogised (5 syL), etymorogls-ing 
(Rule xix.); etymon, it\i.m6n, the root from which a 
word is derived. (The -y- points to a Greek origin.) 

Vrsnch itymoloffie, ^tymologique, StymologitUy itymoloqUtir ; Latin 
etyvidldgia, etymMCgicun, eiyrndUigv^ etymdn; Greek HUmdUii/iaf 
itHmdn (gtiimoa, the real word). 

Ba- (Gk. prefix), good, well, ea^y. It is opposed to d/ys [das]. 

Every word beginning with eu- is derived from the Greek. 

Bochaiist, u*kdri>tt, the communion ; encharistio, u'.ka.rU'^tXk, 

French eiicharistie, etictiwristique ; Latin *%u:hariitia. eucharisticus ; 
OreAk euehwristia, an act of gratitude ; (chari$, gratitude, favour). 

EadUmieter, il*,di.6m'\S.t&r, an instrument for analysing atmos> 

pberic air ; eadiom'etry, the usage of the eudiometer ; 

eadicmietric, u'Ai.6.met'\r%k ; eudiomet'rical. 

French eudUniUirique ; Greek eu Mds m/ltrdn, the metre of good air. 

Evlogy, plu, eulogies (Rule xliv.), ii'.logiZj an encomium; 

eulogist, u'Uo.jist, the praiser of another; eulogistic, 

u'.lo.ji8'\tik; ealogi8tioal,M'.fo.jV.rt./taZ; eulogistical-ly. 

Sologise, u'.lo.jize (Rule xxxi.). to laud ; eulogised {'-^ syl.), 

ealogiS-ing (Rule xix.), eulogis-er, one who eulogises. 

Eologium, plu. eologiums, ii.lr/.ji.umz, same as eulogy. 

Latin euldgia and euldglwn; Greek euldgeo, to eulogise; euldgia, 
euldgds [eu lego, to speak well of one). 

*'miioih, u\nuk, a man who has charge of the women's apart- 
ments in the East ; eunuchism, u'.niik.izm. 
**A eunuch," not an eunuch. A pre<e les u- or eu- pure, 
that is, making a distinct syl. without the aid of a con- 
lK)nant. In un-der, up-per, use-ful, the u- is not pure. 

■^^^^muB. plu. eaonymoses, il.on'.i.mus, the spindle-tree. 

Oreek eu 6n&ma [the p^ant with] the good namr>. The tree being 
poisonous, this euphemism was given to it to avert the evil omen 
of calling it deadly; «o the '• Furies" were termed eumitiid^^ (the 
good tempered goddesses), to propitiate them by flattery ; Bim^tVj 
a grave-yard was called a "sleeping-place" (cemetery). 



328 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Euphemism, U' .fe.mizm, a word or phrase less objectiooable used 

to soften down one more offensive; a» a hep or employ 6 

(for ''a servant"); euphemistio, u'^mW\tlk. 

** Euphemize " (a good Greek word) might be introduced. 

French eupMmisme; Latin eupJiemigmus ; Greek eupA^to, euphi- 
mo8 (eu pfUmed, to speak well of one). 

Euphony, u\fo.nyy an agreeable sound of words; euphonic, 
HfSn'.ik; euphonical, fi./^'.{.fta2; euphon'ical-ly. 

Euphonious, tZ./d'.ni.u8, sounding agreeably ; eupho'nious-ly. 

Euphonise, uf.fS'nize (Rule xzxi.) ; eu'phonised (8 syl.), 
eu'phon!i9-ing (Rule xix.), eu'phonis*er. 

Fr. euphonie, euphonique; Lat. euphOnia; Ok. eu ph6ni^ good sound. 
Euphorbia, u.f<y/M.ah, the spurge. 

So named from Euphorbos, physician to Juba, king of Lll^Ta. 
Euphrasy, u\fra.8y (in Bot.), the plant "eye-bright." 

Greek euphraino, to give Joy. 

Called "eye-bright" because it once had the repute of repairing yision. 

Euphuism, u'.fu.lzm. Euphemism, u.fi'.mizm. 

Euphuism, high-flown diction, affected conceits in langoage; 
euphuist, u'.fuAst; euphuis'tic, euphuis'tical. 

Euphemism, a softening down of unpleasant expressionB; , 

euphemist, u\fe,mi8t; euphemis'tic, euphemis'ticaL 

The word comes from John Lilly's book, entitled EuphiiSi (graoeftal 
[phrases and periods]. Greek eu phiU^ well-formed Iperiods]). 

Eureka, U.ree'.kah (not u\re.kahy as Dryden writes the word in 

the line : ** Cries Eureka I the mighty secret 's found." 

A discovery made after long and laborious research. 

(The word should be heureka, Greek feUfniKa^ not et)pi|ira.) 

The tale is that Hi'ero asked Archimddds to te«t a golden crown, 
which the monarch believed to have been alloyed with some baser 
metal. The philosopher one day stepping, into his bath observed 
that his body removed its own bulk of water Nuw for the sohi- 
tion : As all alloys are lighter than gold, a golden crown alloyed 
will be larger than one unalloyed of the same weight. When this 
idea flashed across the philosopher's mind he is Mid to hare ex- 
claimed heurika I (I have hit on it). 

Euroclydon, u.rok'.ll.don, a tempestuous wind in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea (Acts xxvii. 14), now called the Levan^ter, 

Greek eurdkltuidn {eurds khiA&n, east or south-east wave-[maker])L 
The word " seems to mean a storm from the east " (LiddeU and Scotfy. 

European, U.rb.pee'Mn, a native of Europe, pertaining t<> Europe. 

French europSen ; Latin Eurdpceus : Greek Eurdpdx (eurds for CMms 
dpHs, wide-spread vision, so called because it btholaa many naUom^ 

Eury- (the Lat. spelling of the Gk, euru-\ broad, wide, ample. 

Eurynotus, u\ri,nd''.tu8y certain extinct flshes in the coal 

formations, noted for their high bream-like back. 
Greek eurm ttdtds, lhe\>\«-^«Ak [flsh]. 



AND OF SPELLING. 32!» 



Enrypteiiie, ny^Mjfite, a fossil crustacean, noted for it8 

broad swimmers ; enrypteridsB, u\rip.ter''ry.de, the genus. 

Oreek ewruspUrdri, wide wing, i.e., the "creature with wide oar-like 
feet*' i-^iU in Geology, means a fossil ; Greek IWios, a stone). 

Eustachian, il.8tay\ki.dn [tube], a tube which forms a communi- 
cation between the back of the month and the ear. 
So named from Bariholomem Eustcuhius, who discovered it in 1674. 
Euterpe, u.tSf,pe, the muse of music and inventor of the flute. 

Calliope, kalWLd.pe (not kal.lV.o.pe, the epic muse). 
Greek kalU6p6 (hallos ops, [the Muse with the] beautiful voice). 

Glio, kli'o, Muse of history. (Gk. kleid [kleoa, rumour, news] .) 

Erato, e/rd.to (not ^.ray'.to), muse of love and the lyre. 
Greek irdM, from irdtda, beloved ; frds, love. 

Eaterpe, H.teT^.pe, the Muse of music. 

Gieek euterpi, delightful muse. 
Kelpomene, mel.p6m' Xne^ the Muse of tragedy. 

Greek milpdmiiU [mausa], the ainging [muse], from m^lpd, to stng. 
Polyhymnia, pdV.iMm'\nl.ah, the Muse of sacred poetry. 

Greek pdliirMmnia {pOltu humnos, [muse of] many hynms). 
Tetpsichore, terp.sikfko.re, the Muse of dancing. 

Greek terpsi cK&ri, delighting in the dance (terpd, to delight^ 

Thalia, thd.li\ah (not thd\ll.ah)y the Muse of comedy, 
Greek thaleia [motisa], the blooming muse. 

Uiania, U,rdn\i.ah (not u.rdy\nl.ah\ muse of astronomy. 
The Latin form of the Greek owdnla, the heavenly [muse]. 
Svacnate, e.vdk'ku.ate, to empty, to quit, to eject ; evac'uat-ed 
(R. xxxvi.), evac'uat-ing (R. xix.), evac'uat-or (H. xxxvii.) 
Evacuation, l:vdk'ku.d" .shiin, a voiding, an emptying. 
Evacuatiye, e.vdk'ku,a.tXv ; evac'uant, a purgative. 

French 6vac%Mnt, ivacuaiif, ivoL^uer, Evacuation; Latin evdcudtio, 
evdcudte [e vdcuo, to empty out). 

Evade, i.idde'j to elude ; evad'-ed, evad'-ing, evad'-er. 

Evasioh, e.vay\zhun, a siibterfnge, a slipping aside; 

evasiye, S.vay\ziv ; eva'sive-ly, eva'sive-ness. 

French ivoMf (** evasion" is not French); Latin evddire, supine 
evdsum, evdsio (e vddo, to escape from}. 

^▼•luation, e.val'.u.d'\8hun, a complete valuation. 

Fr. ivaluation; Lat. evdleo, vdlor, value (e- means "thorough"). 
E^'Mieacent, e\vd.ne8'\sent, fleeting; evanes'cent-ly ; evanes- 
cence, e'.va.ne«".»ense (only six words end in ejise, R. xxvi.) 

French Evanescent; Latin evanescena, gen. evanescentis, v. evaneeco 
(all verbs in -sco are inceptive (e vanesco, to vanish wholly;. 

^'•'igelize, e.vdn* .ge.lize (not evangelUe, Rule xxxii.), to con- 
vert to Christianity; evan'gelized (4 syl.), evan'gellz-in'g 
(Rule xix.), evan'geliz-er ; evangelization, c.vdu' .j^t U.- 
tay"^hun; evan'gelist; evangelism, e.i;dn'.je.U8m. 



380 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

m 

Eyangelical, e\van.jeV\tkSl, oxihiiABz; evangel'lc 
evangelic, e'.vdn.jiV'.ik, of gospel tenour. 

French ivangdicpity Svangile, ivangeliiU, SvangeH$er; Lalii 
gi(Ue&8, evangMsta, tvangdfWum, evemgehu, evangifUza; 
etiaggglia, euaggSlikds, €fUMgg€l/L6n. euaggSlisUa, euagg^Mt^ 
lizo (eu aggilia, good tidings). FrMn the announcement 
shepherds, *' I bring yon good tidings" {eiayyeXl^fxai ^/i 

Evaporate, e.vSp'.S.rate (not S.vd\p6.rate), to pass off in vi 

evap'or§,t-ed (Rule xxxvi.), evap'orat*ing (Knle 

evaporation, S.vap\8.ray'\8hun ; evaporative, S.v 

rd.tio; evap'orable; evapOTOineter, e.va^.o.rj^''.^. 

instrument to measure the amount of evapoiation 

French ^vapordble, Svaporer, Svaporation; Latin evdporaUo, 
rare (e o&p&ro, to send out vapours : vdpor, vapour). 

Evasion, e.vay\zhun; evasive, e.vd\ziv, (S«€ Evade.) 

Eve (1 syl.); even, e'.v'n; evening, eve^.nlng, from midi 
sunset, in popular language the glooming which pr 
night. The first half of the day is called morning. 
(1 syl.), evening, a vigU, the evening preceding a c 
festival: as Christmas eve (the evening of Dec 
24th), Midsummer eve (the evening before Mitisc 
day). This i^ because the church begins the daj 
sunset of the preceding day ; even-tide, evening ti 
Old English efen or crfen, crfen-tid, even-tide. 

Evection, e.vSW.shun (in Astron.), the libration of the moc 
Latin evectio, a carrying out [of its orbitj from solar attractioi 

Even, e'.v'n (noun, adj., and adv.) Even {noun)y evening. 

Even {a(lj,)y level, not odd ; even-Iy, e'.v'n.ly ; e'ven- 

(The degrees are: nearly even, more nearly evai 

nearly even, quite even. " More even" and "most 

are the degrees of not even.) 

Old English cef&n, tfenoT^; (adj.) ^enlie, smooth, equal; 
evenly, plainly ; ^enness (n.), evenness. The adv. is penile 

Evening, eve\ning (2 syl.), not ^.vSn.ing (3 syl.) 

Evening song, &q. In this and all similar plirases, e^ 
is not an adjective, but a noun in regimen. It is 
the "possessive ease," but as we have aboli»h( 
possessive affix, except in nouns denoting anim 
and nouns personified, the '« is omitted. 

Event, e.v^nify an incident, a result ; event'-fnl (Hule viii 

Eventual, l.v^t\u.ulj consequential; event'iial-4y; 

Eventuality, e.vent' .u.dVW.ty, contingency. In Ph 

denotes a quick perception of events and their rest 
Eventnate, e.vSnt\u.ate, to happen as a result or < 

quence ; event'uat-ed (R. xxxvi.), evenfuat-ing (B 

French ivetduel ; Latin eventue, evinire, supine eventum (• «i 
come out [as a consequence]). 



AND OF SPELLING. 881 

Erer, ^'.^, always, ai iny time ; For ever, always, eternally ; 
For ever and ev^, duration without beginning or end. 
Ever and anon, occasionally, from time to time^ frequently. 

Ever so, or Never bo (t). Which is correct: Be he ever so 
toise, or Be he never so wise f Both are correct. The 
former states the sentence affirmatively, and the latter 
negatiyely. **Ue refuses to hear the voice of the charmer, 
charm he never so wisely t" means " though he charms as 
no charmer ever did before,'* or "as never a charmer 
charmed before." "... charm he ever so wisely" means 
" though he charms as wisely as [the best] charmer ever 
charmed." The latter form is now the more usual, and 
is certainly more in accordance with English idiom. 

Old English dfer or dfre, ever, always. 
Ever- (a prefix), without intermission, never ending, perpetually. 

Evergreen, ^\Sr green, perpetually g^een, not deciduous. 

Everlasting, endless; everlasting-ly, everlasting-neiB. 

Evermore, ev\er-more (3 syl.), always. 

Hrert, g-rerf , to turn aside, to overthrow ; evert'-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
evert'-ing; eversion, e.vir'.shun; eversive, e.v^\f%u, 
Latin everUfre, supine eversufO>, eversio (e vertOy to turn away fromX 
^ery, l^\i,ry, all taken one by one, each one of several. 
liveryday, common, usual. Everywhere, in every place. 
▲ compound of the Ang. -Sax. ce/er and ale, ever- each, all one by one. 
^esdropper, evz\drop.per (is the better spelling, but eavesdrop- 
per is the more general), a sneak, a surreptitious- listener. 
Old English ^ese, eaves ; tfea dropa (not a^ese). 

^vict, S.vikf, to dispossess by legnl proceedings ; evict'-ed (Rule 
xxxvi.), evict'-ing ; eviction, e.v%k\shun. 
Fr. Eviction ; Lat. evictio, evictus (e vinco, sup. vicium, to expel from). 

*^^idence, ^'.Ldense, testimony, proof; evident, Sv\i.dent ; 
ev'ident-ly; evidential, ev\i.den" .shdl ; ev'idential-ly. 

To evidence, ev\i,dense, to show by proof; evidenced 

(8 syl.), ev'idenc-ing (Rule xix.) 
French &oidtnee, ividewt; Latin evldentia (video, to see). 
Evil, ^Ml (noun and a'lj.), wickedness, calamity, wicked, calami- 
tous; e'vil-ly, e'vil-ness; evil-doer, a wicked person. 

Evil*«ye, a malicious look, a look which has an evil influence. 
It was supposed at one time that certain persons possessed 
the power of darting noxious rays into the object glared at. 

Evilf-nUnded, wrongly disposed, malicious. 

The Evil-One, the devil, Satan. 
Old English ^d or t(fe?, vfele, evilly ; yfelnes, erilncss ; v. yfeJ\iaii\, 



332 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Evince, e.vlnce^^ to make evident ; evinoed' (2 syl.)) evinc'-ing 

(Rule xix.), evinc'-ible, e"^c'-ibly ; evincive, e.vin\Hr. 

Latin evinc^re, to prove, to evince (e vinco, to vanquish whoUy). 
The word means to show what is right by the argumintum ad 
{ibgurdum, that is, by proving the Contrary to be wrong. 

Eviscerate^ e.vi«'.8e.rat€, to disembowel; evis^cerat-ed (R.xxxvi.), 
evis'cerat-ing; evisceration, e.vW .8e,ray'\!thun, 
Ft. iviscirer^ ivisedration ; Lat. eviseirdtor. eriscero {viscSra, bowela). 
Evoke, e.vdke\ to call forth ; evoked' (2 syl.), evok'-ing (R. xix.) 
Evocation, t.vo.kay'*jfhun, the act of calliim forth. 
French ivocatixm, ivoquer; Latin evOcdtio, evdcdtor, evocdre (e voco). 
Evolve, e.vdlve\to unroll ; evdlved' (3 syl.)- evolv'-ing, evolv'-er. 
Evolution, ev'.o.lu" .shun^ (Id Algebra) th«' extraction of roots. 
The^reverse process is Involutidn. Thus — 

• *^'^, that is, find the cube root of 27 (viz., 3) is an 
example oi Evolution ; but 3^, that is, raise 3 to the cube 
or third power (viz., Ml) is an example of Involution, 
Evolutionary, ef.vo.lu''.8hun.a.ry, pertaining to evolution. 

French Evolution; Latin evoMre^ supine evoluium, evohUio (« voho, 
to roll out or unfold ; in volvo, to roll on [itself J). In the examiple 
given, three is rolled three times on itself. 

Evulsion, e.vuV.8hunj the act of pulling or plucking out. 

French ivulsUm; Latin evulaU) (e vello, supine vulsunif to pnll out). 
Ewe, Yew, You (pronounced alike). Yew, a tree. You, i^ pron. 
Ewe, pronounced U {iioiyow to rhyme with grow), a female sheep. 

Bam (yr Tup, the sire ; female ewe ; offspring, lamb ; if 
male it is a tup-lamb, fem. a ewe-lamb. 

After being weaned, lambs are called hojirgets [or hoggs] ^ 

the wMle is a tup-hogget, the fem. a ewe-hogget. 
After removal of xhe first fleece both are shearlings. 
After removal of the second fleece the m/ile is a two-shaar-' 

tup (if castrated a wether), the fem. is a ew6. 
Old English eowii., plu. eowa, a ewe ; eow, you ; ivo, the yew-tnt. 
Ewer, t*'.«r, a toilet jug, a cream-pot. Yotir, u\er (pron.) 
Ewery, w'.ry, one of the royal household who serves 

in ewers after dinner, and has charge of the table-line 
Old Eng. huer or hwer, a ewer Or jug, " Your," tower; Germ. 
Ex- (Lat. and Gk. prefix), out of, out, proceeding from, off 
beyond. Occasionally it is intensive. Added to 
names of office it means that the office was once held 
the per>on named, but is no longer so : as ex-mayw. 

Ex- is written ef- before an " f," and e- before the UfiM 

and the consonants c, (2, g^j, and v. 
The Greek prefix is written ec- before c, and in one eump 

(ecurUric) the Latm ^^vefix is so written also. 




AND OF SrELLTNG, 833 

Enott ex.acf^ precise, to extort ; exacf-ly, exaof-nees ; 
exacf-ed, exaof-lng; exaction^ ex,dk'^kun; exaof-or. 

Exactitude, exMJ^.tttiide, precision. 

French exact, exaction, exa4:titvde, exacleur ; Latin exadio, exactor, r. 
egrigo, supine exactum {ex ago, to drive on [to the end]). 

Exaggerate, ex.afji.rate, to overstate the truth ; exag'gerat-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), exag'gerat-ing (Rule xix.), exag'gerat-or, 
exag^geratory; exag'gerative, ex.afji.raUiv; exaggera- 
tion, ex.afj€.ray".8hun^ overstatement 

French exagirer (wrong), exagiration, exagiratif: Latin exagghxitio, 
exagg&r&tor, exagggrdre (aggi^, a pile or heap). The French word 
is nonsenbe, being a compound of a^tr, a field. 

Exalt, ex.olt\ to elevate; exalf-ed (liule xxxvi.), exal'ted-nesa, 
exalting, exalf-er; exaltation, ex' M.tay'' ^hun. 

Examine, €x.dm\xn, to scrutinise, to test by trial; exa^l^Led, 
exMmWnd; exam'in-ing, examlu-er,*examlnant. 

Examination, ex.um'.i.nay'^shun; exam'en, the tongue or 

needie of the beam of a balance, examination. 
Fr. examination, examiner ; Lat. examen, exoLmin&tio, exAmXndre. 
Example, ex.dm\p% a pattern. (Fr. exemple ; Lat. exemplum.) 
(It 18 a pity that this word is cut off by false spelling from 
its congeners.) See Exemplar. 

Exasperate, ex.ds'.pe.rate, to irritate ; exas'perat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
exas'perat-ing ; exasperation, ex.us'.pe.ray".8hun, 
Ifx. exaspSrer, exaspiration: Lat. exasperatia, exaaperdre (asper, rough). 
£x cathedrm ex kath\e.drah, with dogmatic autboiity. 

Latin ex cathedra; Greek ex kathidra, from the [papal] chair. 
Excavate, ex'.kd.vate, to dig out; ex'cavat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), 
ex'cavat-ing, ex'cavat-or (Rule xxxvii.), one who exca- 
vates ; excavation, ex' .ka.vay'\shun, a digging out. 
French exeaver, excavation; Latin excdvdtio, excavate (cdvea, a care). 
Exceed, to go too far, to excel ; exoeed''-ed (Rule xxxvi.) ; 
exoeed'-ing, going too f:ir, excelling, {adj.) very large, 
(adv,) extremely ; exceedlng-ly. 

Excessiye, ex.8^\8iv; exces'sive-ly, exces'sive-ness ; ex- 

ces'sive^ly, extremely; excess", superabundance. 

{Exceed, proceed, and succeed, end in -ceed, but all other 

compounds of cedo end in -cede. Rule xxvii.) 

Latin exeido, supine exceseum (ex cedo, to go forth [too far]). French 
exeis, excessi/; Latin excessv^s. 

^l ex.8il\ to snrpnss; excelled' (2 syl.), excell'-ing (R. iv.) 
Excellent, ex\cel.lent; ex'cellent-ly, ex'cellence. 
^cellency, plu. excellencies (Rule xliv.), eaf .selMn^siz, A 
title of address given to viceroys, ambassadors, <fec. 

^Vench exceller, excellence, excellent; Latin excellens^ gen. eoeceOenlift, 
txeeUentut, r. excelMre (ex cello, to break or go beyond^ 



334 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

(" Excel " ought to have dmihU -I, as it oomes from the Latin cMo, 
" to go beyond " ; aod not from celo," to hide.**) 

Exoelsior (Lat) Longfellow's poem has given to this word the 
meaning of ** my aim is always higher stilL" 

Exoentric {ex,8€nt\trVc) is the better spelling, but eooentrio the 
ujore generaL (See Eccentric.) 

£zoept« ex.8^1ff unless, without^ exclusive of, to pass over, to 
leave out ; exoept'-od (B. xxxvL), exoepf-ing ; exoepf-or ; 

Exeeptioo, ex.8ep',8hun, not according to rule, an ol^jeetion ; 

Excep'tionnable (Rule xxiii.), liable to olgection; 

Unexoep'tion-able, free from objection ; 

Excep'tion-cd, forming an exception. 

Except, Unless. I will not let thee go Except thou hUu 
mcy or '^unless'* thou bleat me. Both these are gram- 
maticaL ^* I will not let thee go, Except this proTiso, 
viz. that thou bless me." Here except is the imperative 
mood of the verb. " Unless" is preferable. 

French excepttr^ exeepiion, exceptiownel ; Latin exceptio, y. eaxXpitn, 
supine exoeptum {ez cdpio, to take out). 

Excerpted, ex^serp^ted, expurgated, selected ; excerpf -or. 

Excerptions, ex. s^rp'. shuns, [literary] selections ; exoeipla. 

Latin €xcerpo, to pick out (earpo, to coll), exoerptio, ^merptm. 

Excess^ superfluity ; excess'lYe, ex^sKs^siv. {See Exceed.) 

Exchange, ex,tchange\ to barter, to give one thing for another; 
exchanged' (2 syL), exchang'-iiig (R. xix.), exchang'-er. 

Exchange -able (-ce and -ge retain the -e final before -oMr^ 
Rule XX.); exchangeability, ex.tchange'ui.hlV\uty, 

Bill of Exchange, a written promise on stamped paper U 
pay a stated 8um of money within a stated time. 

'Change, the 'Royal Exchange for money brokers. 

French ichangty echangeahle; Latin camblte; Low Latin ea mb Un 
to exchange ; cavtbium, a diange ; cambUas. 

Exchequer, ex.tcMk'.er, a treasury, (colloquially) fdnds i 
hand. Court of Exchequer, has jurifidictinn in all oss 
affecting the public i-evenue ; Exdiequer Chamber. 

French ichiquier, cour de Vi^iquier, "It was denomlnatad 5bm 
rium, from acaccum (a chess-board), and was eo called tnm 
checkered cloth laid on the table of the court." — Ifadox. 

Excise, ex.size' (Rule lix.), a tax on articles of home prodofl^ 
{adj,) pertaining to such a tax ; excisable (Rule xzi 
ex.8ize'.a.h'l; excised, ex.s\zd'; excls'-ing (Rule xix.) 

JBxoiBion, ex.sizW.un^ amputation, a cutting o£ 
French easeite, esocUion ; lAtbie3BAsio,e3BeidAie,tooatoff(«i«iA 



AND OF SPELLLVG. 335 

* * • 
Ezoiie, exMte'f to stimulate ; ezolf-ed (Role xxxvi.), ezmt'-ixig, 

ttxoSt'ing-ly, exQiti'-er, ez(fif-«bld, ezcIt'able-nefiB, ez- 

cit'ably; excitability, exMte'.aMlf\i.ty ; ezclf-ant; 

ezcitatioti, ea^ M' .lay'' jshim ; excite'^nent. 

Iteneh txdMbiUU, excitable, txcUant, excUaH&Ht eascita^, excUer; 
Lat. iaocXtdtio, excttane, gen. exoUcMtit, excUdre (ex cieo, to stir up). 

Exdldui' (3 syl.), exclaimed' (3 syl.), ezoUam'-ing, exdaim'-er. 
Exclamation (not exclaimation), ex'Jkla.may*' ^hun, 
ExdamatiYe, ex.kldm' .a.tlv ; exdam'atory. 
French exdaiMUon : Latin exddmdtio, exddmdre {damo, to call). 

Exclude, ex.klude\ to shut out; exdud'-ed (Rule zxxvi.), 
exdlud'-ing (Rule xix.), exdud'-er; 

TBtcluBfon, ex.klu\zhun; exdu'sion-ary, exclu'sion-ist; 
Szclusiye, exMu'Mv ; exclu'siye-ly, exclu'sive-ness. 
Frencb exclusion: Latin excliisiOt excludo (ex claudo, to shut out). 

Excogitate, ex,kqj\i.tatey to think deeply on a subject, to think 
till the solution is discovered; ezcog'itat-ed (R. xxxvi.), 
excog'itat-ing (R. xix.) ; excogitation, ex.kbf,i.tay*'^}mn 
(one of the few words in -ti(m which is not French). 
Latin exeOgitdtio, excogitdre {ex cSgito, to think out). 

Excommunicate, ex\kdm.mu'\nl.kdte, to exclude from church 
"communion"; excommu'nicat-ed ( R. xxxvi.), ezcommu'- 
nicat-ing ; excommunication, eaf .k(Sm.mdf .nX.kay" .shun. 

Excommunication, Interdict, Anathema. 

Individuals are "excommunicated," or excluded from 
church privileges ; 

The clergy is " interdicted," or forbidden to administer 
to persons under excommunicatioii, and persons excom- 
municated are interdicted or forbiddea to receive the 
sacraments. A nation is laid under nn "interdict," or 
deprived of church privileges, but not "excommunicated." 
"Anathema," the curse accompanying excommunication. 

Leeaer excommunication, prohibition to receive the eucharis c. 

Qxeater excommunication, exclusion from all the i^tes, 
ceremonies, and services of the church. 

Ft. excommunication, excommunier; Lat. excommuntcdtio, excom- 
m&niixLre (eommunio, communion ; com mumu, a mutual benefit). 

^ttortate, ex.ko'.rtate, to abrade the skin ; ezco'riat-ed, 
ezco'riat ing; excoriation, ex.ko\ri.a'\8hun, abrasion. 

fr.exeorier, exooriation; Lat excdridre {ex coriAim, [loss] of the skin). 

tication, ex.k(y/ .ti.kay'\8hunt denudation of the bark; 
excorticated, ex.k<y/.ti.ka.ted, stripped of its baik. 
^^ench eaxortioaAion; (Latin ex cortex, [deprived] ot its baxk). 



nfi ERRORS OF SPEECn 

Excrement, ex'.kri.m^t, animal soil ;' excremenf al, voided 
excrement ; exorementitioiia, ea^,kri,m^Pi8h"Mi, of ti 
nature of excrement. 

Excrete, ex.kreef, to discharge firom the hody; excrifn 
(Rule xxxvi.), excret'-ing; excretion, ex.kru^jthui 
excretive, ex.kree'Mv ; excretory, ex.kree'Ad.ry. 

Ft. excriment, exerSmentiiiel, excretion, excritoire : Lat. e x o ri wt eni m 
excritio, r. exeem^re, supine exeritum, to purge from [the bodj]. 

Excrescence, ex.kri^^serue (not ex.kree', sense), a tumour. 
Excrescency, plu, excreecendes, ex»kri8'^}in.tiiz (Rule xlh 
Excrescent, ex.krSs^^Snt (not ex.kree^^Snt), 
Lat. exereaeens, gen. excruceniis, tx creaeo, to grow out [of the bodj 

Excrete, ex.creeV; excretion, ex.cree'^hun, (See Excreipeni.) 

Excruciate, ex.kru'^tate, to torment; excru'datred (R. xxxri 
excru'dat-ing (B. xix.) ; excruciable, ex.kru'jtil,b*l. 

Excruciation, ex.kru'.8t.d'\8hun. (Not a French word.) 
Latin excr^id^UfiliSf excriicidre, sup. excr&eidtum (crux, a ero«): 

Exculpate, ex.kuV.pate, to exonerate ; excul'pat-ed (R. xzxtL 
exc^l'pat-ing (R. xix.); exculpatory, ex,ki(l.pS.t5.rf 
exculpation, ex^.kul,pay''.shun, (Not a French word.) 
Latin exculpdre {ex culpa [to free] from blame); French di$e ulf sr. 
Excursion, ex.kiir^.8hun, a plensure trip ; exour'sion-isti 
Excursive, ex,kur^Mv; excur'sive-ly, excur'sive-nea. 
Fr. excursion; Lat. exeurrio, excuradre (curaus, a running [abooftjto 

Excnse, (noun) ex.kuce\ (verb) ex.kuze' (Rule li.), an apoltt 
to pardon, to dispense with ; excuse'-less. ex.kue^.l»a 

Excused, ex.kuzdC; exciV-ing (Rule xix.), ezBfitf'- 
excus-able, ex.kuze'.a.b*l; excu'sable-nees, ezoa'iab^ 

Excuse my writing more, or Excuse my not writing mflv 

Both these are correct, but the former is more Bgrem 

to our English idiom. Excuse [dispense with] f^ * 

ing more, ^o ereuse [dis)>en8e with] my attendance .■ 

excuse [pardon] mtj not writing more, excuse [pardoi 

absence. The rule is excuse [dispense with] the p^ 

ance ; excuse [pardon] the non-performance. 

French exm^hle, cxevfitr. excuse; Latin exeus&re, exeSLs^ 
cauiKi, [free] from motive). 

Execrate, ex'.e.krate. to detest, to curse : ex'ecr&t<^ (B. ' 

ex'ecrat-ing i R. xix.) : execrable, exi'.e.kra.b^l. det 

execrably; execration, ex* .e.kray" .shun ; eafeco 

Fr<»nch execrable, eT^cration: Latin execrAbllis, exeerMC 
{ex sacro, the reverse of "conseorate"; sacer, sacred). 

Execute. ex\e.kutt\ to perform, to put to death ; ex'ec"' 
xxxvL), ex'ecfit-ing (R. xix.) ; executory, ex'.tlt 






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2r*..«*-v, .*,'^ **". .,., .;" "*' ./ 1....^„ ' 

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"-■> . 



Tm EXRORS OF SPEECH 



», ex.fS'.lLate, to soale off; esfbliat-ed (Bale kmxwL 
eocfoliat^ng (Rule six.); exfoliation, ea,fo^Ji3'*jikim, 
^.MfoVitr.t^lUtUn^ (Lat. «B/JIiim, [to ihzow] off leayes or scales 
Exhale, ex.hale* (not ex.aU^\ to xeek, to send forth vigour 
exhaled' (3 syl.), exhal'-ing (Rule xix.), jexhaL'-«n& 
Khalation, e^,ha,lay''jthun (not €si!fM,lay*'^h'u,n). 

French <zftaiatio»rex7ia2er, cae^otont; Latin exAo&UM, gen. eaEfttflcmfi 
«dki(atio, exhoJOre (AdtCtus, breath, Tapoor). 

Exhaust, tfx.^tist' -.(not exicaulf)^ to expend; «xhaiist'-e 

(Rule xxxvi.), exhanst'-ing, eidiaasf -er, exhansT-leok 

B^ianttion, ex.haiu/.ta1wn; exhaustive, ex,haius'.Uio, 

French ecTuuMtion; Latin- eatfiatM<to,«sfcauno, Bapine «aQftmM<«m(< 
fcanrio, to draw from, to draw out liquids). 

Exhibit, ex.hib\U {not€X.WM\ to show, to displfi^ ; exhihlt-« 
(Rule xxxvi.), exhibiting; exhibitiye, exJiW.UJbo. 

S:diibiter»^.Md'.{£.^(better-or,R. xxxvii.), one who exhibitf 

Exhibitioner, tfx'.M.&isft''.^^, a scholar's pension. 

Exhibition, exfJitbUVAmj a public show, a pension fo 
Bobolars; exhibitoi^, ex.hW,i.tb.ry, 

French mMker, exMbitiKm, exhibitoire; Latin asMtiUic, mKbUm 
exMbere, supine eshXbitwn (ex habeo, to have ont). 

Exhilarate, exMV.e,rate (not esB.>r.«.nUe), to cheer; esiiil'a 
rat-ed, exhil'arat-ing (Rale xix.), exhil'aratmg^. 

Exhilaration, ezMl\t,ray" ,shun (not a 'French word) 
exhil'ar&t-or (Rule xxxvii.), exhil'arant. 

Latin txMlMUiOt easMlMttoTf exMUtrSre QiXlArOf to make mo^). 
Exhort, ex.horf (not ex.orf), to incite to good works ; .exhort'-ed 
exhort'-ing, exhorf-er; exhortative, ex:hor^.Ul,iiv. 

Exhortation, e^.korAay'\8hun; exhortatory, ex.kor^.Ui,tS.ry 

French eaihortation, exhortaiiff exhorMret eschorter; Latin exltoiidflt 
€3ehortdri (h&rior, Greek tfrto,part of tthe verb omUmi, to ■ttrjBy). 

Exhume, ex.hume' (not ex.wne\tQ disinter; exhnmed (3 By\,\ 
exhiim'-ing (Rule xix.) ; exhumation, tcif.}m,mmf"jtkiai> 
French exAum«r, tahumaUon; Latin ee hOmSirt^ to disinter (Mtauu) 
Exigency, phi, exigencies, exi'Jl.j^njiZf a necessity; exigenosi 
erxfJLjmce ; exigent, ex'JLjent ; exigible, eafXjtbX 
Lat exigens, gen. exigmtis, exXgire,' Fr. exxgeani^ exigenct, exigibU. 
ExilOi ex\Ue, one banished, place of banishment, to banish ; 
exiled, ex'.ild; exil'-ing (Rule xix.), exUe'-ment. 
Fr. exiUr, txil; Lai exKHum, ex&ldre, txtU (ex golwn, ttov^ tha soO). 
ExiBt% to live, to be ; exist'-ed, exisf-ing, exisf-enoe, oxiBti'-eBl 
Fr. «eister,««i«ta«i!( (wrong), easMencs; ^ "* -— '•* — p — nfj^ niiUH 
Sxit, plu. exeunt. " Exit," a stage direction for the fptaher to 
leavethe stage. Exeunt, ta^MunU more than jon&to leave. 
EsBont onuMB,'«v'.&«Hii am'Mta^ all tiie aoton IoImm. 



ASD OF SPEI^LING, 839. 



SiOr (» Gi)Mi^ farefiz)* <>at of, on th« outside, out firom. 

bodiMi eai^JfMi, a departniie from a place. (Should be 
easAotfut acoordiog to our Engliah system.) 

OfedcjHiMcUto, the w^p out; in Gntk f(o8of. 

Ex officio (Lat.), ex of,fish\i,o (not o.fi8K,iM\ by virtue of 
pillce. As tbe Lord Mayor of London it ''ex officio" 
member of the privy coudcIL 

Exogena, eaf^J^s, plants (like timber trees) which grow in 
balk by coacentriu layers, each year being marked by a 
layer outaide the previous ones. 

Endogena, en\do.jin8, plants (like reeds) which increase in 
bulk by pith termed within the plant. 

Sxogenoas, ex,Sf .emits ; exog'enite, a fossil plant of the 
exogenous structure, ('ite (in Geol.), a fossil, Gk. lithoe.) 
Gk. exo- ginSf to prodnee from the oatdde ; endo- fin4f .. ..inside. 

Exonerate, ex 5n\e,ratey to exculpate ; exon'erat-ed (B. xxxvi), 
exon'erat-ing (B. xix.) ; exoneration, ex.8n'.e,ray*'.8hun. 

L»t exifiunbn (finm, a burden) ' ' ^xoneradoa " not French. 

Exofbitant, ex,<n^M.tant, enormous, unreasonable; exorlii'' 
tfuit4y, ex(»rl^tan«e (4 syl.), exor'bitanoy. 

Kreach fxori)ittmlb ; Latin exor^toiu, gan. exorbitaaUa, pfoorbUare (est 
orbUOf out of the way). 

EsoBiiae, €9^.qr^ut€ (not ear.oK.fu^.) Stx'ez^cise, to practice. 

EzfoKoifle, to expel evil spirits ; ex'oroised (8 syl.), ez'ortiis-iBg^ 

Bx'ortia-er, an exorcist ; ex'ercis-er, one who exercises. 

Exordam, e^.or^izmf the act of exorcising ; ex'orcist. 

French exoreiser. txordde, exoreiame; Greek exorkizo, exorkisUi 
(odbtff, an oath). 

SinBfiimi, fiZtt. exordiums (not exordia), ex.or^.df.umy the intro- 
duction. of [a speech]; exordial, ex.or'.<2i.a2, introductory. 
Latin exordium {ordior, to begin, from orior, to arise); Fr. erorde. 

Eaanoga, esfJiz.moM, the transmission of ^ fluid to the otUHde 

of a membrane or other porous substance; exosmotio, 

taifJkJm^'.%h (ajy.) 

BadoBmoBa, en^dds.mose, the transmission of a fluid to the 

iniezior surface of a membrane or other porous substan/oe. 

Or. #09- tfsmtfs, impulsion outwards ; endo- 6snUi», impulsion inwards. 

^^"I^xsmfif e2f.O8.tom (in Botany)^ the passage through the outer 
integument of the ovule (2 syl. ) 
Greek ex6 sUfma, out of the foramen or mouth. 

^'Irtwiit, ego»o$'.t4t9'U (PPt ex.&8.t6*jl8), a tumour of the bone. 
Ctreek ex ft/l^itv^ tb* «Qz> » gn>w^ Qi^ .of the bona. 



340 ERRORS OF SPEECTT 

Bzoteric, eaf.o.t^\Tik, public; exoterical, ese^.8.t^\fy.kiU 
exoterioizm, eaf S.teT^'.ryjfzm, Opposed to EBoterii 
e8'.o.ter''.rik. (The o in these words is long in the Gk. 

Pythagoras stood behind a onrtidn when be leotarad ; those admittc 

** within the veil" were called his esoteric disciples, those ontsi^ 

his exoteric. 
Aristotle applied the word esoteric to the disciples who attended h 

abstruse morning lectures, and exoteric to those who attended (MdI 

his popular evening ones. 
Greek exdtirihOs, (exdtMfs, outer) ; esdtSrikde (e»6tSHii, inner). 

Exotic, ex.5t'.ik, foreign, applied to hothouse plants. 

Indigenons, in.dif.e.nu8, native, applied to native {dants. 

(The -o- in ** exotic"* is long in the Greek,) 
French exotiqtte; Greek ex6tik6$; Latin eaaticue, from a foreign lam 
Sxpand', to spread ; expand'-ed (Rule xxxvi.), expand^'-ing. 
Expanse, ex.pance\ extent ; expansion, ex.pan'jkun 
expansive, ex.yun'siv ; expan'sive-ly, expan'sive-neM 
expansible, ex.pdn\8l.h'l; expan'sible-ness, expan'mUy 
expansibility, ex.pan'M.hiV\Lty, 

Fr. expansibility, expaiision, exvansif; lat. escpandA^ sapine e 
paruum, expansio, expansum the firmament (ex pando, to open out 

Ex parte (Lat.)i fx pa7^,te, one-sided : as an «a; parte statement. 

Expatiate, ex.p&sh',i,ate, to enlarge on ; expatiat-ed (R xxxvi 
expatiat-ing (Bule zix.), expatiat-or ; expibtiAtoirj 
ex.pash'\i.dM.ry ; expatiation, ex.pa8h'.i.a",shun, 
Latin expdtidri, to wander forth ; exp&tiator (passus, a footatepX 

Expatriate, fx.p&t\ri,ate (not ex.pd\tri.ate\ to banish; ei 
pafriat-ed (Bule xxxvi.), expafriat^-ing (Bule xix.; 
expatriation, ex.pd1f ,ri.a*' .shun, banishmentl 
Fr. expatrier, es^atriaiion{La,t. expdtnd, [driven] from one's ooontiyil 

Expect' to look out for, to hope ; expecf-ed (Bule xxxvi), ez. 
pect'-ing, expect'ing-ly ; expeofc'-er, one who expeota 
Qxpect'-ant, one who expects a berth ; ezpeotetioc 
ex'.pek\tay'\shun; expect'-anoe ; expeotanpy, pim. 
expectuicies (Bule xliv.), ex.pik\tan,8tz. 

Expect, Suspect. Expect is often misused for suspect (^ 
be of opinion) : as I expect [suspect] he is wrong, 1 e^ 
pect [suspect] he was disappointed, ... was guiltif, 
Fr. expectcUion ; Lat. expectdtio, expedt&re {ex specti>, to look oat fw* 
Expectorate, ex.pik'.td.rate, to spit out; expec'torat-ed (Bm^ 
xxxvi.), expec'torat-ing (Bule xix.),ezpec'tor&t-or; Bxy m* 
toration, ex.ptk\tQ,ray''jshun: expectorative, ex,p&f*t^ 
ra.tfv; expec'torant, a medicine to promote expeetoratu^' 

French expectorant, expectorer, expectoration; Latin 
(pecttts, the chest). 

Expedient, ex.pS',dtent, proper, necessary, a shift; «zpe'( 

Expediency, plu. expediencies, ex.pt. c^.en.9is. 




«Wt.fa/^'": to hasten. TZTT—- 

**«. to drive on* ' *^''*- P^du, */' r*"* ^^^P^iti^ ^ ^^' 

•» ■<»«. «d i.!°*/*'"««, cosL^^'*' "^ money ^' 




n42 Bltko&i^ OP" upkiicn 



Etptt«' (8 syl.), to die ; et!flttar (» iyl), eitt>ir*iiig (Rtild xix.] 

Expiration, eif.j>%.rdy''^htmt eziialatioik, conctiision ; 

Ezpirable, ex.pi\raM; expi^ry, the end; expi^'ratoxy. 

Fr. expinr, espimHow/ Lat. eapHrMio, expMtr^ (tptr^f to breatlie). 

BzpUkin", to expound ; ekplaiiied% explaiu'^ing, «z]^ain!^-tt 

explaiii'-«ble (1st Iiat. coiy.)» capable of being exf^ainec 

Eiplanatory (not eaqplaintttot^)^ e».plmM.t5.ry* 

Eziilanation (not expkkinatlon), eai'.pki.fiay^jfhun (tfot Fi 
Latin explAndbiUt, esi^ndtio, expUMre {i>ldnu$, plain). 

Bxpletive, ex'.plS.ttv (not ex.plee'.tlv), a supeniumeraiy Woi 

(oaths and exclamations ate elpletives) ; ex'plefiny, .t'n 

Fr. ta^Utif: Lat. explMiviu, laspk^t tapiiie eatj^hm (pho, to flllX* 

Implicate, esu". pit. katey to explain; ex'plicatHBd (Rule xxxvi 

ex'plicslt-ing; explicable, ex\pl1M.b'l {not ex.plWM,b*l 

Explication, ex\pli.kay'*Jhun; 6Xpllcatiye, ez^pli.kcLtiv 

Ex'plicat-or ; expllcatory,«x'.^/i.A;a.t'ry (not ex.pUk\a,tor^ry 

Explicit,«x.jpli«Mt, distincti plain; expliclt-l7,explic''i:l 



Fr. expliquer, ecDplieatwny €xplicati/.expli4:cUeur, OBplicUe,- Lat cayi 
eoMlia, explttdtio. e^liedU>lr, explleit, explicdre {e» plUfo, to onfoU 

EkpIode,^2;.|)Zo(le', to bntst fbirth ^itb sudden violence ; expl$d'-€ 
(R. xxxvi.),explod'-ing,expl5d'-^; exidodMbIe(not.a&2< 

Explosion, ex.jpZc;'.s/iun; explosive, ex.pW^"^^ explo'siTe-]; 

etplo'sive-nesB, liability to explode. 

Fr. tvplositm; Lat tapldtio, tsoplOcUfn, sup. e9l|p{ffni<a(j^iicfo, todq 

Exploit' (2 syl.), an heroic deed, an achievement (Fr. Lat. ex^plitu 

Explore' (2 syl.), to examine ; explored' (3 syL), ezpldv^-jni 

etpldr'-er; exploratioh, ex'.pW.ray^.shun; titpldtato 

ex.plot'ra.tor (not eic.plo.ray'Aor) ; explor'atoi^. 

French expUrration, explortr; Latin expWrdtio, explSrOtor, cJBplor* 

Explosion, ex.plo'^hun ; explosiye, ex,pW^\v» {See Esplodc 

Exponent, ex.po'.n^t, an interpreter, the index of a nombe 
thus in a', 2^ the 3, 6 are the exponents of a and ft. 
Latin expOnens, gen. expdnewtis {expOni^, to pnt dr aipx«ad OQtX 
Elcport, (noun) ex\port, (verb) ex.port^, go6ds sent to a fd^ 
market, to send goods to a forei^ market ; a t p qr i 'H 
(Rule xxxvi.), exporf-iHg, export'-er, ezpcttf .^idbto (1 
Latin conjugation), exportation, ex\por.tay'^^kim, 
French ecBporler, ezporto^ion; Latin emportdtio, eJfepovidN (m perft) 

Expose, ex.pozei', to exhibit; exposed' (9 syl.), ejgpaK*4]i| 
expos'-er, one who exposes or disoloseB* 

Exposure, ex.p^jihl&r; expositor, ex,p^'ASoT, ttkpogltat: 

Exposition, «rE' .p5 jsXsK' .uii,aninterpretation,apabIic dispb^ 



A!9n 0F SPELLilf&t Ml 



EzpoB6, ex.pC'jsa (French), a laying bare of secret acts. 

Ezponnd' (d By].)» to interpret ; exponnd'-ed, ezponnd'-^r. 
ftendi etpour, eaepoHtion; Latin eoppMHa, eBtpMkr, expdnert: 

Expostulate, ex.p^s' tu.late, to remonstrate. (Followed' by with) ; 
ezpoB'tidat-ed (Rule xxxvi.)* •xpoi'tiilii-iiig (Rule xix.) 

EspoBtuIation, ex.p08\ru.lay^.thun ; expos'tnllLI-or (Rule 

xxxvii.); expostnlatory, ex.p9i^.tu,la,t'ry, 
Latin OfpotMUdtio, eaeposNUaiorf esopottOUtrt {potMUo, to beseech), 
Ezpoimd'; exposure, ex.po.zhur, {See Expose.) 

Bxpnss't a special railway train, a special messenger, to utter, 
to delineate in words or otherwise, to squeeze out; 
expressed' (2syl.), e^HEesaT-ing, express'-Iy, ezpress'-ness. 

Expression, ex.pr&'^hun, a mode of speech, the phaze of 
the countenance, the soul of music, the representation ef 
a quantity, a squeezing out; exiMressive, ex.prittlv ; ex- 
psBsslve-ly, expresslve-ness, eqsress'-tble, expresslbly. 

if» prAMo, to prom out, to draw out, hence to yourtr^j), 
"EoEgaisAsm^ ex,puV jihun ; expulslYe, «x.j>ur.s{v. (S«« ExpeL) 

Expunge' (2 syl.)» to efface ; expunged' (2 syL), expung'-er. 

Latin fxpungirt (expungo, to prick out). 
Expurgate, ex'.purgtUe (not ex.pw/^gate), to purify; ex'pur- 
gat-ed (K. xxxvL), ex'purgat-ing, ex'purgat.or (B. xxxviL^ 

Expurgation, eai'.pwr,gay"^hun; ex'purgatory. 

Index expurgatorius, in\dex ex.pugf^,gu.twr''ri.ii8t the list 

of books condemned by the Homnn Catholic Church. 
htLmpurgdtiOfexpurgMor,expyrgatiiriM», €Xpurgdrt{furgo, to puigeX 

Eiquisite, ex\kwi.zlt (not ex^kwiaite), excellent, a dandy; 
ex'quisite-ly, ex'quisite-ness. 
Lai exqultltua, e^^pilrire, rap. exqulsltum {ex q^cero, to search out). 
bitooate, ex^kf.kate, to dry ; exsic'cat-ed (R. xxxvi.), exsic'c&t- 
fng (R. xix.), exsie'cant, exsiccation, e3fMk,kay"akuti. 
LsClBeM<C0«r«(«SBKoco, todtyout). (See Sesleoaite.) 
Sctaat, car'.tafit, in existence. 

Latin tattatu, gen. txtantis, standing out [ex ftdre). 
^dMsj (no such word. See Extasy). 

Extempore, ex.t^.pS.re (not ex.t^'.pore\ offhand, without 
preparation ; extemporaneous, ex.t^.po.ray'\niM8 ; 
extempora'neous-ly, extemi>ora'neous-nes8, extem'por- 
sifly (Rule Ixvi., -ecus and -t'ous). 

Bttsmporise (R. xxxi.), ex.tem' .pcrize^ to improvise ; extern' - 
porised (4syl.), extem'poriS-ing (R. xix.), extern: v^x~a-«x. 



d44 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



lixtemporality, ex.t^'.po.raV\i.ty (Latin extem^poraXitfu) 
might be introduced, the art of improvising. 

Lat. esdempOr&neua, -p&rdrius, ex tempdri (withont time [to prepare]). 

SKtend', to prol^ong; extend'-ed, eztend'-ing, extend'-er, 
eztend'-ible ; extent', size ; ex'tant, in existence. 

Extensioii, ex.iin\8hun ; extensive, ex.t&i\ilv ; ezten'sive- 
ly, exten'sive-ness; extensible, ex.t^'.ti.h'l (not -able); 
exten'sor [muscle], opposed to the flex'or [muscle]. 

French extenHon, extensible, extevuribUUS, exienseur; Latin exUndiht, 
anpine eadentumy eastentio, es^enHvus (ex tendo, to atretch out). 

Extenuate, ex.t^'.u.ate^ to lessen ; exten'uat-ed (Bule xxxvl\ 
exten'nat-ing, extennating-ly, exten'uat-or (B. xxxtIL) 

Extenuation, ex.tSn'.u.d''.8hun; extenuatory, ex,t^'M.S.fry. 
Fr. ezUnuation: Lat. exUnudtio, extinudtor, extenudre {UhMiit, tldn). 

Exterior, ex.te^.rl.orf outer, the outside. Inte'rior, inner, the 
inside; exte'rior-ly. Exte'riors (plu.\ outward parts. 
Lat. extfHor (aetra, on the outside) ; intirior (intra, withiny. 

Exterminate, ex.te/.mtnate, to eradicate ; exter'minat-ed (Bi 
xxxvi.), exter'minat-ing, exter'minat^r (R. xxxvii.) 

Extermination, ex, ter^, mi. nay'^shun ; exterminathre^ 
ex.ter\mi.nd.tiv ; exterminatory, ex,tef^.mi,na,t*ry, 

French exterminer, extermination: Latin extermtndtiOt ettei wUndtor, 
extermindre (ex terminus, [to driye] out of the border). 

fixter'nal, outward ; exter'nals (plu.), the outward parts and 
forms; exter'nal-ly; ex'tem, an out-patient. XntemsL 
Latin extemHs, y. extemdre; French exteme. 

ExtQ' (better extill), to distil ; extiUed' (2 syl.), extill'-ing (Bole 
iy.), extill'-er; extillation, ex\tU.lay".8hun (Role viii) 
Latin extiU&tio, extiUldre] (ex stiUo, to fall out in dropa). 

Extincf , extinction, exMnk'^shun. {See extinguish.) 

Extinguish, ex.tln'.guiUh, to put out; extin'gnished (8 wjV^ 
extin'guiflh-ing, extin'guiah-er, extin'gau^-f^Ue. 

Extinct^, no longer in existence; extinction, ex^VM^almm, 
Fr. extinction; Lat. extinetio, extinguo, supine extindvm (aifaf*). 

Extirpate, eafMr.pate (not ex.tir^jpate), to root out; ez'tixpit^ 
(Rule xxxvi), ex'tirpat-ing, ex'tirpat-or (Rule xxxyIL); 
extii^tory, ex\tir,pd,t'ry ; extir'pable. 

Extirpation, eaf Mr, pay" .shun (-ft'r-, not -ter-), 
Fr. extirpaiion; Lat extirpdtor, exUrpdtio, extirpdrt (tUrpt, aioo^ 

Extor, to land ; extolled' (2 syl.), extoU'-ing (R. iv.), «ztoir-eK. 
(" Extol " would be far better tpith d<mbU L Lat. ««<oU[o].) 



AND OF SPELUNG, S4A 



Bztorf, to wrest from; extorf-ed (Rule xxxvi.), extorf-ing, 
extorf-er; extortion, «a;.to/^^un; extor'tion-er, extor'- 
tioii-ist, extor'tion-ary; extornve, ex.Un^Mo, 
{** Extortion*' ought to be spelt extorsion.) 
Tk«neh eadonion; Latin eactorqueo, mp. extonum (torquto, to twist). 

es^.traht in addition ; extras, es^,trahz, additional obnrges. 

(Lat. pref.), beyond, in excess, additional (With a hyphen ) 

Extra-jadicial, -juMsh^at, in excess of court business. 

Extra-mnndane) -mun^danet not of this world. 

Extra-mural, -mu'sal, outside the city walls. 

Ertra-paroohial, "pa.rd'MMl, not of the parish. 

Extra-professional, 'pro.f^h\on.al, not professionaL 

Extia-trop'ical, -trdp'.l^kdl, beyond the tropics. 

Extract, (noun) ex\tractt (verb) ex.tract'. (Bule L) 

Ex'tract (noun), a tincture, a selection. 

Extract' (verb), to draw out, to select; extracf-«d (Ruls 
xxxvi.), extract'-ing, extract'-or (Bule xxxvii.) 

Extraction, tfx.trcl^/('.«/mn; exlract'-ible ; extrao'tive, -tii;. 
Fr. extraeUonf tsiractif; Lat. extraetum (eat traho, to draw oat). 

Extianeoiia, exMrd^ncMs, foreign ; extra'neons-ly. 
Latin extraneu* (extras without, beyond). 

Extnordinary, eaf.tra.or^\di.n^ry (not exAro^.di.n^ry\ un- 
usual ; ex'traor'dinari-ly (Rule xi.), extraordinaries (p2u.) 
eo^tra.or^'.di.n^riz, extras, things very unusual. 
Vrench ei^aordinaire, extraordinairea ; Latin extra ordlndrius. 

Extiavagant,6x.trcIi;'.a.^aR£, wasteful, prodigal ; extray'agant-ly ; 
extravagance, ex,trdv\a.gance ; extravagancy, plu. 
extravagancies (Rule xliv.), ex.trav\a.gan.tlz. 

Extravaganza, ex.trdi/,a,gan'\zah, a musical or dramatic 

piece in which extravagant licence has been taken. 
Vr. eaEfravo^an^ -nanM: Lat. extra vagdri, to wander beyond [bonnds]. 

litravasate, ex,trav\a^ate, to get out of the proper vessels 
[as blood] ; extrav'asat-ed (Rule xxxvi.), extrav'asat-ing 
(Rule xix.); extravasation, ex.trav\a^ay** .shun (-tton, 
*' a state of being" [out of the proper vessels]). 
Fr. cxtraDOMr, eadraxtaaUm; Lat. extra msa^ out of the [proper] yessele. 

^^kreme, ex,treem\ furthest (extremest, ex.treem'^st, in poetry 
only); extremes (plu.), ex.treemz\ the two extreme ends; 
exiareme'-ly ; extremity, plu, extremities, ex.tr^\%d\z, 
tmnch extm^me, eadtrimitt; Latin extrimum, extrimitas, extrinms. 

■^^'Jcate, eap'.M kate, to free from difficulties ; ex'tricat-ed (K. 
xxxvL), ex^trlcat-ing (R. xix.); extricable, cx'.tT\.ltttA»*V 



84« KKnons ar spehch 

BifriMtioii, eti^.tTK.Jisy'^jiM^ llbeviitioif fhmr diAciiMliK. 

LaUii etMcSMli*, eoBtrUOHo, ei ft i eJ i ' ^ (frfetv, hatn, As., wrapped 
round the feet of blrdr to pnTeat than from wandcrtog. To 'Su' 
tricate/' to get the feet oat of t&aie iriea or impedimenti). 

B iteiind o,eg.ttin^^A4pdepcnden^.6artriBBicaUy,eg^W^t^ 
Frendb «lri9Wd<{ii«; Latin «Mtirim§ieu*, aciing from another loiiBoa. 

Extrude' (2 syL), to thrust out; extrud'-ed (R. xxxvL), eztrad'- 
ing (R. xix.); extrusioii,. exAru'jhuru (Not a Fr. word.) 
Latin es^rHdire, supine extrUmm (ao irudo, to fUniflt out). 

Exaberant, ex.u'.b^,rant, boisterous, laxuriant; emlwimitt-lj. 

Exuberance, ex,u\b^.rance ; dxulbciraficy, plu, -cfaB, -Hs. 

French exu&^anCie, eopab&ntnt; Latin eanilMhKiM; geiu artim^mMi, 
AniMrdr* (u5<r„ a dug or adder). 

Exude' (2 syLX to issue through the pores (1 sjL);. exud'-ed 
(R. XXX vi.), exud'-iug (R. xix.), exudation, ex'.H.day'^akmL 
A corrnption of ex8ude, Latin ex tudOf to sweat oat. 
Exnlf, to rejoice exceedingly ; exulf-ed (R. xxxvi.), eznUliiyJj; 
exultation, ex\'&l.tay".thun; exi^-ant, exulf-eK; 
Lat. eoBuliawtia, taeuXtaHo, emM^brt («b softtf, to leap idMmf), 
Ejntritt, ^a;.fi'.v{.e (in Qeol.\ alt fbssil animal matter, the east* 
off skins, &c, of animals. (Latin exiivu»t things left off.^ 

Eye, plu, eyes, t, ize (1 syi.), organ of sight, to watoh; e^ed^ 
«i« (1 syL); eye-ing, i.in^. ("Eye-ing** and ''dje-ing'" 
are exceptions to Rule xix.) 
Old Eng. 6ge or edge; edg-ctpfel, the apple of the eye ; edg-iMi, te. 

Eyre, iV, a circuit, as Jmtiees in Eyre, itinerant judgea. 

Latin ire, to go. 
Eyxie, ^jry, the nest o£ birds of prey. (Welsh eryr, as eafle.) 

Fable, /a'.&7 (noun and verb); teMed^fd'.Vld; Uk'Wiig.HUm 

Fabulist, ful/.ii.list; fabulous, fSh'.H.lSs ; fltVu to M- 1 ? 
fab'ulous-ness; fabulise (not -ize^ R. xui), /Sb'.«iii» 
iiab'uUsed (fl syl), fSftb'ulIs-lng (R. xix.) 
French fabU, fdbuHaU ; Latin fdhUla. fdMUbris, /HMUdMi 
Fabric, fab'.riky texture, Ac; fabrication, fab'.ri^ka'^^j^km; 

Fabricate, fab\fl.kate, to manufacture, to fklsify'; fiib 
cat-ed, fab'ricat-ing (R. xix.), fab'ricat-or (R. xxxm 

French fdbriquer, fdbriecUion .- Latin fdbricdHo, fabriettoe, / 
edre (Jdber, a forger or smith). 

Facade, fa.8ard' (French), the front of a building. 

Face (1 syl.), the visage, a surface. Fhase, fase, the diicr o 
moon, (fee, the shape of a yrare, (fee. Ftke», to I 
oppo^te, to encounter; fiEieed (1 syl.); &e-idg,/MiC 
ftidal, fd'JiMX, peTtaiuing to the fiuse, as faeial «^ 



AND OF 8PELUS0. iW 



\ 



Eaoet, ySs'.ei (ftot fitt/jei}, one of the little ^at Miffftees of 
a cut diamond. (Fr. faeette, fae$ ; Latt. fSeieSt a fifce.) 

Tboetious, f&,9ffjthii»t joeose ; fMse'tioiiB-ly« fiaoe'lioiis-iieBk 

EaoiltiA, fojt^jihlLl, wittieisms, merty conceits. 

FaoOitate^ /a.«ir.{.tot4;, to make easy; fadlltat-ed (R. xxxvi), 
fiaeiiltat^izig (R. xix); facil'ity, dexterity; fiuaUtiea 
(plu,) faMl\%,tiZt means of reducing difficultieB. 
'fiemAifacaiti,/acUUer; tAtia facUltas (fdcUU, easy). 

F^OHninile,/aAE sim'Xle (Fr.), an exact copy. {LaX. factum iimUit,) 

FMicm, fakf^hun, a cabar; fac'tion-ist, an unscrupulous oppo- 
nent; factious, /aV.s/iiM ; factious-ly, fac'ttous-ness. 
Vremch/cution; Lstin/oeiio, fcuHOnu matinoiu, {/ado, to do). 
Ymetori f&k\tor, an agent ; fao'tor-ship {-thipt office of). 

ItActary, f<U^,to.ry ; fti€iange, fdkf.td.ragey a factor's dues. 
WmuAifBuUwrf/aetoraife; lokUn factor (faeio, to make or do). 
Eutotmii, fdh,id'.tum, an employ^ who does all sorts of worii. 
Vt, factotum; Lat. fadiio] tohtm, to do eyerything. 

IMd^ fdWMMt brigbt flpots in the sun. Maoulfe, mak.uM^ 

dark spots in the sun. (Latin fdcula, a little torch.) 
Taonlty, plu. faculties, fdh'.uliiz, capacity, skill, science. 

l!hib faKmlty, lUedioal practitioners coUectiyely considered. 

Ttfea^fkcuUi: 'Ltktin/H6ktta8(faeul1cit/dcUi8, easy). 
There are four "faculties" or scieoees, vi^., arts, theology, law, and 
medidne, bnt the word faculty is now restricted to the last. 

Faddle, fdd'J!l, to trifle ; fiddle-faddle, purposeless nonsense. 
Fade (1 syl.), to droop, to lose colour; fSd'-ed, fad'-ing (B. xix.' 

Frrach /ode, insipid : Latin vada, to go ; Greek hadbs, a walk. 
Aig, a drudge, to drudge. A fish-fag, a female fish-hawker. 

The £ag-end, the selyage, the worst end. 

l^ged (1 syl.), fagg'-ing (Rule i.), fagg'-er. 

A * • fag," Gk. pMff<fe, a great eater. *' Fag-end," Ang. -Sax f^ian\ 
to change the colour. 

^agoi,/(3^.^£, a bundle of sticks, caked made of pork soraps. 

"A bundle," Welsh /agwd, Fr. /ogot. ** A cake," Gk. pMgo, to eat. 

^Pahienheit, Faj^renhMe^ tbe inveotor of the thermometer 
which marks 32" as the freezing point of water, and 212" 
as its boiling point (difference 180**). Reaumur's ther- 
mometer, used in Germany aud Russia, divides the 
distance between these extremes into 80 parts. The 
eeUtigtade thermometer divides it into 100 deg. 

^ (1 syl.J, to become bankrupt, to miss ; i^led (1 syL), 
ftul'-mg ; fidlure, fait.y&r, insolvedcy, defeat. 
Welsh ffautlu, to faU or fniS5; ffaa, a failing. Germ. /eMtfa, to t«ai. 



348 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Pain, fiEuae, feign (all pronounced /an«, 1 syl.) 

Fain, desiroas. (Old Engt /cep}i[tan], to desire; Fr./otn.) 

Fane, a temple. (Latin fanurn, a temple.) 

Feign, to pretend. (Fx.feindre^ TjbX. fingeret to feign.) 

Faint, feint (both fainU 1 syl.) Faint, languid, to swoon ; 
£aint'-ed (R. xxxvi.), fainf-ing, fainf -ish {-Uh added to 
ac[j. is dim., added to nouns means " like"), fainf-ly. 

Feint, a pretence. (Fr. feinte, Latin fng^e, to feign.) 
French fainiant, sluggish (/aire niant, to do nothing). 

Fair, a free market, delicate. Fare, cost of a journey, provisionf • 

Feat, fe'r, terror. Fair; fair'ing, a present from the fair ; 

£Edr'-ish, rather fair {-ish added to adj. is dim., added te 

nouns it means "like"); fairish^y, fairly. 

" Fait" (a free market), French /o<re; JjaXiafiria, a holiday. 
"Fair" (jnst, beautiful). Old English /<r(7r, fair; foeger, beantj. 
"Fare,** Old Eng. frer, a journey, hence cost of a journey, provirinn. 
" Fear," Old Eng. /<6tlan], to fear from being startled (/«»r, mddeDX 

Fairy, plu. fairies, fair^Hz. Spenser's word is Faery [Queen]. 
German /ee; French /^e, Ataj^fierie: Persian iiAi. 

Faith, fath, belief, trust ; faith'-fol (Rule viii.), faifh'ftil4y, 
faith'fol-ness ; faith'-less, fiuthle8B-ly« fnlthlfww noai 
The faith, Christianity. 
Ital. fede./edele, faithful ; Fr. foi; Lat. Jid«», f^dOii ($d», to Irw^ 
Fakir, fa.keefj a Mahommetan monk. (Arab, a potior manO 
Falchion, /at(7r.«ftttn {not falshun nor fiwV^hi,iSn). 

French /aitc/um, a curved sword ; Latin /ato, a reap-hooik. 
Falcon, faw\k8n (not faV.kon nor fawV.kon), a female hawk ; 
falconer, faw\kbn.er ; falconry, faw\kSn,ry. 

Fr. faueon, a falcon : Lat. falx, gen falcis, a reap-hook. 8e eaUs^ 
from its curved beak. The male is called a taMel or lorvtl (Fk*— 
tierceUt, a tierce, or third smaller). 

Faldstool, fald'Moolf the bishop's chair within the altar rails. 

Old Eng. /aid stdl, a folding stool; Fr. fauteuil, Le.,, 
Low lAi. faldistorium ; Qerm. feldstuM. 

Fall, fawl ; past fell, past part, fallen, fawVn ; fall'-ing, fidT- 
{** Fall" retains double 1 in all its compounds: as M't 
downfall, windfall, fallirig -in, falling si cknen^ &o.) (B. : 
Old English /eal{[an], ^uXfeol, past part ge-feallm, to faU. 
Fallacy, plu, fallacies, fdV.la.8lz, an error ; faUad-ona, /SLIafr^"*^ 
shus (Rule zi.) ; falla'cions-ly, folla'dons-neBS. 
Latin /a{2dcta./aUac{d«tt« {/allax, deceitful); French /a Wart gM L 
F^Uihle (not -able), liable to fall ; falUbility, f&l\KMr.lif. 

Lat fallire, to deceive ; 6k. aphaUo, to make to fall ; Ft. . 
Fallopian [tube], fal.ld\ptan (not falUip\uan)t so ealled 
Gabriel Fallopius, of ^od6na (1523-1562). 




\ 



AND OF SPELUNG, 849 

FftUow, reddish bay colour, nncultivated, ploughed bnt not sown. 

*' Fallow [deer],** Old Eng. /sato, yellowiah brown (/eolwion, to xipen). 
*«FaUow land,** is land left to "ripen." 

Eabe, /ofe«, not true; fajse'-hood, a lie; fialse'-ly, fftlBe'-neBB ; 

IWsiiy, fol\8tfy : fftlflifles, fSV^iJize ; falsified, fUTj^,- 
fide ; fial'sifi-er (Bule xi.), fai'sify-ing. {See -f^r.) 

IPalcD^cation, fSV^tfixay^'^hun, misrepresentation. 

Old English /aZ<e ; Latin /a2«u«, y. faUo, supine /obttm, to deceive. 
lUaettp, plu, fedsettOB (R. xlii.), fSl^etf,toze (Ital.), a false voice. 
FUlter, /sr.ter, to hesitate; fal'tered (3 syL), fal'ter-ing, (fee. 

QfV^h/aUar, to be at fault (faUa), hence tinfcUta, without tpXL 
Fame (1 syl.), renown; famed (1 syl.), renowned; fAme'-lfiSB. 

Ftounig, fd'.mus ; fa'moTis-ly, £a'moiis-ne8B. 
Latin fSbma, fSmdnu ; French fame, fameux. 
Fuuiliar,/a.m{Z^y«r, intimate, an attendantdemon; famil'iar-ly; 
familiarity, plu. fSamiliarities (R. xliv.), /a.mir.t.ar''n.ti2. 

Familiarise (Rale xxxi. ), fa.miV.tar.ize, to accustom ; 

Familiarised, fa.mil\tar,izd; famil'iaris'ing (Rule xiz.) 

Family, plu. families (Rule xliv.),/amM.J^,/am'.iK». 

French famille, familier, familiariti, familiariser; Latin fdmUia, 
fdmUidriSf/dmilidrUas (/dmUltu, a household servant). 

Famine, /amMn; famish, /am^.tgfe, to starve; fun'ished (3 syl.), 

fam'ish-ing {-Uh, ** to make " [hungry]). Rule Ixvii. 

French /aiiiiTM, /am, hunger; Latin /SmM, dearth, hunger. 

Fan, {noun and verb), fumed (1 syL), fann'-ing (R. i.), fann'-er. 

Old Eng. fann, a fan ; Qerm. toanne; Lat. vanntu, a winnowing fan. 

Fuiatic, fajidf.ik (not fan'.aMh), a visionary; fanatical, 

fa.nat'^ukal ; fanafical-ly ; fanaticism, /a.mif.i.8i2m. 

French fanatiqus, fanatisme; Latin fdndHcus (fdnum, a temple. 
Fanatics were persons who haunted temples and pretended to 
utter predictions). 

XlKDcy, plu. fancies, /an'.«l?, a whim, a liking, to like, to imagine; 

fancied, fan'.8ed; fan'ci-fol (Rule viii.), fan'dfnl-ly, 

fan'oiful-ness, fan'cy-ing (Rule xi.) {See Fantastic.) 

{The spelling of ** fancy *' for phausy U disgraceful.) 

Ok. jpharUdsia {phaino, to appear) ; Lat. phantdna; Fr. fantasie. 

}f plu. fEmdangoes, f&n.ddn'.gozet a Spanish dance. 

a temple; fedn, desirous; feign, /an«, to pretend. 

' Fane," Latin fanum. *' Fain,** Old English fasgytHian], to desire. 
"Feign,** French yeindre. 

\{notfanfire)y fan' fare (Fr.), a flourish of trumpets {Arab.) 

improperly applied to the root of teeth, a pointed tooth. 
(Hd "Baig-fang-tdih, a tusk ; {fdn, to seize, the tooth which seins hold), 
^••tasia, /fitn.tay'.2{.a/i {not fdn\ta;zee'\ah), a musLcaiooiui^QSL- 
tion unrestricted by rules (Ital.) 



«*i 



85^ ERRORS OF SPEECTT 



Step-father, plu. step-fathers, the second father of a ehiltl 
who has lost her first father ; fern. Step-jnother. 

Grandfather, fern, grandmother, the parents of parents 
are grandparents to the third generation. 

Great-grandfather, (fee., the parents of grandparents ara 
great-grandparents to the foarth generation. 

€k)d£Ebther, fern. Godmother, sponsors at haptism. 

Son, daughter \hoth child], offspring of father and mother. 

Sire, fern, dam, father and mother of a quadruped. 

Old English feeder^ mdder (common to the whole Aryan familj oi 
languages), ftxderlic, fatherly ; Heop-fatder, steop-mdder (stsop[m»], 
to bereave, the father, &c., of a child bereaved). "Grandfather** 
is French grand [pir]e, great grandfather. (Anglo-Saxon grtaL) 

Fathom, a measure of six feet, to sound the sea, to penetrate ; 

fathom, fdtk\um; fath'omed (2 syL), fiaUi'oiii-iiig; 

£bth'om-er, fath'om-ahle, fath'om-less. 

Old English /cetAtn, a cnbit ; t. /ce^miian}, to fathom ; faeO u mr lm . 

fatigue, ^a-teef, weariness, to weary; fatigued, fa,Uegd^; 
£atigu-ing(Bul6ziz.),/a.t««/.tn^; fafiga'tion, -^hm. 

Trenoh fcUigue; "LaAin/dtlgo, to weazy (/dtim, overmnch). 
Eauhourg, f5\boo'rg, a suburb. (Old French forsbourg.) . 

Low Latin /or if burgium, the borough beyond [the town]. 
Fault, /o2^ offence; faulty, /or.tj^ ; faul'ti-ness, faul'ti-ly. 

French /at(Zt«, nowfaute; Latin faUOf to slip ; foMitaa, falsehood. 
Faun, a woodland deity. Fawn, a young deer, to cringe. 

Fauna, faw'.nah^ the collective animals (Flora, JWjrdh, ths 

collectiye plants) of any given region. 
** Fauna " (Latin), the goddess of procreation. " Flora," of flowva. 
Favour, fd'.vor, a kindness, to befriend; iia'voured (9 bjL), 
fit'vour-er, fa'vour-ing, fa'vouring-ly, fia'Your-er, iSi'. 
Your-able, fa'yourable-ness, fia'vourahly; fiiTocixite, 
fa\vor.U; fa'vourit-ism, fa'vour-less. 

Vrench faveur, favorable, favorite, favaritisme ; Latin /ttvor, /MM* 
bil%s,/Aveo, to befriend. (Our apology for the -u- in UiaM words 
is that it marks their French origin, but the French do not intsr* 
polate u after o, and it would be far better to follow the Latin.) 

Fawn, a young deer, to cringe. Faun, a woodland deity. 

Fawn, &wned (1 syl.), fawn'-ing, fawn'ing-ly, fawn'-«r. 

Fr. foan =:fahn, a fawn ; Old Eng. fcegn{ian\, to cringe or lUttK 
Fealty, f^Mlty (not feeV.ty), loyalty. 

French fial, trusty ; Latin /Yd^2is, faithful. 

Fear, /eT, terror, to feel terror; feared (1 sjL), fsai^-li^f 
fear'.fnl (Rule viii.), fear'ful-ly, fear'fdl-neoi 
fearless-ness, fearless-ly; fear.nought, /sVinort. 
Old Sngliflh /^anV to utartle -. fSr, terror from raddm 



AND OF SPELLTNd. 868 

Feuilile, /ee'jBi&'l, practicable ; feaa'ibly; feasibil'itj. 
Traadi /atfoUe (wrong-<) . Latin/oeAie, fAdOit^ M87 to do. 

7eMt« /etftt, a banqaet, to eat sumptaonsly ; feast'-ed (R. zzxyL) 
Vtaneh feiU wxwfiU: Lfttin /effum, a holidaj, a banquet 

Feat, feety an exploit. Feet, plu, of foot. Fete, fate (French.) 

"Itet," French ^tt / Latin fadum, a deed. *< Feet," Old Bng./M, 
phL /^i. '' Fdte/' Le., /ate, a featiyal (Latin ftttwrn). 

F^ilier, feth'.er (noun and verb) ; feath'ered, feath'ering;. 
Old Bng. /ceMer otftther, fUlured or fythered, feathered. 

Featnie, fee\tehur, the five members of the face, a characteristic. 

Nonnan faitwre; Latin /actOra, the make-np of a thing {faeio). 
Fefarile, fib\rU {not ft. hrUe nor fib\r%le), relating to fever, 

F^brifage, fib\ri,fil{je, a medicine to mitigate fever. 

FT. /il>riU; Lat. feMUi, febH/OgaifeMifugo, to pat to flight fever). 

TehroBij, f^\ru.d.ry {not fib\u,S.ry). lAtin februdrius. 

The month, among the Bomani, of the Instralia {fdnHo, to cleanse). 

j9€nltktffk^M,lah, starch ; fec'nlent, feotulency. {See FaonlflB.) 
French /ifotti*; Latin /<»ciUo» diminutiye of /cw, lediment. 

Feoiuid,/^^.tfnd, fruitful; fecnji6Ate,fik\iin.date; feo'undat-ed 
(Rule xxxvL), fec'nndat-ing (Rule xix.), fec'undat^r. 

Feonndation, ffk^,un,day''^hun; fecundity, fe,kiin\dX,ty, 
Wnachficonder, fieondtUian^ fdoondiU; Latin feeundUM, fteundiu. 

FederaL fSd\e.rSh leagued to^^ether. The fed'erals, states 
leagued together ; fed'eral-ism, fed'eral-ist ; federal-ise, 
fSd'.e.rdL%ze: fed'eralised (4 syl.), fed'eralis-lng (R. xix.), 
federative, f^ ,e.ra^i\v. Confederate, c&n. fed' Jisate, 

Federation, fed\e.ray*' jshun and Confederation, a league. 

Fr. fidiral, fidiralisU, fid^aiion, fSd^atif: Lat. fadw, a league. 

Fee, a payment, to pay; feed, fee'-ing. Land held under an 

overlord; fee-6imple, land not entailed; fee-tail, lands 

entailed ; fee-farm, a farm held on payment of rent. 

Old Bng. feoh, stipend, goods. " Fee =s feoff,*' Span, fe, ItaL ftd*^ 
(Lat. /ides [land) in trust), not a word of Teutonic ongiA 

FeftUe, feefJb% weak ; fee'ble-ness, fee'bly. 

French /ai&Ze; Spanish /ebZe; Italian Jlevole. 
Feed, pail fed, past part, fed; feed'-ing, feed'-er. {See Fee.) 

Old English /Jd[an], past/^dde, past part, f^ded, v. n. /4ding. 

fBt^past felt,|7«»f part, felt; feer-ing, perceiving by touch, 
sense of touch ; feel'ing-ly, tenderly ; feel'-er. 
Old English fdian], past felde, past part, feled ; felung. 

Feet, plu, of foot. Feat, an exploit Fete, fate, a festivaL 

'• Feet," Old Eng. M plu. M " Feat," Fr. /ait. " Ffele, Ft f«ia, ^ 

m 



6d4 ^RROna OF SPEECH 

Feign, fene, to pretend. FaiB, desirous. Fi'ne, a temple. 
Feign, feigned (iByL); feignad-ly, /asf'.n^.2y ; fiuga'^-iiig. 
Feint, faint, a pretence. F^t^ ineljbed to swooiw 

*' Feign." Fr./eiiuira,/eiiit ; Lat, /SflflP^ 8apiBei>{iw;to«i», to oeoaAerfeit. 
" Fain, ' Old Eng. foegn\ian\, to deidre •,/agnurvg, a desiring, a wish. 
"Fane,** Lat. foAMvm^ a temple ^from faH, to speak, qmod pontiMeea 
a sacranio fanum " fantiv/' quo4 vocal>ant effari iemjfUfk ( Varr.) 

Felicitate, fe.U8\l.t<Ue, to congratulate ; felicltat-ed (E. xxxvi), 
felicltat-ing (B. xix.); felipitadon, fuMiW.ta/' ^kmi. 

Felicity, fe.WX.ty, happiness ; felicitoiiB, ftMAJim^ Inoky, 
happy; felicltons-ly, felioltona-nesa. 

Fell, the skin ; \jell of hair\ a hilly mpor, cruel, to brmg to the 
ground, did fall. Fell-monger, dealer in hides ; ML 

To fell, felled (1 syl.), fell'-ing, fell'-er, one who fells wood. 
('* FelV retains double I in its compounds, R. Tiii., eu hefelL) 

Old Bng.feU, skin, Air ; felt [tor hats] : Oerau/eH / Lat. peUiUi^ a kidt. 
Germ. fds. a rode, hill, cUff. Old Bng. /«iZ, oruel ; fyUt death. 
(Verb) Old Eng. fel\an], to cut down ; past/ealde, past part. feUd, 

Fellow, fSV.lo, a person. Felloe, fSl'Xo (of a wheel). BelFer, 
one who fells trees. Felo de se, fet.o de se, self murder. 
'* Fellow," Old Eng. felauB. " FeUoe," Old Eng. felfft. <««« T^HL) 

FeUy, plu. fellies, fiV.liz, one of the ports of the rim of a wheeL 
This is a better spelling than felloe, (Old JBIng. felge,) 

Felon, feV.dn, one who has committed felony ; 

Tehmy^plu. felonies, /^^^.niz, a capital o£Eeoce; felmdowi 
fi.ld\ntu8 ; felo'nioiuhly. 

Felo de se, feV.o de se, suicide, a self murderer. 

Low Lat. feUmia., fdo de se, Monj on oneeelf [by suicide] : Vr. fOtm, 
Fel^'spar (in OeoL), a volcanic product the basis of many roeks. 

Oerman feidspath, field q>ar. Eirwin says fel spar, lOok spar. 
F^lt, the hide and its fur, used for hats. Fast tense of faeU 

Old English /eU, a bide, fur ; fat. a hide with its for. 
Felnoea, feMk\kah (Italian feluca), a small sailing ycsmL 

Female, f^.mail, the feminine sex. Hale, the maaouline sex. 

Feminine, f^'.Ln^n (not/^m'.t.mn«), pertaining to thefomale 
sex. Masculine, jndis' .hii.Vin, pertaining to the male 

Female screw, the nut or indented, spiraL Iflale 
the part with the thread in relief. 

Femmenrale, f^m^sdle, an unmarried woman. 

Fr. fenUUe, fenme, a ^omaji, fSmMn ; Lat. fiminUms, ftiiDs « 
J^mina, a woman ^a feminum partibos, ^nibns [feiai|uOdlattDg«lt 
a yiio.— Isidore of Seville (OHginum s. Etymolog., lib. j^ 

FemorsJ, fem',o.rdl, pertaining to the thigh, 

Lat. fimur, gen. fUmtlHs, outside of the tfaiffh ; ftnmi, gen. 
th»iBsideolth9t3d8)L 



AXD OF SPELLING, S5& 



jbuid wImUy or partially covered with water; f(uui'<^ (B. i.> 
OM BngHA /wm, • m^xtik •x fen ; /mnif, Ceoajr, Mnddf. 

Peioee (1 syl.), a hedge, to enclose with a hedge, to fight with 
foils; fisnoed <1 cyl.), fene'-ing (Rule xix.), fiBiie'-«r. 
Latin fl^^^nufo, a dcf eaoe ; v. d^€n4a, aoplne d4\fmmim. ' 

!PeB%6l,a pot-herb. {OldEng. fenol; Lai,f^vXcukimjfi»attm,h&y.) 

Feod, fead, fee, feof^ fief, feodal, fevdaL 

(At present the anoertain spelling aind meaning of these 
words is moat perplexing. The French ^f is not wanted 
and might be discarded. Fev4 should be restricted to 
tbe qoarrela of clans and tribes. It is a very cormpt 
spelling of the Old English fagth or fahthy a deadly fend.) 
The words retained and their meanings would then he — 

Fee, |^?operty held for service; fee-«imple, fee-tail, haae- 
f^ conditional fee, fee-expectant, fee-&rm {Law terms). 
Old EngUflh/tf/i or feoh, property, goods, any medium of exchange. 

Ileod, fade, the right of a tenant to a fee ; feodality, fealty ; 
feodary, fu\da.ry, an ofScer of the court of wards {abol- 
ished); fiodBktojj, fu.da,t5.ry, the tenant of a fee. 

Eeo£E^ fiff (same as fee, but not a law term), whence 
ftflff-or, /Sf-or, one who gives possession of a fee;. 
feoff-ee, fif.ee, one who is put in possession of a fee ; 
feoff-ment,/^.fn«n<, a deed conveying a fee. 

Fend, a deadly quarrel between clans or families; feud- 
bote, fude.bote, money paid for engaging in a " feud " 
qnazrel; fead'-ist, a writer on family feuds. 

Fendal [system]. Unhappily the spelling is too firmly 
established to be disturbed, otherwise feodal would be 
better, and then feudal would be the adtj. of feud. 

Low Latin feodum, feoffamentum, feoffator, feoffcUus ; French fiodal. 

Fennent, (noun) fer'.ment, (verb) fer.menf (Rule 1.), ferment'-ed 
(Rule xxxvi.), ferment'-ing, fermenf -able. 

Fermentation, fef^.m^.tay".8hun; fermentability, fer\' 
m^\ta.hlt'.i.ty ; fermentatiye, fer,mSn\taMv, 

French ftrmmUry fmnentation, fermentable, ftrmentatif; Latin 
fensMiUaUo, /ermerUwnn', fermmtare, to leaven. 

Fem, 1^ family of cryptogamic plants ; fem'-y. (Old Eng. feam ). 

Fevpciaim (Bule lxvL),fe.rd\8hus, savage; fero'cious-ly ; 

Ferocity, fe.r^s\l.tyy inhuman cruelty, savageness. 

Fer^rel (better fenmjle, f^.rule, q.v.) 

f^.rSt, an animal of the weazel kind, a narrow woollen 

tf^^e, tx> drive out of a bole, to teaze; fer'ret-ed (Rule 

xxxvi.), fer'ret-ing, fer'ret-er. 

Wnnchfuretyfureter: Ottrmtoi/rett; Old English >Veton, togn&Hi. 
" Fcnet " (tape), German Jloret, [band], a ooane silk ilbhoa. 



A 



^ 



356 EJRJiORS OF SPEECH 

Ferrog^oiiB, f er.ru'. gi.nus (Dot fe.ril\gi.fnu)j eontaining the 
properties or colour of iron[rast] ; fermgmated, f6rjrit^ 
gi.rui,tedf impregnated with iron {not fe.ru\(fijuiJied^ 
Latin fernko; iron mrt {fentm mMffo, nist of ironX 

Ferry, fUi, femes, fir^,riz, a boat for conveying pasamgers 
across a river, to convej passengers across a river in m 
boat; ferries, /^riz ; ferried, /&^rfai; fer^ry-ing. 
Old Sng. firtan, to cany ; past/ihnodc, past part, firtd; Lat. /Hna. 

Fertile, f^.tU (not/^.tiZtf), more fertile (eomp.), fer'ta-eet, or 
most fertile if nf|>^.;; fer'tile-ly; fertility, /efr.tir.{.fy. 

FertilisQ (not fertilize. Rule xxxL), fe/JiLize: far'tated 
(3 syL), fer'tills-ing (Rule zix.); fer'tiliB-er, a Deh 
manure, (fee; fertilisation, /^.<U.{jBa''^/rufi. 

Franch /triOe, fertUiU, fertUiaer: Latin /<HIK«, f9r¥XIUM, 

Ferula, fir^.ru.lah, a small paUet of wood or leather for Btzikiiig 
children on the hand by way of chastisement. 

Latin fgriUOy firio, to strike. (Feroto tristes, socptra paBdacofonua 
ceaaent—MaHial, 10, 02, 10.) 

Ftomle, fer'rulet a small metal hoop for walking canes, Ac 

Qpuiiah Mrola; French viroU. 

Fer^vent, ardent; (comp.) fer'Yent-er, (supcT.) fisr^Teiit-flgt; 

fer^vent-ly, fer^vent-ness; feryency, /<SK.veipi^. 

Fervour, /(JK.ror; fer'vid, fer'vid-ly, fisr'yid-neBS. 
Latin/erveiu, gen. fervwUa: ferveo^ to be hot ; ftrHdnu, Jki mt . 

Fease (1 syl.), a band crossing an heraldic shield horizontally, 
and equal to one-third of its entire field. It is one of tbs 
nine honourable ordinaries. (Latin fascia, a band.) 

Festival, fes*tl.vul, a holiday, a time of rejoicing; festal, PkUEL; 
fes^tal-ly; festive, fea\i\v ; fes'tive-ly; fsrtivi^, 
festivities, fes.tW.i.iiz, amusement. 
Latin fettivUas, futimu, festivdre : French fetAt, nowyMs. 

FesUion^fes.toon' (noun and verb); festooned' (2 syl.), 

Ital. fuUme (festa, a festival): ITr. fesUm (Lat. festum, a hoUdar). 

Fetch, the apparition of a living person, to go and get; fstiAed'. 

To fetch a compass, to make a circuit in order to readi a point 

Old English /ece[an], to fetch. Fetich (q. v. \ a kind of deaoa. 

Fete, fate, a holiday. Fate, destiny. Feat, feet, an aehieve* 
ment Feet, plu. of foot. 

'* Fgte.** French fUe for fesU ; Latin /eshun, a ftetlvaL 

" Fate,** L%t. fatum. " Peat," Fr. fait; Lat/ociiUR, inmnHitM •»■■ 

" Feet," Old English fdt, plO. fit ^^ 

Fetich, ft.ti8h, a West African idol ; fetich-iam or ISitioiait 
f^.ti.cUm, the worship of a fetich. 
Plortiv./ei<ifO, witchcraft: Lat. /ojcttwm (Qk. ftadbia Ji, wttBh>wl» 



AXD or SPELUXa tst 



'Bt^6^firJiLaUMaf£iMu:; fe'tiA-ly, Ib'tM mm. f^*for« 

JetJSk^ the toft of luur behind the pMt««i <»f a hcirw^ 

CU Xn^BikiK tec; • lock of Wir [OB tkt2 iMi 

% ehain for the feet. Mma'adA, « tb«ck)e fbr the han^ 

OUS^hh/«teroryM«r. Freackieiierti*; Utta«««k^ 
the qnairel of a clan or tribe. (Set FMd.) 

<M SBc.>U(«e»l put/<««. to bt at «UBii7>>ff<A or/MUlk % Ani. 

[system], bj which lands were held fi^ railitaiy st^rviee ; 

fBodal-isB, JWAuVUm^ the feudal constitution ; fbudal'^ 

lit or food'-iflt, one Torsed in feudal laws; ^udality, 

/icuiar.i.ty, sUte of being feudal: feudary. f^'M^t^ 

(a4).X holding lamis for service ; feudatary, /M'.da«l(l«fy« 

one who holds lands for seryiee. 

1^. feudUU, feudataie, findal, fiodatiU : 8i>mi. iV«daJL AinteWde< 
feudaUuio, ftudista, fsudo^ % feoff ; lul. ftudatario, Jinido. 

Fen-de-joie (French), /mo'cT zjwah'\ a joy-voliey, 

Feoilletoii, /iiT.ton[/], that part of [French] Journals devoted 
to literaiy articles as critiques, tales, and ho on. (h>.) 

Eerer,^^^; fe'ver-ish, having a plight fever; fe'yerlih-ly^ 
fe>6riBh-ne88 (R. Ixv ii.) (Old Eug. fefer ; Lat febrii.) 

Fsfvezfew, ft,V€r^u^ a cortuption of Old KuKlish ftifir/ug€, to 
drive off fever, the pyri' thrum [Parthe'nium], 
Latin /sM/^Qvo- Pyrtthrvim (Qr^tk fHUrma, tevr). 
Esfw, (eomp.) few'er, ( super.) few' -est; few'-nesi. 
Old English /edw, (8nper.)/e<fioo«to,/ediime«, fewntH. 
Fiat^ fi'uit (Latin **let it be done"), an order to do something. 
Sib, a falsehood, to tell a falsehood ; fibbed (1 nyl.), flbb'-ing 
(Bule i), fibV-er. (Irish fiabbare, to tfll fliin-flain talon.) 
FDbro, |>Iu. fibre*, /i'.6^,/i'.6<Tz, the solid part of nniroal flesh, 
a hair-like root, *c.; fibronB, fi'.briU; fibrine, /»'Mn, 
that which forms fibre ; fi'brln-OTis. 
FnnchJt5r«,./l6Hn«,/frrettc; JjikHnfttra<JU)0r, an extremity). 
"FQmk^ fW.u.lah {in Lat fi'bUla), the small bone of the leg; 
fibrillar, adj. of fibula; flb'ulated. (Lat.y/frtf/ar«, to button.; 
TkUe, fttru ineonsUnt ; flckle-neii. (Old Englitth JleoU) 
Fico,pbi. fiooes (Rule i}n,\ ft: .ko, fi' Mte, a soup ot the Anger, 

Italim Mo. a llg, fte. I don't care a Jig arJUe. 
fkUk^ fU^jU, pertaining to pottery ; flctor. (Latin fleHlis, ) 
ykHak^fU^abtm; fic'tUm-Irt, a writer oi (Ustitm. 

Fletftioofl, fUuishrju : fictitioas-lj, fictitiaiukiiMi, 
WtmAfUI*m:lMaBjLeUo,JUUlim*. («ee Koto lxvi> 
JldT^l, a Tioiin, to play the violin ; fiddled, fiX ^\A ; 



558 EnRORS OF SFEEdlT 

tot plfljing a fiddle, a sword, ar term of dontemfit signi- 
fjring that wlrat is said is nmrorthy of notice. 

fiddlie-^iftddle, triflftig matter, mnch ado abotit nothing: 
Germatijiedel, y. fiedeln, JUdUft ; !L«thiyk(ie«, a flddllB. 
Udelity, fi.dliV.i.ty, faithfalness. (Fr. fidm6 ; Lat. fUtSdStdi.) 
Fidget, f^My a restless per-on, worry, to annoy with petty 
annoyances ; fid'get-cfd (B. xicxvi.), fid'get-fiftg; fi^gistf, 
f^\et.y, restless ; fidgets^ a fidgety fit or conduel 

FMiMifary, pH. fidtreiavies (t^nle i}v9.\ji.M'j/iM.tU, a Iboffee in 
tmst; fldueiary (adj.), bound on conditions of tfast. 
lAMafidmeiariw^ t. >2eitreidre, to make condftioas of tnttt. 

Fie! fi, an exclamation to deter children from doing something 
disagreeable or naughty. 

Fief, feef, land held on condition of military seryico. 
This French word is not wanted, (See TeofL) 

Field, feeld, originally meant a " dealing,"* and was spelt feld, 
that is, a place where the trees have been " felled.* 
Old English /eZd, y. /ell[an], to fell : put fecddt, past paai.fded. 
Fieldfare (2 syl.), a dorrnption of feat-fare, a Kind of thrtish. 



Old English feala-fer, the ifaigratoiy flodi ifaiian], past fSr, Mat 
part fm-m, to tvayel : and fitUa, maay)^ These bktb IMe ta 
Britain in October, and leava la Febroaiy. 

Fiend, feend (not feen\ the devU; fieiHl'-iflh (-aaft added to 
nouns means ''like," adrled toa4>»it is dim.) ; fia&dTiab-^t 
fiend'ish-ness, fiend'-like. 
Old English /«^}ul, /e&ndUc, flend^ike (ftdn, ta hate). 
Fierce, fe'erce, (comp.) fierc'-er, (super.) fierc'-eati flacoe'-ly; 
fieroe-nesa, ferocity; flerce-nunded. 
Fier fierce (se dit d' on lion h6ri8s6;; Latin fi^rus, layaga. 
Rery, fi^'e.ryt passionate, like fire. {See lire.) 
Fife, plu. fifes (1 syl., Rule xL), fif-er, fif-iBg, filiBd (1 ayL) 

French ^re; GmrnKa t(fsi/e, ffei/er, y. ffe^^ 
Fifteen, fif.teen\ a numeral; fiftaenth, fifAeenth\ em. ordinal; 
Fifth, ordinal of five; fi£th'47, in the fifth phwa; 
^E'ifty, fif.tyr five times ten ; fifti-eth, f\f.t^th, iti ofdinaL 

Old Eng. m 5: ma» 5th; f^ttn, 16; f^taOia, Iftft; i^^MfbfV; 
ftftigthcBt, 60th. 

Fig, a fruit, a snap of tbo fingers : as I don*t care a Jl^ 

01<1 English fie ; Latin fieus, a fig. Fieo (Ital.), a Bg, a saap of tts 
fingers. Fr. Fairt lafigue d qu9iq»'%m, to- make a holt €i§ mm 

Fight, past fought, past part* fought, /ite,/awt/ [tbofl^tsB* 
adj, : as the foughten /Uld, used ia paatqr]^ ijgkt Ingi 
fUe'-ing ; fighter, f'%te',er. 

Old English /eoh,tlau\, psat /ea^t, past part. /bJUa». 
(The, •%- is interpotated, and is vxyru tlwinv vssUssJ 



AND OF SPELLINO. 869 

Flg'iiient^ Ml idle dieanL {IsiLfigmenJlmm; fingtt to imac^e«> 

Vigom, fi^'^ir (not fi.gew^, sbftpe, form, to shape, to 
rnnke figures; flgored, fig'ikd (not fi.geuf4^ ; figar-ing, 
fl^.UrAng ; flgnratiTe, f^fu,rm,t^ ; flg'wratiye-ly, 
flg^nzathrd-nen, flg^nr-iirt 

Kgmmiita, fig'gu.rantt a female baUet-danoer. 

A. A/urami€. Jiguratif, Jlgwre, fiquHgU; Lai /tgBra, jl^flrAHviw. 
fyfOnHn {Jingo, to moald, to f«smoAX 

Fflament, /{r^.flMnt» a thread; fil'amen'taiy; fllataxe, /{T^.- 
tchiir, spinning [silk from the cocoons]. 
WnmehJUammt; Jj^^ JUanunta (JUum, thread). 
tUwrt, f%y.bert, the hazel nat Cormption of Jilberd, 

Old Eogliah fiU herd (flll-beardX so called becaiue the nut «XMtlj 
fllU the cap made bj the "beards" of the calyx. 

TUidtkt to pilfer; filched (1 syl.), fllch'-ing, filch'-et. 
^robablj a corrupt contraction of piUage (pilge, ftlch). 

FQe (1 syL), a tool for rasping, a line of soldiers, a wire on 
which bills are Strang, to use a file, to put a [bill] oo a 
file, to march in file ; filed (1 Ryf.), f!l'-ing (Ruld xix.), 
fil'-er; rank and file, the privntes of the army. 

Rench fit and flU: Latin fihmt. a thread. 

Old English feol or fyl, a file ot raap ; Norse^lii y. JtU, to file or n^ 

Filial, fVfXMl, beoonung in a son or daughter ; fll^'ial-ly. 

Let. jaUOiM OUiM, a toa : jUia, a daughter : Gk. phUtd, to lore). 

minister, f\l'.i,hib\Ur {not JUL ..). a piratical adventurer. 

Spanish >Uidiw<«r; French >li5tM<i«r. 
SlUgfee, JiX.\,grt€y thread-like work with gdd or silver wire. 

French flMgraiu; Spanish JUdgrana (the grain [made] with wire). 

Fill, to make full; filled (1 syl.), flll'-ing, fiU'.^. 

T6 fill full, to fill completely ; To fulfil, to accamplish. 
Six words (all, thrall, full, fill, still, and mass) drop one 
of their double letters in those compounds which do not 
come under R. iv., thuB fuljil, fuijil-ment. but the double 
I is resumed in ftUfill-ed, fuljill-vng, fulfill-ert K. viii. 

old English fyll[anX past/yllde, past p9xt.fgUed. 

Tffl'Ol, an astragal; meat boned, rolled, and tied with a String; 
a band for the head, to bind with a fillet ; flll'et-«d (not 
JilUtt-ed), fill'et-ing (not Jillett-ing), Rule iii. 

flhifry tffiffi nhoiUd b4 tiMde to redw^ th4 inegulAritieB 6/ Rule 4H.) 
Vnncix filet, fil and dim. et, a little thread (Latin ^Jum, a thread). 

IfiOSbogt JiWXbgg {not philibeg), the pouch of the Scotch kilt, 
the kilt is also called a fiUibeg. 
QUiiofilUadMieg, a little pltit or fold, 
^filibuster (should be filibuster, q.v,) 



860 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

FQllp, a jerk with finger and thumb, to give such a jerk. 

Fhilip, a man's name. Filliped, fiWipt (not fillipp-ed) ; 

filllp-ing (not fiU'ipp-ing). Same as fliptflapt ^ 

(Gossip, kidnap, and worship an th» only wrbs ending In "p** wMdi 

abawdly violate R. iii. , and they ought at once to he redured to ordtr.) 

"Flip." a dim. variety of flap. We have a large namber of these 

▼owel changes, as pit pat, (Mi cAoi, flim flam, eniek muuikf fltiip 

flfOp^ vriggle vjaggU, and many more. 
" Flap " is allied to Latin dldpa, German klappe, Welsh tUMo, tiap, 

elap, ko. 

Filly, (mas.) colt, {both) foal, fole, the young of a horse. 

Latin fUia, a danghter ; Old English ooU and fola. 
Film, a thin skin, to cover with a film ; filmed (1 syL), film'-ing ; 
film-y, fU\my ; fll'mi-neas, R. xi (Old English ^m.) 

Filter, fXL\t^, a strainer, to strain. Philter, fiVd^, a loye- 
potion; flittered, fil'ter-ing; fil'ter-er, one who filters. 
Filtration, /i2.tray'.«/iun, the process of filtering; lU'tzage. 
French jU^tw, flUre, filtration, filtrage ; Low Latin fiUrvm. 
Filth, dirt; mtry.flV.rhy; fll'thi-ly, fll'thi-neas (Rule xL) 

Old Engh^hflMh or fyUh^ filth, impurity. 
Fin (of a fish), finned (1 syl.), having fins ; finn'-y (B. i.), fln'. 

Old English fin or finn, finihl, finny. Finnas, the people of 
Final, /i'.naZ, last; fi'nal-ly; flnaHty, /i.?wr.l.ty. 

Finial, fWAMlt an ornamental top to pinnacles, &e. 
Finale, ^.nd/iM« {not ftnay'.le, nor ftnaVJy), the elose. 

Finis, f Wilis, the end ; in fine (1 syL), in conclusion, once 
for all. (French enfin.) 

Tix^BtL,fln\ishy the end, to end ; fin'ished (3 syl.), fin'^isUiig; 
fin'ish-er, {-ish in verbs means " to make "). 

Finite, fi\nite, terminable ; finite'^neBS, finiteMefli. 

Infinite, in\fi nit, without end ; definite, dif\tfiXtf predse. 

Indefinite, inMf'.i.nitt not definite. 

Latin finis, flnitimus, f initio, finitus, finite, findlis: Itallaa jfnah 
(Ssyl.); French >{t(aZ. 

Finance, ftnance' (not f %'. nance), revenue; flnan'oei^ zeady 
cash ; financier, fVnan'jseW. 



Fr. finances, financier; Low Lat. findre, to fix a fine. ' 
meant originally dnty, tax (of the natnre of a fineX 

Finch, a singing bird; bullfinch, goldfinch. (Old Eng.jlne.) 

Und, (past) found, (past part ) found; fi^d'-ing, f&id'.er. 

Finding of the court, sentence of the court 

To find fault, to censure. How do you find yourself? In 

what state do you find your health ? (In Latin we have : 
me male habere sentio, I find or perceive myself ilL) 
Old EngUsh^indLan^, yaal /and; ^ait part fmdsm. 



AND OF SPELLING, 861 

Fine (1 rj1.)« a forfeit, delicate, beautiful, flashy, to impose aforfeit ; 

Fine {adj.\ Ha^'W {comp.), fin'-eat {super.); fi&'-er, one 
who refines metal ; finery, /i'.n^.ry, flashy clothes ; 
finary, a forge at iron mills ; fine'-ly, flne'-nsM. 

Ilneaw {Ft,\ fi.fU88\ petty artifices; fineas'-ing (Rule xix.)> 

practising petty artifices. 
line (v.). fined (1 syl.), f in'-ing, fin'-able. (See Finftl.) 

Ldw Lat finis, a fine ; findre, to refinft Fr. fin, delicata : originaUy 
the amount of pure gold or silver found by Mtay ; finesss. 

Finger, ffn'.ger (not flng^er), noun and verb ; fin'gered (3 syl.) ; 
fln'g^r-ing, touching with the fingers, the right use of 
the fingers in playing on musical instruments. At my 
fingers ends (not finger's nor fingers* end), familiarly 
known ; fin'ger-board, fin'ger.poet. 
Old 'Kng. finger, fsng, a grMp, v. fifn, past fsng, p. p. fangen, to Mlse. 

Finial, fW-tal, a decoration. {See FinaL) 

Finical, /{n.{.)bc<{; fin'ical-ly, fin'ical-ness. 

-ieal (Latin termination), "pertaining to'* [what is fine or elegant]. 

Finis, funis (Lat), the end, the conclusion. {See FinaL) 

Finish, fSn\ish, the end; fi'nUh, rather fine {fine with the dim. 
^ish). Finnish, pertaining to the Finns. (See FinaL) 

Finn, a native of Finland. Fin (of a fish). See Fin. 

Rord, ft»or^t a bay, firith, or inlet (Norw., Swed., Dan.) 

Fir, name of a tree ; its timber is deal. For, a soft short hair. 

«* Fir,'' <Md English furhrvmdu, flr-wood. " Fur," Welsh fftono. 

Fire (1 syL), fired (1 syl.), fir'-ing, shooting, fuel; fiery, /i'.^.ry. 

Old English /fr orfyr, fyren, flery ; fyrpanne, a fire-pan ; ff/r-scoifi, a 
Ibre^hovel ; fyr-iange, fire-tongs ; /yr-tholle, an oven. 

Tirkbitfir^Mn, a quarter- barrel or nine gallons [of beer], a tub 
of butter containing titty -six pounds. 

Kilderkin, two firkins or eighteen gallons [of beer]. 

Barrel, four firkins, or thirty-six gallons [of beer]. 

'*F1xldn,*' German /ass and kin. dim., a little barrel ; or, Dutch irier 
with dim. a little four or quarter barrel. "Kilderkin," Dutch, 
a little baby [barrel or tub]. 

Firm, substantia], strong, a mercantile company; adj. (comp.) 
firm'-er, (super.) firm'-est; firm'-ly, flrm'-ness. 
Lai JlrmiM, steady ; firmdmm, an establishment (Ok. herma, a prop). 
Firmament, fir^.md.m&it, the sky ; flrmamen'taL 

JAiin fimuunenUtm, the prop of the fixed stars (Greek Jurma, a prop). 
Firman, fif^.man, a royal license or passport. (Turk, firmaun.) 
First, foremost; first' Jy, a modem innovation for first (adv.) 
At first, or at the first (?). If adverbially used, meaning 
" immediately," most decidedly, at first is to be \i^e6. \X. 
is the Anglo-Saxon adverb at/dre (before), cetfrumen as. 



3fl? ERRORS OF SPEECH 

first. At flnt fiigltt, here first iightt id one word like 

first-fruits, first-rateyfirst-borrit and '* at" is the adtttrhial 

preiiz as in (Btf6re, 

Old Eagliih/vr, fnr ; fym^ farther ; fyrrtgt or/yrst, fartheol or fixst 

Omr word is a contraction of the Old English ^rm««i (fir'stj, fomnoeL 

Firtli, a corruption of frith, q.v. (Lat /return, a frith.) 
Fiscaly f^'kiily pertaining to revenue, 

laXinfiacus^ a money-bag, the money pnt in the bag ; fiaeaUt. 
Pish, jpZu. (colleotiYe) fish, pht. (partitive) ishes, fish'M ; ilBh'a 
(posB. sing.), jishWz ; fiflheB', fijih\et. (Rule xzziv.) 

Fish (verb)t flifa'es {third per, s, pru, Ind,, Rule xxxiv.); 
fished (1 sjl.), fiah'-ing, fl»h'-er. 

Fish'-y, fishl-neSB (R. zi.), fiah'ery, plu, Muslim, flsh\KrU. 

Fish'er-man, one whose occupation is to catch fish. 

Fish-woman [fishwife], a woman who sells fish bj retaiL 

Fish-mon'ger, a fish-dealer. (Old English monger, dealer.) 

Fish'-tail, to shape like the tail of a fish. 

Fish's taa, the tail of a fish. 

Old Eng. Jlse, pin. Jiscas, fiscere, a fisher ; f8C-nett,JUo-hus, T.JtsiiiamI 
"Fish" (a card counter), a blunder for the French word fkhB (*ftna 

son piece). The two points allowed for the tub ar* sailed la 

French lajiche de eonaoUUioA (see Rule Iziv.) 

Fissure, fizh\*r, a crack or cleft. Fisher, fishier, one who fishes. 

"Fissare." French ; Lhtin fissara (findo, snpitie fiasum, to eleaveX 
"Fisher,"' Old English yiaeere (finciian}, to flshX 

Fit, a paroxyy^m, a canto, suitable, to adapt, to qualify } (a^j-) 
fit, (comp.) fitr-er, (super.) fitf-est, fitT-isg, ^Wh^g-lf 
(Rule i.); (v.) fitr-ed, fitf ^ing; fit'-ly (advX ftT-neai; 
fit'-fol (Rule viii), capricious; fit'fiil-Iy, nfftd-neoi; 
by fits and starts, intermittently. 
" Fit " (of illness), Fr faUe, the point or sammh ; jMfwrfm, mesM 
much the same thing, being from the Gk. oxua, itointad ; mhim, 
to make pointed, to sharpen ; par-oxusmda. 
'* Fit *' (a canto), Old Eng. Jitt, a sofig ; jiMiaii\ to iinff. 
"Fit" (suitable), Fr./ait, oomelv, well made, as im homms Mm 41, 
U est bienjit dans $a taUle, cest Is fhrs toutJU, (LaL /OefiuiM 

Five, a numeral; fifth, an ordinal; fifteen^ flfteentii; fifl|y, 

fiftieth (Rule xi.); five-fold, one and four timet mova. 
Old Eng. fif, five ; f\fta, fifth ; /(/Vm, fifteen ; fffteoihm, tttMBth : 

fifti otfifi^* fifty . fftiffthat, fiftieth : Af/^ald, five-fold ; *& 
Fix, to fasten; fix'-ing, fixed (1 eyl.); fixed-ly, fix'MJf: 

fixed-nes8,^.«d.7i«M; fixity«jix\{.ty; txtvi^fiafjcmir; 

fixation, fix.d\8hun ; fix'-able. 
YxeofiYifixerffixiti, fixation: Latin ^go, supine Jlamm, tolX. 
Fizz, one of the few monosyllables (not in /, I, or 8) ending with 

a double consonant: as add, odd; burr, etr; Mtt^ liitt; 

ebb, egg; Mues, fuzz; fizz, frizz and wMmm (Bold Tii.\', 

fizs'-ing, fibaed (1 syV^ Kxi imitative woird. 



ASD OF SPELLISa, «6?J 

*■ ^^MMM.MBi I ■■■■■■ ■■■!■ ■» ^m^mmm^a^^^m^m^ a ■ ■ ■ ■ —— ^^a>^^fc«^^^i^^i ■■ i g ■ 

Fla^'by, fiftcdid; (comp.) flablyi-er, (tupir.) ilBbl>i*«st (Rule 
IxTiii.) ; flairbi.ly (Rule zi.), flAVbi-iiMi. 
Weldi UMn, ll«edd, UmlMr ; ZNb, 4 flaotid sUt«r. 
Y\BoM^fiaV.M, Hmp; flac'dd-ly, flac'dd-nees, lUccld'ity. 

Vr. .^oceidii^ ; Lat. JlacciduSt Jlaeeus, fla{>-«tr«d ; Jtaaxo, to wither. 
Plftg^ an ensign, a water plant, a paving stone, to dmop; 
flagged (1 syl.), flagg'-ing (Rule i.), flagg'ing-ly, flagg'-er, 
flagg^'y, flagg'i-ness (Rule xi.) ; flag'stone, flag'amp. 

To unfurl the Hack flag, a token of distress. 

To nnftirl the red flag [with the Rom,], a signal for battle. 

To wiflirl the white flag, to sne for quarter, to give in. 

"Flag** {bm ensign )v OfrmKaftagge; I>ani8h>Ia0, JVofen, to flatter. 
"Flaf " (the water iria), »o called from its resemblance to a flag. 
"Flag'* (a paving stone), Danish /oA, flat ; German >fac/i, level 
" tlag " (to droop), Latin Jlaetio, JIaeeus ; Welsh lUg% to flag. 

Flagoflate, flSfM.lcU€, to sconrge; flag^oU&ted (Role zixvi.), 
flag^ellat-ing (Rale xix.); flag'eUaiit, one who scooiiges 
himself; flagellation, ^/.^.2ay".«Aun ; flagellum. 
Fr. JtageUtTf flagellaiUs, JlagellaHon ; Lat. fiageUum^ fiagdUbn. 
Tlageolet, JUy\5,let (not JU{}\i.5.lSt\ a wind instrument. 

Vr. fla^feoUt; Ok. plagUiulos, a Ante (plagids aulos, the cross flnteX 
Flagitioiu, fla»jUh\tUy villanous j flagitions-ly, flagitions-ness. 
ljMltinfldglti6au8,JldglHum,flagrum [a crime deserving] a sconrge. 

flagon, Jlag\ihi, a tankard*, the word is now chiefly employed 
to designate the large metal vessel which holds the saera- 
mental wine before it is poured into the chalice. 
Wtenchflacon, a small bottle, with a stopper of the same material 
nigmnt, /d^^r^nt, notorious ; fla'grant-ly; fla'grancy. 

Latin JUxgrantia, Jlagdre^ fiagrana [fiagrum^ [deserving] a sconrge). 
Flail {not frail), an instrument for thrashing com. 

Latin JUtgeUwrn^fldgelUbre, to thrash. 
Flake, anything put loosely together : as a flake of snow ; flak-y, 
fla'.ky (R. six.), fla'ki-ness, flaked (1 syl.), flak'-ing. 
Old Bnglidi>lacea, flakes of snow ; Latin /oeeu5, a flock of wooL 
Flambeau, i>lu. flambeaux {FT,\flam'MJldm\hoze. (LAt.flamma,) 

Flame (1 syl.), a blaze, to blaze ; flamed (1 syl.), flam'-ing (Rule 
Ttit.% flk'ming«lyt ilfim'-y ; flame'-leas ; flam'bean (g.v.) 

Fkttkiiigo, plu, flamingoes (Rule xlii.), ^a.m{n'.^oa«, a bird 

Itiflaiii''mable (double m); inflammabiKty, in.fldm*.rnaMV\- 

tty ; inflammntion, in' fldm.may'^shim (double m), 

Vreaohjtamme, flambeau, inflammable, inflammahititS, inflatnmation. 
JUtflamma, imflanMMiiio, iinfltnnm&re (Ok. fhligma, JEol phUmma). 

'Wen^ fli&.wXn, a Remati priest devoted to the fterdee ol <me 
god only. It is air $nor to suppooe that *^ flLaxaQnci** \ia» 



864 ERRORS OF SPEECH 

I- m «i ■ II ri -■ ■ ■ ■ ■ —^^~— . — 

any connexion with ^me, and that these pnests were so 

called hecanse they " set flame to " the sacrificial fires. 

Yarro says (De Ling. Lat.,iv. 16) "qnod capnt cinctum habSbant JUo" 
(flUetX from " filum " we get jilamines contracted to f*Ubmin4». 

Flannel (double n\ not Jlan'nen^ a woollen cloth; flannelled, 

jUin'.n^ld; flan'nell-ing (Rule iii., -Ei')* 

(Tlie double nia a blunder peculiar to our own language,) 

Trench flanelle; fllum laneus, wooUen thread, whence /*2a«' with -el 
"pertaining to,** "made of*' [woollen thread]: Welsh ifwlamm^ 
flannel; gwUm, wool; (German >lan«U; Spanish /aneto/ Italian 
fianeUa; Danish planet or Jton«i. 

Flap, anything which opens as it were on a hinge, as the fla^ 

of a garment, the^jp of a shutter, the jlop of a taUe, the 

fiap of the ear, &0k, a disease on the lips of horses; to 

flap or move the wings backwards and forwards, to hang 

loose ; flapped (1 syl.) or flapt, flapp'-ing, flapp'^-er (B. i.) 

German Tdapp, a flap or slap ; Jdappe, a valve ; French ^Vapper. 
** Flap " (in the lips of horses), German Jla52>e, a lai^^e h^i^giwg ]^ 

Flare (1 syl.), a glare, to glare ; flared Cl syl.), flar'-ing (R. xix.), 
flar'ing-ly. (German ylac/E^m; Danish /a^r«.) 

Flash, a sudden burst [of Are, wit, &c.], to burst suddenly on 
the sight; flashed (1 syl.), flashing; flasV-y, showy; 
flashl-ly (E. zi.), flash'i-ness, flash'. man, flaah'-pipe. 
French /ech«, a arrow. A " flash " ia a dart of light. 

Flask, a bottle, a powder-horn. (Old Eng. Jkuc, a leather botUe.) 

Flat, level, insipid, a sign in music, a storey or Aoot; flaf 4y, 
flat'-ness, (comp,) flatt*-er, (super,) flatt'-est (R. Ixviii.), 
flatr-ish {48h dim.); flatt'-ed, made flat; flatf-ing (B.i) 

Flatf-en (.eri means "to make" [flat]), flattened (3 syL); 

flatten-ing, /at^'n.tn^ ; flafwise {not flatways). 
German plait, flat, plain ; platten, to flatten ; French plat 

letter, to praise falsely, comp. de$ir. of flat; flattered, ^lcE|'.«r4; 
flatt'er-ing, flatt'ering-ly, flatt'er-er. 

Flattery, plu, flatteries, fldtf^e.riZt overwrought praise. 

Fr. flatter tJUttterie (Lat. plaudOy or fal9o4audOt to praiae falatlyX 

Flatulence, flMtHuXence^ wind in the stomach ; flatoleoflj, 

fldt'tu.l&i.8y ; flat'ulent, flat'ulent-ly, fla'tiu. 

laXiu flaivXentxu [flMva, a gust of wind, fldrt, to blowX 

(" Flatnlance " avA " flatulant" would be more oorreeL Itt Lai va^) 

Flaunt (to rhyme with auntt is the more general prononeiatMii, 
but -aU' as in "cause" is far more auHlogona to thft 
general pronunciation of this diphthong;), to give one^acj^f 
pert airs, to parade fine clothes ; flaunft^HBd (R. zxzfi^ 
flaunf -ing, flaunt'ing-ly, flaunr-er. 



FUmto,plu. flautos (Rule xlii.), the flute, music for flutes (It^^^^ 



AND OF SPELLTNG. ««& 

VitkYtmx^jid'.vSr {noun ssid. verb); fi&YoaxeA^/lS'.verd; fla'Tonr- 
ing; flayoniwoiu, ^'.v^.us ; fla'yoar-leBB. 

Oonaption of tavour; Lat .sdpor, relish ; 9dpiOf sapid taste or smeU. 
El«w, a blemish ; flawed (1 syL), flaw'-ing, flaw'-less. 

Welsh Jlaw, a Irarst, a crack : >la, a parting from. 
Flax, a plant ; ilaz'-en, made of flax, yellow [hair], flax'-y. 

Old EiigUih/ea«,.flax ; fUaaeen, flaxen. 

Elajt to Strip off tbe skin of an animal (not^tf) ; flayed (1 syl.), 
flay'-ing, flay'-er (Rule ziii.) 
Old English yiean, to flay ; past>leatuie, past pari fleand. 
Flea, flc, an insect. Flee, to take to flight Flay (not flee). 
Fleas, flize, plo. of flea. Flees, fleze, runs away. 

Flea-bite, a spot caused by the bite of a flea^ a trivial eril. 
Old English yiea, a flea ; fledn, to flee ; JUan, to flay. 
Fleam, fleemt a lancet for bleeding cattle. Phlegm, flifnh 

Welsh ^im, a lancet. " Phlegm " (pitoitous matter). QlLphlegma. 

FMg9 (1 syL), to be in feather ; fledged (1 syl.), covered with 
feathers; fledg'-ing (Rule xiz.), fledg'-llng, a young bird 
just fledged, {-ling Old Eng. affix, a dim., an offspring.) 
Old BngUsh>l60(j(a»], to fly ; German >(fl(ir0« or^Iudbe, fledged. 

Flee, to run from danger. Flea, flS, an insect. 

Flee, (past) fled, {past parU) fled; fle'-er (R. xix.), flee'-ing 
(when a word ends in two vowels it retains both before -ing: 
as baa-ing, see-ing^ agree-ing^ coo-ing, woo-ing, dye-ing, 
eye-ing; except -ue: as argu-ing^ pursu-ing, ensu-ing), 

Flee« fly. Flea, an insect. To ^y is to use wings or speed 
quickly, to Jlee, to run from danger. When great speed 
is to be expressed, or the idea of " running away " is not 
indicated, we Bajjly r\ox,jleey as: 

TKe "express** flies cUong: the hoy flew like lightning; fly hence to 
France voith t^ %AinoiA speed. Even nmning from danger, if great 
dispatch is to be expressed, as " Whither shoM I fly to 'scape their 
hands (Z Hen. F., L 3.) 

Old English fleo^an\ or fli4[an\, to flee or fly ; (jpast) flMih, (past 
part ) >Ioyen, flugen. '* Flea/' Old English >lea. 

Reeoe (1 syl.), the entire coat of a sheep ; fleeced (1 syl.), coated 
with wool ; fleec'-y (R. xix.), eomp. fleec'i-er (R. xi.), super. 
fleecl-est (R. Ixviii.); {verb) to plunder by exactions: 
fleeced (I syl.), fleec'-ing (R. xix.); fleec'-er. (The idea 
is *' cutting o^T the wool," hence " plundering.") 
Old English >les or fly s, a fleece. 

^'•flt, t navy, swift, to be transient, to skim [milk] ; fleef -ly, 

swiftly ; fleet'-ing, transient, hastening away ; fleef -ness. 

** Fleet" (a navy). Old 'EngUsh fliet, a ship. 

** Fleet " f swift, to flow away). Old Eng. fleot[an], to float ot flow icwii'y . 

''Fleet" (to take the cream off), Old English >let oxjliet, osMia. 



U6 ERRORS OF SPEECH 



iHem^ing, a native of Flanders ; ilam'iah, pertaining to FUadeics. 

Flesh (noun), to fleeh [one's sword], to draw blood with it lor the 
first time; fieahed (1 syL), HieBk'^ijig. Fleah'uigs (plu.), 
flesh-coloured clothes worn aoiniE^tiines by actors; flegh'Jy, 
carnal; fleah'-y, full of fl^sh ; fle«hl.ness; ileah'-lfiflB. 
Old Bag. JldBB, JldMcelU, fleihy ; Mfdfc, fleshly; JldtelipM^, flfl^^^nn■ 

Pleiuvde-lis, plu. flenrs-de-lk (Fr.)« Jluhr d'ke, the water iris 
or fleur-de-luce. The French word is nonsense, as the 
plant in nowise can b$ termed a lily [lUI. From this 
blander arises the erroneous emblematic term the Wy of 
France, The word means the " flower of Louis.** 

Flew, the large chaps of a deep-mouthed hound, past teuse of 
Jly, Flue [of a chimneyj, fluff. Flowed (1 syl.) 

*' Flew " (Urge cliaps), Welsh ffiv>, a tendency to spread. 
** Flew" (did fly). Old English .^ZedJt, past tmm of fl^dg^, \o %« 
" Flue " (of a cUinney), formed from the Latin Jluo, to flow. 
«« Fine" (fluffy Welsn plu' for plitf, featiiers. 

FWxihle,/6x'XH pliant; flex'ible-ness, flez'ibly; flexHiiUij, 

fiex\im'\Uy; flexile, fiexTMe; flexion, JUkTahttn; 

flex'or, a muscle for contracting or bending a joint; 

extens'or, a muscle for extending or straightening a 

joint ; flexuous, jleafM.Usy toHuous ; fleznoae, JUsif.ujfee 

(in Bot.\ Kigzag [stem] ; flexure, fiikfjahSr. 

Wt. flexiMlii4,fleirible, flexion; Lai fleadSbOis, >bsBlfii, JUtAo, MmmM», 
f4xiija'n,flea^,JUcitirt, snpjjie.^e»ttt», tobencL 

Flicker, fiWh^, to flitter; fliok'eted (3 syl), flickTer-ing, 
flKdL'enngr-ly. Flick, to strijce with a smart jerk; 
flicked (1 syL), flick'-jng. 
Old Engli8h>Ii«eer[um], to fliak»r ; jUte^, a fllokering. 

FKer, fl%\er, the regulator of a machine, ily^-er^ o;»e thftt flies. 
Fliers, fii\erz, stairs which do not wind^ {See Flj.) 

]^ght,^ittf, hasty removal; flighf'-y, eccentrio; fligiitlJy 
(Rule xi); flightl-ness, eccentricity, levity. 

Old English /tAt, v. /ififan], to fly [-^ of flight is interpolaledX 
Flim-flam, mere nonsense, a wcnrthless trifle (Rule Ixix.) 
Flim'sy, Ump ; flim'si-ness, flim'si-ly (Rule xi.) 

Welsh Uymsi, of fickle motion, weak. 
Flinch, to shrink, to draw back [from pain or feat] ; fl jt»Alia^ 
(1 syl.), flincV-ing, fliQch'iQg<J7, flinch'Har. 

WtUdxfficht to squmI out. 
Fling, {past) flung, {p. p.) flung; to east; fling'-iag, Afng'ver. 

Old English fl^ flying, as fl/ioe^tUy a flfiDgdwi, ▼. fU§tm» tfi flkV* 
Flint, a stone; flint'-y, flinfi-nen (Rule xi.) (Old Biig./M.^ 
Flip'pant, pert in speech ; flip'pant-ly, flip'paoey. 

W«kh{(^f«ntt,tomsksi^; ttiiNMi, agUhpaiMiL 



AND OF SPELLING. ^7 



TUrtf a eoqoetto, to coquette, to flick ; flirt'-Ml (Rule xxxvi.), 

flirf-io^, iUrt'ixig-ly; flirtatiou, j3ir.ta/^^n. 

WeLBh J^Htt^n, • flighty girl ; ffrittyn, a giddj man : ffrit, a Jerk ; or 
pld &iglirii>leare^tanj, to play the foM ; ^rd, foUy. 

TO^ to fly away; flitf-ed (Rule xxxvi;, flltf-ing (Bule i.) 

IVtrer, flitfer-ing, flitTer^Htt'er (Rule Ixix.) 

DanUh flffUf to remove ; Uli/tUri [flittery], "the Irastle and oonfu> 
sion of removal " would be a good word to introdnee). 

Flitob, the side of a hog salted and cored. (Old £ng. ^iece.) 

"FUntX^fiote (1 syl.), a buoy, to be buoyed on the top of water; 
float'-ed (R. xxxvi.), float^-ing, floaf ing-ly, floaf-able, 
floaf-er; floatation, ^.fat^^«M<n ; floaf-age (3 syl.) 
Old EngUsh/tft, a float ; v. /ed^an] part, fiedt^ past part, jltften. 

Flool^ a lock of wool, a collected number of sheep or birds. A 

collected number of large cattle is a herd, of horses 

[gtnmg together] a string, of hcyrse* or oxen [driven] a 

&we, of hounds a pack, of bees a swarm, of whales a 

school, of mackerelt a shoal, of netted Jlsh a haul or take, 

of human beings a ciowd, of children a poase (p5s'^), 

of soldiers a trbop, of stars a galaxy. 

Old English floe, a company. (A Christian congregation is called a 

flock by Dissenters, the minister being their |Kutor [shepherd]). 
"A flock <^ wooU" German ,^acA:e. 

a mass of floating ice ; an ioe-hergp of stationary ice. 
Old English fl4ih, a fragment broken off. 
% to whip ; floggad (1 syL), flogg'-ing (Rule i.), flogg^-er. 
Lat flig[o\, to flog; flagrurn, a scourge : Gk. pligi, Dor. jOctga, a blow. 
Rood, fiUdt a deluge, to deluge ; flood'-ed (R. xxxvi.), flood'-ing. 
Flood'-tidii, fuU tide ; ehb'-tide, low tide. 
Old English /(fd, a flood. 
nooar,>toV, not Jlore (noun and verb); floored (1 syl.), floor'-ing 
(n, and part.); floor'^er, a knock-down blow. 
OH English /(^ fnflAre, a floor. 
Hop, to bounce, to bob; flopped (1 syl.), flopp'-ing (Rule i.) 

(Another spelling of the word jUvp^ as " strop " is of strap.) 

^knnfld'.raht all the plants of a country. Fauna, all the animals. 

Floral, fio'.ral, adj. of flower; flo'ral4y; flo'-ret, a little 
flower; florescence, ^.r&^5«n«£, the flowering of plants. 

Florid, fl&/ridy highly ornamented ; flor'id-ly, flor^id-ness, 
flmrid-Xy; floyidity,;Zo.rld'.i.t2/; floriferous,>).r|/''.^:ru», 
bearing flowers {JUyres ferens^ Lat.); floriform, ^'.rI./on» 
(Latin ,/2ori« forma, form of a flower); flo'iist. 

Horicnltiire, flo'.ri.kul.tchur (Lat. cultura), cultivation of 
flowers; iloricultural,^'.r?./ct3^i".ftf.r(li; flos'onle (3 syl.) 

■Istin Flora, goddess of flowers ; floa, gen. flOris, a flower ; jCAraXix^ 
Mrssemt, gaa. floveteerUM (inoeptiTe QtflSrw, to bloMom), jUiridus. 



Ses . ERRORS OF SPEECH 

Florentine, fldr^r^Mn, a native of Florence, pertaining thereto. 

Florid, JUfr'rid {not JW.rid), flowery. {See Flora.) 

Florin, fl6/r\n (not^.tin), a two-shilling silver coin.